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characteristic of it, in proportion as other member of the university. At this cere-
and newer institutions compete for su- mony he receives a copy of the university
premacy in professional lines. But even at statutes in Latin, meant to supply him with
Oxford, of course, the great majority of rules of daily conduct. As a freshman he
students cherish such ideals only feebly, and is still required to pass through certain so-
contemplate chiefly the gaining of social cial ordeals, and to submit to a rigid eti-
tone or profitable preparation for a profes- quette becoming his humble station. In re-
sion. The social life at Oxford University turning a senior's call, he must call until he
must be judged from a type of this majority, finds him in, without leaving a card. Nor
neither leading the strenuous life nor, as must he return the hospitality of his seniors
some few are, utter rakes. The choice of a during the first term, but confine such atten-
college is influenced by family associations, tions to his fellow freshers. The presump-
school traditions, college reputation for tion shown by violation of this unwritten
learning or athletics, or finally by varying code, or the assumption of a "swagger” air
expense of living. Reputations of various generally is certain to end later in humilia-

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colleges rapidly rise and fall; and, with re- tion. And indeed there is no excuse for
gard to economy, there are frugal sets to such infraction, since a strong class-feeling
be found at most colleges. The standard of affords the student ample scope for freer re-
age has recently been lowered; but no stu- lations.
dent under eighteen years can well begin the An Oxford day has three chief divisions :
labors and temptations of an Oxford career. the morning for work, the afternoon for ex-
This ripeness of personality, and not the ercise, and the evening for amusement and
entrance-examination, which proves no work combined or alternated—truly a regal
ordeal to a fairly prepared candidate, should way of life, and it is simply man's own
serve as test of fitness to enter the whirl fault, if he does not practice it outside Ox-
of university freedom.

ford as well as within. The first event of
This examination passed, and certain fees this Oxford's day is attendance at college
paid, the student becomes a member of the chapel or roll-call, and one many attend
college, and must then matriculate before the chapel again at five o'clock. Then often
vice-chancellor, that is further become a comes an institution peculiar to Oxford, the

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breakfast party given to six or eight of social distractions for a two hours' read-
friends, followed by pipes or cigars and dis- ing, but few can do so without occasional
cussion of the daily papers. By 10 a. m. exceptions. These "wines” degenerate into
the student should be ready for three hours “drunks” far less frequently than two de-
of hard reading, or attendance at lectures, cades ago, and other marked improvements
after which comes a luncheon of bread and have also come in. The previous monastic
cheese or the like with beer. Athletics in restrictions on tutors have yielded, and they
shape of tennis or cricket, but especially of now marry with the result that woman's in-
rowing begins by 2:15 p. m. Oxford ex- fluence has invaded the college and that tea
pects that every man will do his duty at least is displacing wine. The theater has dis-
here, for the credit of a college depends placed the old-time vulgar music hall, classic
largely upon its position in the cricket field music and art have given a refinement, and
or upon the river. Easily the first topic of the new philanthropy brought a moral ear-
Oxford conversation is the river, and coach- nestness that of necessity affect the entire
ing, both arduous and continuous must long social life of the student. Such influences
precede the final struggle with Cambridge are powerfully aiding the morality enforced
for national supremacy. During the sum- by the proctors with their system of heavy
mer term the afternoon is further occupied fines, or, for gross misconduct, summary dis-
with croquet, archery, garden-parties, missal. For most students the day is closed
flower-show's and boating-excursions, form- by reading from 9 till 10:30, followed by a
ing probably the most enjoyable epoch of a pipe and “grog.” In general, the “pass-
lifetime. Athletics over, the spare hour be- man" that is the student desirous or capa-
fore dinner is spent in ephemeral reading at ble only of bare graduation may achieve
the Union or one of the school clubs, or in this modest aim by four hours' study a day;
billiards at some private table. “Hall," as while the class-man who seeks highest
dinner is called in Oxford, usually occurs at honors will probably achieve them by an in-
6 o'clock, and the balance of the day is spent crease to six or seven hours, assuming that
very variously in cards, pool, certain con- he have fair ability. The proportion of
vivial meetings called "wines,” debates or such class-men to the others is yearly in-
literary clubs. Many men escape this whirl creasing, so that graduation with even first-
class honors is no longer the certain pass to to the ancient philosophers such as Plato lucrative appointment that it was before Ox- and Aristotle, and only then leads them ford annually presented from 80 to 100 first- down the stream of history. In politics Oxclass graduates to an unwelcoming woild. ford is well known to be rigidly conserva

The extreme types of undergraduate and tive, owing to the number of non-resident their ways depicted in past fiction like “Ver- members who are mostly Anglican clergydant Green” can be found no more. All have men living in the country. Another unoffinow come into harmony with the compro- cial factor in Oxford life is the debating somises and neutral tints of modern life. The ciety, of which the Union is the most fa"town and gown” rows which used to fill mous. It has numbered among its presiOxford streets with riot fell into desuetude dents such men as Archbishop Tait, Bishop some 15 years ago, and the midnight revel- Wilberforce, Cardinal Manning, Rt. Hon. ler limits his “ta-ra-ra-boom-de-ay” to the W. E. Gladstone, Rt. Hon. G. J. Goschen college quadrangle where admiring friends and Lord Dufferin. at the surrounding windows can accompany The progressive humanism of modern life him with tea-tray and poker obbligato. has affected even Oxford, so that now only

The intellectual life of Oxford Univer- the most formal connection exists between sity is as distinctive as the social one just the University and the Church of England. sketched, and may be conveniently divided The “Test Acts” have been swept away, no into the official and unofficial factors. Every religious profession is demanded from stustudent has a special tutor with whom he dents, fellowships and scholarships may be takes work and comes into friendly relations held by persons of any or of no denominathat prove invaluable to him. The lectures tion, and there is a strong tendency to elect of these tutors are mostly attended only by laymen as heads of colleges; for all which the students of the college where delivered, thanks to Mr. Gladstone. Best of all, this whose attendance at a certain number is loss of monopoly has stimulated the Anglicompulsory; but the more prominent tutors can Church to new zeal and wisdom, so that see their class-rooms thronged by men from she was never more influential than now. other colleges also, and such tutors practi- Humanism then is dominant, and religion cally become university professors. The active. tests of excellence here are matter useful for Every college has a fellow-chaplain and a examination, with manner clear and in good chapel at which daily attendance is exacted style. Besides these lectures there are those at some colleges, except on religious objecof the university professors proper, the ma- tion, while others allow the option of anjority of which secure only a thin attend swering a roll-call. The extreme bareness ance, simply because not directly useful for of these services, their compulsory attendexaminations. This condition invites re- ance and official character inevitably engenform, though the professor exists quite as der indifference even in the religiously much for research as for instruction. Pro- minded, and in spite of the fact that recently fessors like Ruskin, Palgrave, Arnold and genuine efforts have been made to render Herkomer have drawn large audiences by these services effective in the best sense. both their theme in art or literature and by But religion is empty, if not spontaneous, their brilliant treatment of it. The unoffi- and college-chapel belongs with discipline. cial factor of intellectual life at Oxford lies Still the presence of much speculative and in the students and general environment practical agnosticism, and the fear of losing which are claimed to make amends for the the college-chapels altogether by disestablaxity in examination as compared with that lishment, have forced Anglicans in Oxford of London University. Toleration and to institute various non-collegiate agencies breadth of view are such as frequently to to supplement rather that supplant this collead to some craze of estheticism, theology lege-chapel system. Foremost among these, or impractical politics. In philosophy Ox- both for its endowment and for the tradiford has recently passed from the domina- tionally Oxford High Church or Ritualistic tion of Hume and Locke to that of Kant and teaching it presents, is Pusey House. “Here Hegel as interpreted by its influential late are afforded opportunities both for devotion Professor Thomas Hill Green, who urged and instruction to all such undergraduates with much success the realization of philo- as feel their need of more than they can sophical ideals in practical philanthropy. obtain elsewhere. Services, simple in charIn any case, Oxford guides its students first acter but astonishingly beautiful and touch

ing, are regularly held in the little chapel, ture, or sustain the progressive ideals of and lectures on the deeper mysteries of the man. If anywhere, God is immanent in faith or on questions at issue between Chris- nature and man, and must be ever more and tianity and modern thought are delivered more realized there. Hence the duty to huterm by term by the Principal to numbers of manize the masses in London by such misattentive hearers.” A similar function is sions as Toynbee Hall or Oxford House, performed for the Low-church or Evangeli- both Oxford University settlements in the cal School by Wycliffe Hall, while mission- degraded East End. ary interests are promoted by St. Stephen's No American, after reading the foregoing House. Special classes and devotional meet- sketch of Oxford, will entertain the least ings held by distinguished leaders form an- ' doubt that the influence upon it of some hunother religious means, to which must be dred picked American youth, whose entire added occasions when some famous preacher way of working is certain to be carefully like Dr. Liddon occupied the pulpit at St. and respectfully watched, will be considerMary's Church.

able. The city of dead languages and undy


BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD. But the spontaneous development of the ing prejudice must move the more quickly religious student is nursed chiefly by the towards modernization, because of the conparish churches of Oxford, where religion tinuous influence upon it henceforth of a can be witnessed in free play among men, century of youths from a nation now famous and this fulness can be shared in, while the for its successful innovations. Nor can one whole is reminiscent of the student's home- doubt that Oxford will impart some of its church. Nonconformist students, of gentle culture, philosophic depth, and noble course, depend even more than do Angli- honor to any youth that visits it with recepcan ones upon extra-collegiate ministrations. tive mind. But such individual advantages

In general the secularism so prevalent 30 hardly deserve mention beside that incalcuyears ago has spent some of its force, and lably great common one that must accrue simple faith is reviving. Especially has the from the mutual understanding and friendphilanthropic impulse imparted by Prof. T. ship and esteem thereby promoted between H. Green extended to all parties whether the two chief world-powers, in whose united moral or religious. According to that dis- action now chiefly lies the peace of the world tinguished philosopher the “Spiritual Princi- and its continued progress towards liberty ple” alone can give unity and meaning to na- both political and economic.


THE COTTAGE AT MUIZENBURG WHERE MR. CECIL RHODES DIED. When, on the approach of the hot weather, Mr. Rhodes' health gave way again, be was removed to his seaside cottage at Muizenburg, thirteen miles from Cape Town. Everything tua, could be uone in the direction of counteracting the heat was done. Boxes of ice were let into the roof, and special windows were cut in the walls. The room in which Mr. Rhodes died is marked X.



FROM CAPE TOWN. The body of Mr. Rhodes was, on the day after his death, removed from bis cottage at Muizenburg to his house at Groot Schuur. There the coftin, surrounded by beautiful wreaths, was placed in a room arranged as a chapelle ardente. Thousands of people passed through the room to pay their last tribute of respect to the dead statesman.


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