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No. 2 was found on the second stone from the corner in the second course-made with red paint. No. 3 was on the wall a short distance from Group No. 2.
No. 4 was on the corner-stone in the third course -red paint.
No. 5. This Group was found in that part of the gallery where the explorer is seen examining the marks on the wall. These marks resemble the letters OY Q-red paint.
No. 6 was on the third stone north in the second course-red paint.
No. 7 was on the sixth stone in the third course, and on a stone in the tenth course a small cross was found cut in.
No. 8. This group was found on stones in the west wall of the Sanctuary, near the Jews' wailing-place; and at the base of the Tower of Antonia, north-east angle of the wall, was found another group of marks in red paint.
No. 9. Found in a cave near the Conaculum.
No. 10 is a group of marks gathered from the ancient structures of Kuryet el Enab, and also known as Abu Gosh village, the Emmaus of the time of Christ, and the more ancient Kirjath Jearim of Solomon's age. Here are several very neatly made and familiar figures, not unlike some in use at this day. They were very clearly drawn, in red color, as nearly all of such marks are, in every country where the craft have had use for them.
The group No. 11, from Samaria, claims equal attention for their peculiar design and evident anti
quity. The structures at Samaria date from the time of Shemer, who was nearly contemporary with Solomon, and in style, design, and finish, as far as the remains have been examined, they carry the evidence of originality with them, and the work of the builders of the age of the three grand masters.
No. 12 is on a stone at Beeroth, and looks familiar with its letters so like our K and R, with a cross and arrow, and at first glance suggests some of the monograms of Constantine, or Charlemagne, but a closer inspection determines them to be separate and distinct signs, not connected, as if for a name.
No. 13. This cross was found on a stone among the rubbish at the foot of the wall near the Damascus Gate.
Nos. 14, 15, and 16 were discovered by A. L. Rawson, who, disguised as a Mohammedan student of law, (Katib or Scribe) visited the ancient mosque at Hebron, and made sketches of the interior of the tombs, also the inscriptions, marks, and devices, which were cut in the wall in the different parts of this building. There seems to have been originally a small structure, over and around which several additions have been made from age to age, until it has grown into a colossal mass of buildings, and finally thrown off its character as a church and became a mosque with lofty minarets at the corners.
The walls are very ancient and portions of them are like the Sanctuary Wall at Jerusalem, and walls at other places, where the distinctive mark is the Phoe nician or Hebrew bevel; this is found on all the old parts of the wall.
Beneath this structure is a chamber, having for its roof a part of the floor of the mosque; and in a recess, not now in use, were found the three groups of marks.
No. 17. This group was found on the walls of the ancient Cathedral at Glasgow. These later groups all being very similar to those found on the Sanctuary wall, tell the same story of the work of the ancient builders.
At first glance several of the characters seen in the different groups of marks appear very much like the letters HMCRDKOW and others, but an examination of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets will show that these forms are only accidentally similar. The other marks are well known to the Craft, and need no explanation here.
Besides the ancient marks there are characters written on the walls which were repaired or built by the fraternity during the crusades. These are distinctly Roman letters and numerals, with a very small proportion of signs, that are repetitions of those used by the ancient builders, and evidently used for the same purpose. That purpose, it is quite certain, was, besides the proper placing of the stones in the walls, the designation of that part of the work which was done by any particular company or lodge. Some used the five-pointed star, others a circle divided into four or six parts. A circle with a T occurs very often on different parts of the works, and indicates either a large lodge, or a very industrious one. The antiquity of these marks may be the more certainly determined from the fact that there are no distinctive Christian emblems nor Mohammedan signs