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ceilings, its vast extent, its legends and associations, all combine to inspire the explorer with feelings of astonishment and awe. The Crusaders have left many marks on the walls, showing that this quarry was known in their day, also proving the antiquity of several of the signs now in use by the craft.

To all who hold the common faith in the God of Abraham, the historical evidence derived from this quarry, and all the surrounding facts in proof of the truth of Scripture history is beyond price, and must be convincing to all reflecting minds. And to masons who believe in the antiquity of the origin of the order, this must be a source of great satisfaction, as this evidence, in connection with recent discoveries made about the temple area, including the private marks of the builders, leaves but little room to doubt that the order originated at the building of Solomon's Temple.



Ancient Tyre, Hiram's Tomb-Joppa-Mt. Lebanon-Pass of the Jordan-Hebron, its important Relics of Antiquity; its singular Mosque, and Fanatical Inhabitants-The ruins of BeerothKirjath-Jearim-Samaria, Church of St. JohnKing Solomon's Store Cities, Baalbek-Tadmor, and Hamath.


This ancient sea port is situated 87 miles N. E. of Joppa, and 114 N. of Jerusalem.

According to Josephus, Tyre was founded about 240 years before the building of Solomon's Temple. It was a strong city, and a stronghold in the days of David; and it is called by Isaiah," a city whose antiquity is of ancient days."

The original Tyre stood on the mainland opposite the present town; and at an early period bore the name of Paletyrus, or Old Tyre. The present town stands on a rocky peninsula, which was an island until 350 B. C., when Alexander the Great built his famous military causeway out to it from the main land. Afterwards the accumulation of sand around, and over this causeway rendered it terra firma, thus forming the peninsula.

At the period when Phoenician civilization began to bear sway over all the western world, Tyre was

the cynosure not only of all Phoenicia,but of all the surrounding countries, and the theatre of mighty influences, and of an immense commerce. At the time of Solomon and the Hirams, Tyre was one of the richest cities in the world, its people being among the most skillful manufacturers and builders of that period, manufacturing many articles of luxury and use, and having for customers many nations. "Syria was thy merchant, by reason of the multitude of the wares of thy making: they occupied in thy fairs with emeralds, purple and broidered work, and linen, and coral, and agate."

Judah, and the land of Israel, they were thy merchants: they traded in thy market, wheat of Minnith, and Pannag (Genseng), and honey, and oil, and balm.

Damascus was thy merchant in the multitude of the wares of thy making, for the multitude of all riches; in the wine of Helbon, and white wool." (Ezek. xxvii. 17, 18.)

Among the principal articles of export, were glass, sugar, and the famous Tyrian dye. Sugar-cane was cultivated to a considerable extent in the vicinity of Tyre, and sugar made, similar to that now made in the West Indies, and other tropical regions.

Hiram, King of Tyre, sent cedar wood and workmen to build David a palace (2 Sam. vii.), and he afterwards sent Hiram the widow's son, a Jew of the tribe of Naphtali, who cast the vessels of bronze for the Temple, King Hiram furnishing the metal, also the cedar and fir trees; and the Jews and Phoenicians worked together, the friendship between them continuing for over a century.

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