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very accurately traced out, has settled that point against the claim that this church covered the true site, although there is undoubted historical evidence that it was originally built in the fourth century, and on a site which was traditionally said to have been the Calvary of the Gospel narrative. But two or three hundred years must have impaired the tradition, for it can be safely said that the name and skull-shaped hill over the Jeremiah Grotto should have pointed out the right place to all observing eyes. We know from a comparison of the plans of the city in the time of Arculf, A.D. 700, of the Crusaders, 1190, and also in Sandys, 1610, that the location of St. Stephen's Gate had been changed from the north side of the city, now called Damascus Gate, to the east side, where it is now, and which was known as the Little Gate, A.D. 700, and Jehoshaphat Gate in the Crusades.

Attention was called to the probability of the true site being north of the city 20 years ago by Thenius, whose views were adopted by other scholars such as Fisher, Robinson, Howe (Oriental Scenes, 1854); A. L. Rawson (Map of Palestine, 1856); Robert Morris (Youthful Explorers in the Holy Land, 1870).

The requirements of the Scripture narrative as to the place will be seen from the following.

And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha.

And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.


This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.

Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid. St. John, xix. 17, 19, 20, 41.

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And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, the place of a skull (St. Mark, xv. 22).

And as they came out they found a man of Cyrene Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross.

And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say a place of the skull (Mathew, xxvii. 32, 33).

Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate (Hebrews, xiii. 12).



This name is derived from the Hebrew for skull, and being translated into Greek is Kranium, and into Latin is Calvaria, which also means skull. All of these terms apply to a skull-shaped hill which has been known as the Grotto of Jeremiah, though without any connection with that prophet historical or traditional. This hill is very distinctly skull-shaped as may be seen in the engraving, and it also answers most, if not all, of the requirements of the text.

1. The place is said in the Gospel account to have been out of the city; this place is so now, and there

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