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higher than the city on every side; so it is necessary to go up to the city from any direction.

The names and localities of the several hills are plainly given on the engraving.* The walls of the modern city are indicated by the heavy black line. The more ancient walls are shown by dots and marks arranged and named on the engraving.

In the Bible and Josephus there are given the names of the gates, towers, and notable edifices, the sites of which are laid down on the plan in accordance with the reports of the latest ordnancy furveys and explorations.

• Jerusalem and its ruins-See first part of the Book.

CHAPTER IIL

RELICS, OBJECTS, AND PLACES OF INTEREST,

Ancient Pottery-Lamps-Knives and other Relics

-Zion Bridge Ancient Castle of David Gates of the City-Pools-Fountains— Valley of Je hoshaphat— Village of Siloam-Ancient Tombs and Vaults— Valley of Hinnom-Aceldama the Field of Blood.

In the description of the Subterranean Quarry,a cut of a lamp is given,showing how the quarry was lighted while the men were at work. It will be interesting to notice some of the many forms of lamps, with their singular marks and inscriptions, that have been found among the rubbish in the various excavations under Jerusalem, in cisterns or sewers, where they have been accidentally dropped, or in chambers where they were left when the rooms were abandoned. Nearly all of those found are broken, a few only being whole, which had been lost, perhaps. Many of the objects found in the rubbish were the work of Greeks or Romans, and may have been imported from Europe. But there are also specimens of Phænician or Hebrew workmanship, especially the most ancient articles which were found in the deepest places, apparently

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where they had lain undisturbed since the time of Solomon.

Of the earthenware and terra-cotta there are five classes of objects among those discovered.

1. Ancient Hebrew and Phænician.
2. Greek or made by Greek colonies.
3 Roman or their colonies.
4 Christian, of the early ages.
5. Arabic, middle age and modern.

Of the first there are a large number of fragments, the most interesting of which are vase handles with curious devices stamped on the clay before it was burned in the kiln. Some of these were found at a depth of sixty-three feet below the present surface. There is on nearly every one a figure of Baal with letters above and below it, signifying that the maker had the royal license of manufacture. Some of these have a cross, as the potter's mark. There was a royal guild of potters in Jerusalem, as mentioned in Chron. iv. 23.

Two of the Greek specimens are of the most ancient and curious make; they are round lamps with four lips or places for wicks. These lamps were found in a cave on Mouut Olivet. Others of this pattern have been found on the Island of Cyprus, and in Malta and other Greek localities. The caves of Olivet have furnished many specimens of vases, dishes, and lamps of various patterns and of different workmanship, Greek, Roman, and later. One of these is saucer-shaped, ten inches across, and has three legs, each perforated, forming rings by which the article was hung up when not in use. Some of

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Ancient Knives, Lamps, and Ink-bottle.

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