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Zion, past the south end of the city to its junction with the valley of Jehoshaphat. Above the lower pool of Gihon it falls gradually, but at a short distance below this pool it commences to deepen rapidly, and continues to fall until it reaches En Rogel. A short distance above this, it is a deep, gloomy dell. In many places the bottom of this valley is covered with loose stones, yet it is cultivated, and portions of it abound with olive-trees. Along the south side of the valley is a steep, rocky ledge, nearly the whole surface of which is covered and penetrated by tombs. These tombs are of many shapes and different sizes, some small and plainly constructed, while others are very large, and penetrate far into the hillside. In the upper part of the valley there is a large rock, a part of which has been leveled and made as smooth as a house-floor. This was an ancient threshing-floor, such as Araunah the Jebusite had on Mount Moriah.


This place is just across the valley of Hinnom, near its junction with Jehoshaphat. It is a rocky cliff, full of tombs; portions of the front of Aceldama have been walled up, and behind this are deep excavations and gloomy sepulchral passages. In some places large quantities of human bones and skulls are seen scattered about in promiscuous confusion. This is the field which was purchased with the thirty pieces of silver received by Judas for the betrayal of Christ.

"Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief

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priests and elders, saying, I have sinned, in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? See thou to that. And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and went and hanged himself. And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood. And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, to bury strangers in" (St. Matthew xxvii.).


This mount or hill is across the valley of Jehoshaphat to the eastward of the pool of Siloam. "He built an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Moloch, the abomination of the children of Ammon, and likewise did he for all his strange wives, which burned incense and sacrificed unto their gods" (1 Kings xi.). A short distance below this, in the valley, was Tophet. Under the apostate kings of Judah this portion of the valley became the seat of the most horrible idolatrous services. Here "Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with the blood of human sacrifices and parents' tears," had his groves and altars.


At a short distance north of the city is the high ridge of Scopas. As there are none of the ravines on this side which form the natural defences of the other sides of the city, this side was usually the point from which it was attacked by its enemies. The camp of Titus was on this ridge, and from this point

he commenced the siege which ended in such destruc tion and ruin to the city.


This mount lies east of the city, and is separated from it by the valley of Jehoshaphat. Its height above the valley varies from 500 to 680 feet. It is 250 feet above the Temple area on Mount Moriah, so that it commands a fine view of many points of interest; first, Jehoshaphat, Gethsemane, and the Kidron; then, beyond these, the ancient walls, domes, and minarets of the city. Far away to the south, from among a group of smaller hills, rises Bethhacerem, where Herod had his paradise, and where his bones are supposed to be interred. To the eastward is the hill country of Judea, with the wilderness, gloomy and sterile; a rough mountainous region, whose deep yawning chasms form secure hidingplaces for Bedouin robbers and beasts of prey. Olivet was once very fertile, and was covered with beautiful gardens and olive orchards; but, with the exception of small portions of the eastern side, the soil has long since been exhausted, so that only a few olive and fig trees are to be seen, and no signs of cultiva tion, except an occasional patch of barley inclosed by a tottering stone wall.


On the Engv. will be seen the road to Bethany, winding around the southern base of the Mount of Olives. It was over this road that Christ rode into

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Jerusalem. "And it came to pass that when he was come nigh to Bethphage and Bethany,* at the mount called the Mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples, saying, Go ye into the village over against you; in the which at your entering ye shall find a colt tied, whereon yet never man sat: loose him, and bring him hither. And they brought him to Jesus: and they cast their garments upon the colt, and they set Jesus thereon, and as he went they spread their clothes in the way" (St. Luke xix. 29, 30, 35, 36).

*These villages are on the eastern side of the Mount of Olives.

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