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to the kingdom of Agrippa, tine. Pelusium, otherwise Dawho assisted the Romans. mietta, was the key of Egypt, to

I suspect that Pella? takes wards Phænicia andJudea. Eze. its name from Abila, or Abela. (xxx, 15, 16,) speaks of it unThere were more cities than der the name of Sin, Lutum, one named Abila; but the one, Pelusium, and calls it the ram. I mean, is called by geogra- part, or strength of Egypt. The phers, Abila of Batanea, and in Hebrew word, Sin, which sigscripture, Abel of the vines. nifies mud,answers to the Greek Polybius distinguishes Abila Pelusium, from Pelos, of the from Pella, since he says, that same signification. The SepAntiochus the Great, took Pel. tuagint read Sais, instead of la, Kamos, Gephros, Abila, Sin, in this place. Scripture Gadara, &c. Stephanus the speaks of the desert of Si:1, be. geographer says, that the city tween Elim and Sinai, Exod. of Peila had Alexander the xvi, 1; Numb. xxx, 11. Great, for its founder, proba Ezekiel pronounces against bly, in the memory of the city Pelusium, “And I will pour my of Pella, in Thessaly, where fury upon Sin, the strength of he was born. Abila and Pel. Egypt, and will cut off the la were afterwards episcopal multitude of No. And i will cities of the second Palestine. set fire in Egypt, Sin shall Josephus says, that Pella was have great pain,&c. It is one of the seven toparchies of thought these threats regarded Judea; but elsewhere, he calls the expedition of Nebuchadit Betlephtepla, and Pliny gives nezzar, against this country. it the same name. It is un. For the Lord had said to Eze. known where Betlephtepha kiel, (xxix, 18, 19) "Son of was. The name of Pella is man, behold, I will give the land not in scripture; but it is men- of Egypt unto Nebuchadneztioned here, because often re zar king of Babylon; and he ferred to in this work, and is shall take her multitude, and frequently mentioned by reli- take her spoil, and take her gious writers, as the asylum prey: and it shall be the wages of the Christians in Jerusalem, for his army.” Pelusium, by in the siege of Titus.

its situation, suffered the first PELON, a city of Judea, efforts of the king of Babylon, 1 Chron. xi, 36.

and of the Chaldean army. PELUSIUM,a'city of Egypt Before Nebuchadnezzar's at the mouth of the eastern arm time, Pelusium had been atof the Nile, the nearest to Pales. tacked by Sennacherib, king of

Assyria. This prince attacked volcanic eruptions, and sinking Sethon, otherwise Severus, of the earth, Gen. xiii,, 19. king of Egypt, and besieged PERAEA, a province of Pelusium. Sethon was a prince Palestine on the east side of void of prudence, and little ca. Jordan, bounded north by Itupable of government: he had rea, west by Judea, and Samaalienated the minds of his sol. ria. This country was the lot diers, and was forsaken by all, of Gad and Reuben. who could defend him. Hav PERGA, an inland city of ing addressed himself to Julian, Pamphilia, standing on the river whose priest he was, he was Caystrus, mentioned in Acts bid to advance to Pelusium to xiji, 14. Strabo speaks of the meet Sennacherib, and God temple of Diana at Perga, sit. would send him assistance. uated on an eminence near the He therefore put himself at the city; and in this town Paul and head of such people as he could, Barnabas frequently preached; and God sent against Sennache- and to the close of the eighth rib’s army a great multitude of century, we find a Christian rats, which in the night time church supported in the place. gnawed the strings of the bows, This was one of the most conand the thongs of the bucklers, siderable towns of the provof the Assyrians, by which ince. Lat 37, 50. their arms became useless to PERGAMUS, now Pergathem. This is what the Egyp- mo, a city of Natolia, in the tians related. But the sacred province of Troas. It stands books of the Hebrews inform on a spacious plain, near the us, that an angel of the Lord, banks of the Caicus, and shelin one night slew eighty-five tered to the north by a considthousand men of Sennacherib's erable hill. This was once the army, 2 Kings xix, 35. royal city of a powerful king

PENIEL, or Penuel, a dom, swaying its sceptre over city beyond Jordan, near the the provinces of Mysia, Æolis, ford or brook Jabbok.

Ionia, Lydia, and Caria. Va. PENTAPOLIS, a name rious circumstances contribut. given to the five cities, Sodom, ed to give celebrity to this Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, place. It was the birthplace and Zoar, which stood where of Galen, the famous physician; the waters of the Dead Sea, here parchment was invented, now extend themselves. These and its royal library contained towns for their great wicked. 200,000 volumes. This place ness were destroyed by fire, very early received the gospel,

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and a church was formed here; spacious and magnificent than but she soon forsook her first the rest, is by tradition of the love, and departed from the Greeks, reported to have been purity of the gospel, on which dedicated to St. John, and aaccount a severe doom was nother to St. Demetrius, both pronounced against her, Rev. which the Turks have relinii

, 12, “And to the angel of the quished; the first because (as church in Pergamus write; report goes) the walls fall, as these things saith he, who hath much by night, as they are the sharp sword, with two built by day, and the other, edges,” &c. Surrounded with because the door of Menareth, a fertile country, which with or the steeple, which is above, proper cultivation would be an where they call to prayers, earthly paradise, the present points always towards Mecca, inhabitants of Pergamus abhor (which is S. E.) did in a mirlabor and addict themselves to aculous manner, after it was thiefts and 10 beries, being built, turn itself north, to which more pleased to seize a booty that door now looks; but what in their plains with rapine and deceit may have been contrivcd violence, than with honest la- by the Greeks, I am not able bor to purchase their bread, by to aver.

There are also vast cultivating the rich clods of ruins without the city of arched their native soil; so that this work; and some remains of a city goes more and more to theatre; it is probable, that decay, merely for want. of in. 'such vast piles of buildings are dustry; a few years past, there relics of public edifices, were 53 streets of this town Through the upper part of the inhabited; now there are only city runs a very plentiful stream 22 frequented, the others are of water, which in many places deserted, and their buildings was honored by antiquity, with are going to ruin. Here are magnificent arches in form of many remains of antique builds a bridge. It is observable that ings, such as vast pillars of in the city are many vaults, marble subverted. One place under almost every house and seems to have been a palace, street; which have been either still denoted by columns of cisterns or conveyances for wapolished marble, which like ter. buttresses support the walì for at The description of another least 50 yaces in length. There traveller is more particular, but are also the ruins of several in both we read the execution churches, one of which, more of the Divine threatening, “Re.

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pent, or else I will come unto underneath sustained by a great thee quickly and fight against pillar; the foundation strengththee with the sword of my ened by several arches and pilmouth.” “They eat things lars. It is eighteen paces in sacrificed to idols, and com diameter within, the walls very mitted fornication, and held the thick. doctrine of Balaam.” Is it In the upper part of the city strange that our traveller should is the rivulet Selinus, whose give the following melancholy stream is very swift, running description, “We went first to toward the south south-east see the ruins of a palace, as it into the Caicus; over which is judged to be, which lie in are built several stone bridges; a street to the east part of the some with two, some with city; where we found five pil- three arches. By the stream lars of polished marble, of a not far from the great church, bout seven yards in length, the part of a wall is yet standing chapiters curiously wrought in of about ninety paces. On the a line equally distant: and fur. other side of Selinus, is a very ther on, there being a larger handsome and large church, space between, two other pil- formerly called Saneta Sophia, lars, all which serve now only into which you ascend by sev. as so many props, to support a eral stone stairs; now polluted wall, that is built close to them. by the Turks, and made a They are confronted on the mosque. We observed a pasother side of the street, with sage under ground from the pillars of the same make, but castle to the Selinus, by which whose chapiters are broken, they supplied themselves with two lying upon the ground. water. Along the side of an More eastward toward the hill from the south-west are plain, lie very famous ruins of the remains of an aqueduct. a church dedicated to St. John, On a hill to the west of the built of brick, about 56 paces city, we met with several vast in length, and in breadth thirty- ruins with six great arches two; the walls of a very great over a water, which seems to height, two rows of windows have been formerly a common on each side. On each side sewer; and south of this a range of the church is a round build. of six arches more, with two ing, the one exactly agreeing large rooms.

large rooms. The former of with the other. The doors are these ruins, the Turks cali very high; opposite to which is a Kiz-serai, or the women's segreat cavity in the wall; a vault raglio, telling us, that ancicuily

they were kept there, accom. lies of Christians. Their chief modating, according to their employment is gardening, by rude conception of things, the which they get a little money customs of former ages to the to pay their kerache, or tax, practice of their emperor at and satisfy the demands of their Constantinople, and fancying cruel and greedy oppressors, them to have been the very and maintain a sad, miserable same. More southward is a- life. They have one church nother great ruined building dedicated to St. Theodore; the with arches, situated pleasantly bishop of Smyrna, under whose upon a hill; whence we had a direction they are, taking care good prospect of the city and to send a priest to officiate a: the neighboring plain; hard by mong them. which is a theatre, that opens Having satisfied ourselves to the south, the marks of the with the view of Pergamus, steps still remaining. In the on Thursday the 6th, about declivity of which almost at sunrise we set forward on our the bottom is a marble stone, journey, toward Thyatira, our about seven spans in length, way laying almost due cast, and two in breadth. On the repassing the Cetius and Caiopposite side is a marble statue cus; which last we forded at about two or three feet in the about two miles distance from rubbish, which we caused to the city. The present popube removed by a poor Chris. lation is about 3000 Turks. tian, this being the only way Lat. 39, 5, north. Long. 27, to preserve it, the Turks being 27, east, being 40 miles northsuch professed enemies to all west from Thyatira, and 64 human figures, whether paint. northerly from Smyrna. ed, or in Mosaic, or wrought PERIZZITES, the ancient in brass or marble, that it would inhabitants of Palestine, minhe quickly defaced and broken, gled with the Canaanites. if it appeared above ground. There is also great probability, As we walked in the streets that they themselves were Cawe observed vaults almost eve. naanites, but having no fixed

habitations, sometimes dispersThe state of the Christians ed in one part of the country, here is sad and deplorable, and sometimes in another, they though for seven or eight were for that reason called Perhundred years

Christianity izzites, which signifies scatterAourished in this city, now ed or dispersed. Pherazoth there is not above fifteen fami. stands for hamlets or villages.

ry where.

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