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ocean. A learned modern says, thought St. Peter preached in it is a great river of India, flow. Pontus, because he addresses ing from Paradise. Reland sup- his first epistle to the faithful poses it was the Phases.

See of this province, and to those India.

of the neighboring provinces, PITHON, one of the cities i Pet. i, 1. St. Jerome in Gen. that the children of Israel built xiv, 1, puts Arioch, king of for Pharaoh in Egypt, Exod. i, Pontus, with Chedorlaomer 2, during the time of their ser- and his confederates, who came vitude. This is probably the to make war with the inhabit. same city with Pathumos, men- ants of the Pentapolis. But tioned by Herodotus, which he the Hebrew has Molech Ellasar, places upon the canal made by king of Ellasar; Jonathan, 'king the kings Necho and Darius, of Thalassar;' the Syriac, 'king to join the Red sea with the of Dalassar, Isaiah xxxvii, 12, Nile, and by that means with insinuates to us, that this counthe Mediterranean. We find try of Thalassar, was either in also in the ancient geographers, the country of Eden or very that there was an arm of the near it, since he speaks of the Nile, called Pathmetichus, children of Eden, that were at Phatmicus, Phatnicus, or Phat. Thalassar, and testifies that this niticus. Bochart says, that Pi. province was conquered by the thom and Raamses are about kings of Assyria, with the othfive leagues above the division er provinces about the Tigris. of the Nile, and beyond this The Septuagint and Onkelos, river, but this assertion has no as well as Le Clerc, and our proof from antiquity. This version of the Bible, have kept author contents himself with re- to the original word Ellasar; lating what was said of Egypt St. Jerome has followed Symin his own time. Marsham machus, in translating it king will have Pithom to be the of Pontus. Grotius thinks he same as Pelusium, or Dami- was king of the Elizarians, a Sce Rameses.

people of Arabia, mentioned by PONTUS. The province Ptolemy, But it is much more of Pontus in Asia Minor, is credible, that he was a king, bounded by the Euxine Sea beyond the Euphrates, as well to the north, Cappadocia to the the other kings with Chedola. south, Paphlagonia and Gala. omer. Lat. 42, 30. tia to the east, and the lesser POOLS OF SOLOMON, Armcnia to the west. It is are distant two hours from


Bethlehem, the road leading to high, built for a charnel house, them, consisting entirely of The corpses are let down into rock, is almost impassable. it. See Aceldema. These fountains are three, sit- PROMISE, Land of, a coun. uated in a sloping hollow of a try of Turkey in Asia, divided mountain, one above another; from Syria on the north by so that the waters of the up- mount Libanus, or Lebanon; permost descend into the sec- from Arabia Deserta on the ond, and those of the second east by the mountains of Seir; into the third. They are near- it has the deserts of Arabia ly square, and the breadth of Petrea south, and the Mediall is nearly the same, being terranean west. This country about eighty or ninety paces is called, indifferently, Canaan, broad, and the first about one Palestine, Judea, the Holy hundred and sixty paces long, Land, or Land of Promise. the second 200, and the It was called Canaan from the tbird 220.

They are lined son of Ham, whose posterity with stone and plastered. These settled here, and in Egypt. It pools supplied Bethlehem and was called Palestine from the Jerusalem with water; a garden Philistines, who possessed a near these waters is called the large portion of the country; it garden of Solomon, watered by was called Judea, from Judah, rills, which descend from the whose tribe was the most dis. rocks above.

tinguished and eminent, as Ja. PTOLEMAIS, see Acre. cob had prophesied: “Thy

POTTER'S FIELD, the brethren shall praise thee,” or field purchased with the silver, as it may be rendered, “Thy which had been given as the brethren shall pride themselves price of our Savior's blood; it in being called by thy name.lay at the foot of mount Zion, It was called the land of promon the west side of the valley ise, from being promised to of Hinnom. This was also Abram and his posterity; the called the field of blood; but Holy Land it is called on acis now denominated the Holy count of the signal favors by Field. It is a small plat of which it has been distinguishground, not above thirty yards ed by Providence. In one of long, and about half as broad. her cities was "the habitations One moiety of it is taken up of his holiness.” Here the by a square fabric, twelve yards Son of God was born; here he

preached, bled, and finished them was called Jebus. On the work of human redemp- the east of Jordan were settled tion.

the Amorites, between the litThis country is 200 miles tle river Arnon, on the south long, and 80 broad, contain- east, and mount Gilead on the ing 16,000 square miles, and north. The Girgashites set10,240,000 acres, including tled next above the Amorites lakes, rivers, mountains, &c. on the east side of the sea of It lies between Lat. 31, 30, and Galilee. Further north, round 33, 20 N., and between Lon. the base of mount Lebanon, 34, 50, and 37, 5, E. from were found the Hivites. The London.

sons of Sena are supposed to At the time of Abram's have given names to the desert coming into this country, it of Sin and mount Sinai. The was divided into a great num- Perezites dwelt along the west ber of tribes or petty kingdoms. bank of the Jordan. As far When Joshua entered, many as can be understood from the ages after, with an army of sacred records, such was the 600,000 soldiers, a great part state of this country, with reof these nations were destroy- spect to its inhabitants, when ed; most of those who surviv. Abram came here from Mesoed became tributary, while a potamia. Perhaps it may give few for a long time retained a more lucid view of this intheir independence, and were teresting country to mention, very troublesome neighbors to briefly, the situation of various Israel. The first settlers of these neighboring tribes, though they countries were Ham and his will be more particularly deseleven sons. They came from cribed under their particular the confusion at Babel. Heth, names. one of these sons, settled near The Ammonites, who were Hebron. The Hethites, or Hit. descended from Lot, by his titcs, extended their settlements youngest daughter, possessed to Beersheba, and the brock a large territory on the east Besor, the south limit of Ca. side of the Arnon, adjoining to

The Jebusites, or child the Amorites. dren of Jebus, another son of The Moabites, descended Ham, bordered on the Hittites from another incestuous son, by north, and extended their the eldest daughter, dwelt on towns to Jerusalem, which from each side the lower part of the Arnon, and extended them- quered by Moses, Deut iii, 4. selves southward along the Next above Bashan lay Zo. shores of the Dead Sea. The bal, and on the north-east toAmorites seized a part of their wards the confines of Syria, country, and confined them to lay Hamath. the south part of their territory. This is a general view of


The Midianites lay contig: ancient Canaan, when Joshua vous to the Ammonites on the entered with the triumphant south, and the Moabites to the banner of Israel. east of the Dead Sea. Their The twelve tribes of Israel capital was Midian, it stood to were located in the following the east of the Dead Sea. order. After a march of forty These people were descended years through the wilds of from Midian, the son of Abram Arabia, they broke through by Keturah. They were the the mountains of Seir, and enenemies of Israel and often tered the land of hills and valcorrupted their morals and lies, of springs and brooks "a their religion.

land flowing with milk and The Edomites descended honey.” The tribes of Reufrom Esau, and inhabited ben and Gad were so delighted round the mountains of Seir, with their new situation, that on the south of Judea, and they petitioned for liberty of bordering on Arabia Petrea. settling on the spot without The Amalekites early opposed passing over Jordan, Numb. the entrance of Israel into the xxxii, &c. Their prayer, on land of Promise, for which God certain conditions, was grantrequired his people to wage ed. Accordingly, they remainperpetual war with them till ed on the east side 'of Jor. the name of Amalek should dan; but as this country was be blotted from the earth, rather more than their proporThe pretext for the enmity of tion, one half the tribe of Mathis people was, that Jacob nasseh took their lot with them, had supplanted their progeni. Accordingly their Lawgiver tor Esau, They dwelt along gave the southern part of this the mountains to the south of district to the tribe of Reuben, Judea.

which extended from the northe Bashan, the country of Og, east coast of the Dead Sea, lay on the north of Judea. In along the eastern bank of the this kingdom was the exten- Jordan, and on the north was sive country of Argob, con- separated from the tribe of Gad by a small river, and on froin the north-east to the the south and south-east from south-west, in a crescent rose the Moabites and Amorites the mountains of Hermon, and by the river Arnon. This Bashan, and Gilead. This province or tribe reached from canton was afterwards called Lat, 31, 40, to 32, 25, N. and Galilee of the Gentiles, being from 36, to 37, E. Long, froin as large as the portion of Reu. London. The chief moun ben and Gad. It lay between tains were Pisgah, Nebo, and Lat. 32, 36, and 33, 36, N. Phegor; the principal towns and Long. 36, 30, and 37, were Heshbon, Jasa, Ramoth- 20, E. Baal, Bethphegor, Medaba, East from the half tribe of Edom, Bozra, Beth-Jeshimoth, Manasseh, across the Jordan &c. &c.

lay the tribe of Naphtali. This On the north of Reuben was a very fruitful district, in lay the tribe of Gad, extending the north of which were the two up the Jordan on the eastern springs, Jor and Dan, the side, having the half tribe of sources of the Jordan.

This Manasseh on the north, and the tribe extended from mount Ammonites on the east. This Lebanon down the river to the was likewise a fertile tract, af- sea of Galilee, and contained fording good pasturage. The many populous cities. Between chief towns were Mahana- this and the Mediterranean lay im, and Penuel, both so cal: the tribe of Asher in the north. led by Jacob, on account of west corner of the country. the heavenly visions, which This region was remarkably tiere comforted his heart. fruitful in corn, wine, and oil. Here was, also, Succoih, where As Jacob had prophesied of he built booths for his cattle, Asher, "His bread shall be fat, also Mispha, Rabbah, Ramoth, and he shall yield royal dain. and Rogelim, the native place ties.” of good old Barzillai, who South of these was seated supported David in his flight the tribe of Zebulon, having from Absalom. In this tribe the sea of Tiberias east, and was also Sharon, and Enon, the Mediterranean west, and where afterwards John baptiz- bounded by the river Kishon ed many people.

south. The situation precisely North of Gad extended the verified the prediction of Jas half tribe of Manasseh to the cob, many ages before, “Zeb. head waters of the Jordan, and ulon shall dwell at the haven of

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