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the sea, and he shall be for a mountains, well watered and haven of ships.” Moses had enriched with a luxurious soil. also prophesied in the same On the banks of the Jordan style, "that he should suck the rose the splendid turrets of abundance of the seas, and of Bethshan; some of its marble the treasures hid in the sand." ruins still remain. On its From the sand of the river Be. bloody walls were hung the lus, which watered this tribe, bodies of Saul and Jonathan, abundance of glass was made, after the defeat on mount Gil. Here were several ports and boa. Other opulent cities enpopulous cities. Sicaminum, riched this district. South of and Acre were celebrated har. Samaria, Ephraim reached bors on the same bay. Here from the sea to the river Jorwere also Nazareth, Tabor, and dan, bounded south by BenjaJoppa. South of Zebulon lay min and Dan. The land of the tribe of Issachar, extend. Ephraim was mountainous and ing from the Mediterranean to rocky, but the valleys were the Jordan, opposite to the fruitful. Sharon, and Shiloh, tribe of Gad. Here were and many other cities stood in many celebrated places, among this region. which are Carmel, Gilboa, Judea, properly so called, Jezreel, where poor Naboth embraced the tribes of Benjawas stoned for not selling his min, Judah, Dan, and Simeon. vineyard to Ahab, Shunem, This was the most important where lived the hospitable wo- section of the country, having man, who entertained the good the Mediterranean west, the prophet Elisha, Endor, where tribe of Ephraim north, the the Pythoness entertained Saul, Jordan and Dead sea east, and and raised Samuel, Nain, Idumea south. The soil here, where Jesus Christ raised the likewise, was remarkably prowidow's son, &c.
ductive, the surface is beauti. South of Issachar was settled fully varied with hills, and the other half tribe of Manas. plains, and valleys, with deseh; afterwards this canton was serts, pleasant streams, springs, called Samaria, bounded west and rivulets, producing plenty by the Mediterranean, east by of the comforts and luxuries the Jordan. This was a de- of life. This is the warınest lightful portion of Canaan, re- district of Canaan, lying in lat. markably varied in its appear. 32; but the sea and the moun. ance by plains and bills, and tains in the vicinity cool the air, and render the country de- and the sea, lay the two remainlighisul. Benjamin lay south ing tribes of Dan and Simeon. of Ephraim, and had the Jor. Simeon lay at the south-west dan easi, and Philistia and part corner of Canaan, being boundof Dan west, which lay be- ed south by the brook Sichor, tween Benjamin and the sea. or river of Egypt; the territory The cities of this tribe were was small and barren. The not so numerous, as those of Philistines, bowever, for a long some others; but they were the time held a great part of the most celebrated. Here was coast, and a number of the Jerusalem, and other places principal cities in these tribes, rendered remarkable by the as Gath, Accaron, Ashdod, or great events, which there took Azotos, Ascalon, and Gaza. place. Here was mount Mo. Dan was bounded north by riah and mount Zion, Nebo, Ephraim, south by Judah and Gihon, Olivet, and Golgotha, Simeon. Its greatest length also Bethany, Gethsemane, from north to south, was 40 &c. See Jerusalem.
miles, 25 miles broad. The The tribe of Judah lay south small extent of this tribe inof Benjamin, extending south- duced some of the inhabitants east to the mountains of Seir, to emigrate to Laish, near the and the territory of Idumea, head waters of the Jordan, Judg. being 47 miles in length. It xviii, 7, &c. It was, however, was bounded east by the Dead a remarkably fruitful part of sea, and west by Dan and Sim- Canaan, abounding in wheat, eon, which lay between Judah oil, grapes, and all kinds of and the Mediterranean. This fruit. The most considerable was the largest and most pop- towns were Joppa, now Jaffa, ulous of all the tribes, the men Ajalon, Zora, &c. We here were the most warlike; it was remark, as we have concerning the royal tribe. Except at the several other tribes, the remark. south, near the mountains, able fulfilment of Jacob's prowhere it was rather barren, this phecy concerning the destinies district was opulent in the pro- of Simeon and Levi. These ductions of the field and gar- tribes felt the sad effects of their den. Here Abram and his de. father's curse, as long as they scendants dwelt, till they went existed, for their cruel slaughdown to Egypt; here are many ter of the innocent Shechemsepulchres of the patriarchs. ites, “Cursed be their anger
Between the tribe of Judah for iç was fierce, and their wrath, for it was cruel; I will divide ated the kingdom of Israel. them in Jacob, and scatter them This kingdom, two hundred in Israel.” Levi had no lot, and fifty-four years after their nor inheritance
among the independence, was demolished, tribes; only a few cities and and the people led away capterritories were appointed to tive by the Assyrians, and their them, with the tithes, paid by country settled by strangers, the rest; but such was often who were called Samaritans. the irreligion of Israel, that the About one hundred and thirty tithes were poorly paid; God years after this, the Babylonihimself was robbed, and the Le- ans carried away the people of vites were reduced to poverty Judah, leaving their country and want. As to Simeon, tho' uninhabited. About A. D. he had a lot among his breth- 70 the country was again taken ren, it was a frontier corner of by the Romans; Jerusalem was the country, always exposed to razed from its foundations; be harassed by the Philistines more than a million of people on one side, and the Idumeans were destroyed, and the rest on the other. Their country dispersed all over the world, in was small, and loaded with bar. every part of which they are ren mountains. Hence from found at the present day, acthe beginning, they were ob- cording to various prophecies. liged to seek a livelihood a. Jerusalem was again taken by mong the other tribes. Often they the Persians in A. D. 614, and volunteered themselves as mer- again by the Saracens in 636. cenaries to fight their battles, In 1099 it was taken from the receiving some small share of infidels by an army of Christians the conquest for their reward; under Godfrey.' The Chrisoften they were employed a. tians kept possession, till 1187, broad as scribes, notaries, when it was again subdued by schoolmasters, &c. So dread. Saladin. In A. D. 1217 the ful, so long continued, is the Turks expelled the Saracens, punishment of sin.
and have retained the country Four hundred and seventy- to the present time, six years after the settlement of The modern Palestine, is the Israelites in the land of Ca. now governed by a Beglerberg, naan, the kingdom was divid- whose seat is at Damascus. ed. Judah and Benjamin form- From the Turks we learn nothed the kingdom of Judah. The ing respecting this country: other ten tribcs were denomin. From strangers they conceal
every thing in their power; we der. In one instance was a litshall present what has occurred tle hail. But by the 10th of most worthy of notice, from a February the air became warm considerable list of travellers and tranquil
, the fields appeared and other writers. A general verdant, and the aspect of the idea of the climate may be country cheerful. formed from the following cir- This country may be concumstances; In July, August, sidered, as rather mountainous; and Septeler 1801, the ther. but in several parts are extenmometer never rose higher than sive plains, intersected with 95 degrees of Farenheit. The moderate bills.
Near Joppa sky was beautifully clear, with- are such plains. As you apout a cloud, the atmosphere proach Jerusalem the mounpure and benign. In October tains are lofty; their rocky sides and November the rains fell are scarcely covered with with violence. During the pre- earth, bearing at present nothceding parts of the year, there ing but clive trees, whose roots had been little rain, but copious penetrate the crevices of the dews (even in a total suspen- rocks. The trees conceal the sion of showers) were sufficient barren appearance of the mounto bring forward vegetation. tains. At present the country The prevailing winds in sum- is very thinly covered with mer are from the north and trees, having few woods or north-west. In the latter part thickets. Wherever the land of November the rains cease is capable of being cultivated, to fall; the weather again be. (unless it be entirely neglected comes pleasant and salubrious. by the lazy Turks) abundant At this season, before sunrise, crops of wheat, barley, Indian the therinometer ranges from corn, tobacco, and cotton, are 42 to 53, at noon from 66 to produced. Pomegranites, figs, 76. On the coast the seabreezes oranges, lemons, citrans, melprevail through the day; in the ons, grapes, and olives, are eve evening they give place to a ery where plenty. The melgentle land breeze, which ons are large, weighing, comcontinues till nine o'clock in monly 20 or 30 pounds. In the morning In 1801 the December they have not lost weather in January was tem- their exquisite flavor.
The pestuous, with heavy rains, people are excessively fond of vivid lightnings, awful and tre- them, and during the summer mendous explosions of thun. months, they furnish a great part of their subsistence. But great speed, and being inured so wretched is the state of so- to privations and fatigue, they ciety, so hopeless their labors, are capable of enduring great that the fields of Canaan are exertions for a long time, with generally open or unfenced. very scanty sustenance. In Where enclosures have been this they remarkably resemble attempted, they are formed with our Indians. Their hair is a the prickly pear tree. They use shining black, very long, and a wooden plough, drawn by one dressed in a fanciful manner. pair of oxen; barley, and wheat Their countenances are meaare sown in January and reaped gre and wan, and sometimes in May. Numerous flocks of almost black. The rare ocs sheep and goats are spread currence of pulmonary or conover the country. The people sumptive complaints, and the live chiefly on vegetables; they numerous instances of longeveat no veal, and but little beer. ity among the inhabi ants, Their most common meat is many of whom live to be 100, miutton and goats flesh. Grapes or 110 years of age, are arguare a considerable article of ments to prove the healthy food, and few can afford to climate of Palestine. As the make them into wine; that character, if I may so term it, which is made is excellent of this country is a subject of Their mules are large; their contest between Christians and horses small and swift. They Infidels, as the latter exult in also enjoy the aid of the noble the disadvantageous circumcamel.
stances in which they now find The inhabitants, who are it, doubtless it will be expectchiefly Turks and Arabs, are ed that this subject should be extremely simple and abste- carefully examined. Some mious in their diet, which repetition will be considered consists chiefly of salted olives, only as evidence corroborated bad cheese, coarse bread, and multiplied. Voltaire and poorly baked, and rancid but other infidel writers have raised ter or oil. When they eat difficulties and objections aflesh, it is stewed with rice; gainst the authority of scripture water is their common drink. itself, and strengthened the The people are in general of an cause of impiety and atheism ordinary stature, of a spare and from the pretended sterility of thin make, but alert and ac- Palestine. In answer to which, tive. They walk and run with the Abbe Guenee, about the