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all other divisions, and changes The former indeed live by opthat happened to it under pressing the people under them, northern barbarians, Sara- and extorting contributions of cens, &c. and conclude this ar- every thing that comes within ticle with the present state and their reach, such as the protecdivision of it under the Turks. tion of travellers, merchants, The whole country of Pales- and caravans; but being all untine is now reduced to a dis- der their respective bashaws, trict or province, under the who are still more griping, than beglerbegate, or bassaship of their underlings, they are comScham or Damascus, who hath monly fleeced of a great part of the seven following sangiaces, their unjust gains. or subgovernors under him, PUL, Isa. Ixvi, 19. This styled, according to the differ- is the name of an island in the ent places of their residence. Nile, not far from Syene. Here 1. The sangiac of Damascus, are the ruins of noble temples, who is under the bashaw of that erected by the ancient Egypprovince: 2. Of Jerusalem, or tians. That the ancient people as the Turks call it, Cudjem- in scripture called Pul might baric, or Coudscherif: 3. Ag. give name to this island is not hem: 4. Bahana: 5. Scifat: 6. impossible, or it may more Gaza: 7. Nabolos. Each of probably show, that this peo. these have a number of zia- ple were once inhabitants of mets, and each ziamet, a num- this region. ber of irrariots under them; PUNON, or Phunon, a for the better understanding of station of the Hebrews in the which terms we shall refer our wilderness, Num.xxxii,42,43. readers to Sir Paul Ricaut's It is also called Phaeno, Phaino, account of the Ottoman ernpire. and Metallo-phaenon, because At present it will be sufficient of the mines of metals there to say of these inferior subdi- found. Eusebius says, that visions, under the sangiac of this place was situate between this district, or sangiacate of Petra and Segar; and elseJerusalem, that it hath nine of where he places it four miles the former, and sixteen of the from Dedan. He says also that latter class. Neither musi the mines were dug by convicts, reader imagine those sangia. who were punished in this way. cates or sub-governments to be St. Athanasius says, that these any thing considerable, or the mines of Phanos were so dan. residence of these officers to be gerous, that murderers conplaces of any note or opulence. demned to work there, could live but a few days. We find by Egyptians and Asiatic mer. bishops of Phenos in the sub- chants, settled at Puzzuoli, scriptions of the councils. It which was the great emporium is thought to be at Punon, that of Italy, till the Romans built Moses erected the brazen ser. Ostia and Antium. The ruins pent, for the cure of the mur. of Cicero's villa, near this place, muring Israelites, who had been are of such extent, as to give bit by the fiery serpents. Oth. an high idea of the wealth of ers believe that this happened this great orator: 6 miles west at the encampment of Zalmo. of Naples. Here St. Paul nah.

stayed a whole week on his PUZZUOLI, or Puteoli, journey, as he was going an ancient celebrated city of prisoner to Rome, Acts xxviii, Naples, on the beautiful bay of 13. Several bishops of this Baia. Earthquakes and volca. place were members of the annoes have nearly destroyed its cient councils. Lat. 40, 55. former splendor. Vast ruins QUARANTANIA, this are yet visible, among which name is not in the Bible, but are the baths of Nero, and Cal. a mountain is mentioned to igula's bridge, built of boats, which it is supposed by some, three miles long, across the bay that this name is now applied. of Baia, over which this mon. Different opinions have been ster passed in triumph for three entertained respecting the successive days, in imitation mountain where our Lord was of the naval triumph of Xerxes. tempied, by an offer of all the The water of the springs, call. kingdoms of the world. Tabor ed the baths of Nero, are of has becn supposed the place; it sufficient heat to boil eggs. is very high; and from its sumThese springs are 18 miles mit is an immensely extended from Vesuvius, and the city of prospect, but considering all the Naples intervenes. What must circumstances, it is now probabe the danger of a country un- bly some mountain nearer to dermined as this is, with inces- Jerusalem. Sanson does not sant and violent fires? In this hesitate to say, this is the nouncity is a temple of Jupiter Se- tain to which Christ was led. rapis, an interesting monument Mr. Maundrel informs us, that of antiquity, being quite differ- in his journey from Jerusalem ent from the Roman and Greek to Jordan, after he had passed temples, and built in the man. over mount Olivet, he proceedner of the Asiatics; probably ed in an intricate way among

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hills and vallies interchangeably, of all the kingdoms and glories and after some hours travel in of the world. It is, as St. Matthis sort of road, he arrived at thew styles it, an exceeding the mountainous desert into high mountain, and its ascent, which our blessed Savior was not only difficult but dangerled to be tempted. A most It has a small chapel at miserable, dry, barren place, the top, and another about half saith he, it is, consisting of way up, founded on a prominrocky mountains, so torn and ent part of the rock. Near disordered, as if the earth had this latter are several caves and here suffered some great convul- lioles in the side of the moun. sion, in which its very bowels tain, inhabited anciently by herhad been turned outward. On mits, and by some at this day, the left hand, looking down in for places in which to keep their a steep valley, as we passed a- Lent, in imitation of our bles. long, we saw ruins of small sed Savior. In most of these cells and cottages; which they grotts we found certain Arabs told us were former habitations quartered, with fire arms, who of hermits, who retired thither obstructed our ascent, demandfor penance and mortification. ing 200 dollars for leave to go And certainly there could not up the mountains: so we departbe found in the whole earth a ed without further trouble, not more comfortless and abandon- a little glad, of so good an ex. ed place for that purpose. cuse, for not climbing up so From the top of these hills of dangerous a precipice. desolation, we had however a RAAMAH, whether this delightful prospect of the moun. place was in Lybia, or Arabia tains of Arabià, the Dead Sea, Felix is uncertain. It was a and the plain of Jericlio; into place of commerce and the peowhich last we descended after ple traded at Tyre. Michaelis about five hours inarch from and others suppose it was in Jerusalem. As soon as we en Arabia, which is most proba. tered the plain, we turned on ble. the left hand, and going about RAAMSES, or RAMESSES, one hour that way, came to the a city built by the Hebrews, foot of the Quarantania, which during the time of their servithey say, is the mountain, into tude in Egypt, Exod. i, 11, which the devil took our bles- and which probably took iis sed Savior, when he tempted name from the king of the coun. him with that visionary scene, try, who set them to work. Its situation is not known. Hero. became masters of it, with all dotus speaks of Papremisus the rest of the tribes beyond in the Lower Egypt, and Pliny Jordan. joins together the Ramisians But towards the conclusion and Patamians, which are pro. of the kingdom of Israel, Tigbably the people, that inhabited lath-Pileser having taken away the two cities of Pithorn and a great part of the Israelites of Raamses. He joins them to that country, the Ammonites the Arabians bordering upon put in execution many cruelEgypt. See Ramesses. ties against those that remain

RABBAH, or AREBBA, a ed; and from whence it followcity mentioned by Joshua, xv, ed, that the prophets Jeremiah 60. Perhaps it is the same xlxi, 9, i, 2, 3, and Ezek.lxx, , with Arbea, or Hebron. St. 20, and xxv, 5, pronounced Jerome speaks of a city called very severe prophecies against Rebbo, bordering upon Eleu- Rabboth, the capital city of the theropolis towards the east. Ammonites, and against the

RABBAH, or RABBATH, or rest of the country, which proRABBAT-Ammon, or Rabbath bably had their completion five of the children of Ammon, af. years after the destruction of terwards called Philadelphia, Jerusalem. Antiochus, the the capital city of the Ammon. Great, took the city of Rabites, situated beyond Jordan. bath-Ammon, about the year It was famous and considerable, of the world 3786. Some time cven in the time of Moses, who before this, Ptolemy Philadeltells us, that then was still to be phus had given it the name of seen there the iron bedstead of Philadelphia. It is thought it king Og, Deut. iii, 11. When was to this city of PhiladelDavid declared war against the phia, that St. Ignatius the marAmmonites, his general, Joab, tyr wrote his epistle, a little belaid siege to Rabath-Ammon, fore his martyrdom. Philadelwhere the brave Uriah lost his phia is not far from the foun. life. When the city was re- tain of Arnon. See Philadel. duced to the last extreinity, phia. Lat. 32, 20. David himself went thither, RABBATH-MOAB, or that he might have the honor RABATH of the children of of taking it, 2 Sam, xii, 28, 29. Moab, the capital city of the From this time it became sub- Moabites, called otherwise Ar, ject to the kings of Judah. Af or Areopolis. See Ar. This ierwards the kings of Israel city has gone through a great

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variety of revolutions, and the of Rages, sent his son 'Tobias prophets have often threatened to fetch it, Tob i. But Tobias it with great misfortunes. The staying at Ecbatana to celebrate kings of Judah, Israel, and E. his marriage with Sara, the dom, once laying siege to it, 2 daughter Raguel, he deputed Kings iži, v, 6, 7, &c. when the angel Raphael, to go to the king of Moab saw he must Gabael, and bring him the fall into the enemies hands, he money, which commisssion took his eldest son, and sacri. Raguel performed. It is supficed him to the gods upon posed that this city was foundthe walls of the city. This , ed by Reu, a son of Peleg. excited such an abhorrence The seventy call it Ragau. or compassion in the kings This city, according to Browithout the city, that they drew cardus Monachus, was afteroff, and broke up the siege. wards called Edessa. See See Tophet.

Helbon. A learned writer says, RABBI CH or RABBOTH, a there is no doubt, but this is city of the tribe of Issachar, the modern Rey of which inJosh. xix, 20.

credible stories are told by the RACHAL, a city of the Persian writers. tribe of Judah, 1 Sam. xxx, 29; that in the ninth century, it was whither David sent some of so large as to be divided into the prey, which he had taken ninety-six districts, each con• from the enemies, who had taining forty-six streets; that it plundered Ziklag.

had six thousand, four hunRAGAU, a large plaindred colleges, and fifteen thouswhere Nebuchadnezzar over- and inosques, and other edifices came Arphaxad, king of the in proportion. It is now greatMcdes, in the country of Ari- ly reduced.

The air is unoch, king of the Elymeans, healthy, tinges the complexJudith i, 5, 6. The plains of ion yellow, and occasions agues. Ragau, are probably those that Yet the inhabitants live as lie about Rages in Media. long as those in other places, Lat. 31. See Rages.

which made the Persians say Races, a city of Media, that "the angel of death himstanding upon the mountains self flees from the unwholeof Ecbatana, about a days some vapors of Rey." Among journey from that town. To- its titles is, the market of the bit having deposited the sum universe. No wonder then, of ten talents, Cabael, a citizen that Jews were found here.

They say

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