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an artificial canal, till the work one above another, till the was finished. But that the height equalled that of the walls Euphrates, in the time of its of the city. The ascent was increase, might not overflow from terrass to terrass by stairs, the city through the gates, on ten feet wide, and the whole its side, this lake with the ca- pile was sustained by vast archnal from the river, was still pre. es, raised upon other arches, served. The water received one above another and strengthinto the lake, at the time of ened by a wall 22 feet thick. these overflowings, was kept On the top of these arches there all the, year as

were laid large flat stones, 16 common reservoir, for the feet long, and four broad; these benefit of the country, to be let were lined with bricks, closely Ốut by sluices, at all conve- cemented together with plaster; nient times, for watering the and that covered with sheets lands. At the two ends of the of lead, upon which lay the bridge were two palaces, which mould of the garden. Anothhad a communication with er of the great works of Babyeach other by a vault, under lon, was the temple of Belus. the river; the old palace, which The riches of this temple in stood on the east side of the riv. statues, tables, censers, cups, er, was 30 furlongs in circum- and other sacred vessels, all of ference; and the new palace, on massy gold, were immense, the other side of the river, was Among other images, there 60 furlongs in compass., It was one of forty feet high, was surrounded with three which weighed one thousand walls, one within another, with Babylonish talents of gold. considerable spaces between Not long after the time of Althem. These walls, as also exander, who died here, the city those of the other palace, were began to decline by the building embellished with an infinite of Seleucia, about forty miles variety of sculptures, represent- above it, by Seleucus Nicanor, ing all kinds of animals. In who is said to have erected this this best palace were the hang- new city from hatred to the ing gardens, so much celebrat- Babylonians, and to have drawn ed in history; these were of a out of Babylon 500,000 persons square form, each side being to people it, so that the ancient 400 feet long. They were car- city was in the time of Curtius, ried up into the air in the man. the historian, lessened one ner of several large terrassess, fourth part, in the time of Pli


ny reduced to desolation, in But wild beasts of the desert the days of Si. Jerome, turned shall lie there, and their houses into a park.

shall be full of doleful creatures, Mr. Rawolf, who passed and the owls shall dwell there, through the place, where stood and satyrs shall dance there. this once famous city, speaks And the wild beast of the isof its ruins in the following land shall cry in their desolate manner. “The village of houses, and dragons in their Elugo, is now situated, where pleasant palaces,” Isa. xiii, stood Babylon of Chaldea. 19, &c. I could have never believed In unison with the above, I that this powerful city, once take from the Gazetteer of the the most stately and renowned Eastern Continent, a brief, but in all the world, and situated in more particular and minute acthe fruitful country of Shinah, count of the gradual decline of could have stood there, had I Babylon, and the fulfilment of not seen by the situation of the various prophecies. Jeremiah place, by many antiquities of prophesied "that the mighty great beauty, which are to be men of Babylon would for. seen, and especially by the bear to fight, they have remainbridge over the Euphrates of ed in their holds; their might which some piles and arches hath failed; they became as of incredible strength are still women.” Agreeably to this, remaining, that it certainly did Xenophon tells us, that “when stand there."

Cyrus came before the place, Now the reader may com- he could not provoke them to pare Isaiah's description, of venture forth, and try the forthe condition, to which Baby- tune of arms, though he sent Jon should be reduced after its a challenge to the king." A fall with the account given of variety of other circumstances, its present state by this travel- in the progress of its destrucler. “And Babylon, the glory tion are foretold, which history of kingdoins, the beauty of confirms. The same prophet the Chaldees 'excellency, sball said, “that it should become be as wlien God overthrew desolate, that it should not be Sodom, and Gomorrah; it shall inhabited, that wild beasts of the not be inhabited, neither shall desert should be there." Let the crabian pitch his tent us examine if Babylon has fal. there, neither shall the shep- len; if these circumstances have herds make their folds there. taken place; if so, then our

Jannier says,

faith in revelation is confirmed. islands shall cry in their desoDiodorus Siculus says, that in late houses, and dragons in his time, but a sınall part of the their pleasant palaces.” Petrus city was inhabited. Its destruc. Valensis was there in 1616; he tion had then begun; it was says, “there was a heap of rugradual. Not long after, Stra- ined buildings, like a mountain, bo relates that the Persians had which was probably the tower demolished a part of the city; of Nimrod.” that the court was removed to “in this neighborhood we saw Seleucia; that the great city had the foundation of a city, and become a desert. In the time some of the walls standing, upof Pliny, Babylon, was a place on which six coaches might go of "solitude.” Maximus Ty- abreast.” The chronicles of the rius mentions its "lying waste country said, “Here stood Babyand neglected.” Constantine lon." Mr. Hanway tells us the Great says, he had been an that in 1743, “These ruins eye witness of its "desolate were so effaced, that there was and miserable condition." In hardly any vestiges of them, the fourth century after Christ, to point out the situation of the Jerome says, “Its wall served city. Mr. Jackson in 1797, as a fence, and the city as a was at Bagdad, and says, that park, in which the kings of Per- at a little distance are still to be sia kept wild beasts for hunt- seen some ruins of ancient Babying. In the twelfth century, lon;” but it seems he did not Benjamin, a Jew, asserts that go to examine whether it was “Babylon was laid waste, some irue. Mr. Wood, who visited ruins remaining, over which the ruins of Palmyra in 1751, men dared not to pass, on ac- presumes to say, "There is not count of serpents and scorpions. a stone to tell where Babylon In 1574, Rawolf says, “The was situated.” By these brief tower of Babylon was so ruin- extracts from various travelous, so full of venomous crea- lers, we see how gradually, how tures, that no one dared ap- punctually the prophecies resproach nearer than half a league, pecting Babylon, have been fulexcept during two months in filled. “They shall not take the winter." More than two of thee a stone for a corner, thousand years before, a pro- nor a stone for foundation; but phet had predicted this: "their thou shalt be desolate for ever, houses shall be full of doleful saith the Lord.” Lat. 33, 12. creatures; the wild beasts of the BABYLONIA, a province

of Chaldea, or Assyria, of which Hebrews went from Nahaleel Babylon, was the capital. Here to Bamoth, and from Bainoth Christianity was early received to the valley, which is in the by the Jews and Pagans; here country of Moab. Eusebius the apostle Peter wrote one, says Bamoth is a city of Moab, if not both his letters to his dis- upon the river Arnon.

Here persed brethren of Judah; here was the forty-second encampthe Jews, sirice the destruction ment of Israel. Lat. 31, 20. of Jerusalem, have had famous BAMOTH-BAAL, a city synagogues.

beyond Jordan,which was given BACA. See BEKAA. to the tribe of Reuben, Josh.

BACHUR, or BAHURIM,' xiii, 17. Eusebius says it is or BACKER, or Bachora, or situated in the plain where the CHOR ABA, or CHORAMON, river Arron runs. Lat. 31,33. the place had all these names, BARBARIANS, in the Hea village near Jerusalem, in the brew sense, a stranger, who tribe of Benjamin, on the road knows neither the holy lanto Jordan. Here Shimei cursed guage, nor the law. TheGreeks David, and sent stones at him. considered all people, but themLat. 31, 44.

selves, or those governed by BALA, otherwise called Zo. laws like them, barbarians. The HAR, or Zoar, a city of the Persians, Egyptians, Hebrews, tribe of Simeon, (1 Chr. ix,15) Arabians, Gauls, Germans, and said to receive its name Bala, even the Romans, they viewed that is, swallowed up, from its as barbarians. St. Luke calls being sunk, just at the time as the people of Malta BarbariLot left it. This name, there ans. St. Paul represented all fore, was given to the place mankind as Greeks or Barbawhere the city had stood, rather rians. Political writers now than to the city itself. Eusebius often call those barbarians, who however says, the place was are in that stage of society bethe only one, near Sodom, pre tween the savage and civilized served, and that it continued state, that is, the shepherd state. in his day; it stood near the Most probably the word is deDead Sea, and was a military rived from berbir; a shepherd, post or garrison of the Romans; whence Barbary, the country the soil produces balsam and of the wandering shepherds, or dates.

of Barbarians. BAMOTH, Moses says, BARIS. See Antonio. (Num, xxi, 19, 20) that the BASCAMA, or Basca, a

town in the tribe of Judah, the prophet Habbakuk was where Jonathan Maccabæus born in this vicinity. was killed. 1 Macca. xiii, 23. BEALOTH, a city in the Lat. 32, 10.

tribe of Judah, Josh. xv, 24. BASHAN, or BATANEA, Lat. 31, 8. one of the most fertile cantons BEER, which signifies a of Canaan, which was bounded well, is also the name of a city, on the west by the river Jordan, four leagues from Jerusalem, on the east by the mountains in the way to Shechem. (Jud. of Gilead, on the south by the ix, 21.) Mr. Maundrel tells brook Jabbok, and on the north us that Beer is pleasantly situby the land of Geshur. The ated upon an easy declivity whole kingdom took its name facing the south, that near the from the hill of Bashan, which foot of the hill is a fountain of is situated in the middle of it, excellent water, and that above and has since been called Ba- it are the remains of a church tanea. It had no less than sixty erected by the emprest Helena. walled towns, besides villages. BEER-ELIM, the well of It afforded an excellent breed the princes, . (Isa. 'xv, 8) is of cattle, and stately oaks, and thought to be the same with was in short, a plentiful and that mentioned in the book of populous country, given to the Numb.xxi, 18, under the same half tribe of Manasseh. Og, name. Here the howling of king of the Amorites, possessed the distressed Moabites was the kingdom of Bashan, when heard, when they were invaded Moses conquered it. The Re- by the Assyrians. Numb. phaim dwelt in Bashan. Sanson. xxi, 18; Isa. xv, 8. BASIOTHIA, or BIZJOTH

BEER LAHAI-ROI, a well JAH, a city of Canaan, in the situated between Kadesh and tribe of Judah. (Josh.‘xv, 21.) Bered, thus denominated by The Septuagint, instead of this Hagar. name, read, "their towns and BEEROTH, a city belongtheir farms."

ing to the Gibeonites, which BATANEA. See Bashan. was yielded afterwards to the

BATHZ AKHANAS, a tribe of Benjamin. (Josh. ix, place situated in the neighbor- 17; 2 Sam. iv, 2.) Eusebius hood of Bethsura, celebrated places it seven miles from Jefor the battle, fought between rusalem, in the way to Nicopo. Antiochus Eupator, and Judas lis. Maundrel says, 'that it enMaccabæus. (1 Macca. vi, 32, joys a pleasant situation, on the 33.) Epiphanius says, that side of a bill declining to the

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