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is likewise an old ruinous cas. and the Jews, have 8 synatle, near a mile in circumfer- gogues. 'Thc Romanists have ence, which stands in the up- 3 convents; there is also one of per part of the city, and ac- the fathers, Della Terra Santa. . cording to tradition, was built Here resides an archbishop of by Helena: and near it is an the Greek church; a Latin hishancient structure, said to be op, who has a salary from the remains of a palace, where Rome, with the title of bishop of the Greek council was held, Smyrna, in partibus infidelium, when -Smyrna was the metro- and the English and Dutch fac. polis of Asia Minor.
tories have each their chaplain. This city is about four miles The walls about the town are in circumference, and nearly extremely pleasant, particularly of a triangular form; but the on the west side of Frank-street, side, next the mountain is where there are several little much longer, than the other groves of orange and lemon sides. The houses are low, and trees, which
which being always mostly built with clay walls, on clothed with leaves, blossoms, account of the earthquakes to and fruit, regale different senses which the country is subject; at the same time. The vines, but the caravansaras, and some which cover the little bills about other of the public buildings Smyrna, afford both a delightful have an air of magnificence. prospect and a plenty of grapes, The streets are wide, and al- of which good wine is made. most a continued bazar, in These hills are agreeably interwhich a great part of the mer. spersed with fertile plains, little chandize of Europe and Asia forests of olives, and other fruit is exposed to sale, with plenty trees, and many pleasure hou s. of provisions; though these are es, to which the Franks usually not so cheap, as in many other retire during the summer. In parts of Turkey, on account the neighborhood of Smyrna, of the populousness of the place, is great plenty of game and and the great resort of foreign- wild fowl, and particularly deer, ers. Smyrna is said to contain and wild hogs. The sea also 15,000 Turks, 10,000 Greek abounds with a variety of good Christians, 1,800 Jews, 200 fish. The European Christians Armenians, and 200 Franks. are here allowed all imaginable The Turks have 19 mosques; liberties, and usually clothe 2 churches belonging to the themselves after the European Greeks, one to the Armenians, manner.
The chief commerce of this what has been the state of this city consists in raw silk, silk city. In 1675 their theatre was stuffs, grograms, and cotton wholly ruined by the Turks, yarn. The city is the resort of and the stones carried away to merchants from Europe, Asia, raise new edifices. At the deAfrica, and America. How. struction, in one of the main ever, the unhealthiness of the walls, was found enclosed, a situation, and more especially bushel of medals, of Gallienus the earthquakes, from which, it the emperor, and perhaps this is said, they are scarcely ever theatre which was almost as anfree for two years together, and cient as the city itself, might which have been felt for 40 have been repaired by Galliedays successively, are an abate. nus; and this copper coin there ment of the pleasure, that might inclosed in memory of this embe enjoyed here. A very dread- peror. Over the gate of the upful one happened in June 1688, per castle on a hill, the Roman which overthrew a great num- eagle continues still engraved. ber of the houses, and the rock The people, who built this opening, where the castle stood, city, came from Ephesus, and swallowed it up, and 5000 per. dispossessed the Leleger of sons perished on this occasion. their habitation, (as Strabo re
In the year 1758, so deso- ports) afterwards the Lydians lating a plague raged here, that demolished the buildings; so scarcely a sufficient number of that for the space of 400 years, the inhabitants survived to it was rather a village, than a gather in the fruits of the earth. city, until Antigonus, and after In the year 1772 three fourths him Lysimachus restored it to of the city was consumed by its ancient splendor. The city fire; and six years after, it was was chiefly built on the side of visited by the most dreadful the hill; and it is evident, since earthquakes, which continued the great ruins round the town from the 25th of June, to the were diggedup to supply the new 5th of July, by which succes- buildings with stone, that all sive calamities the city has been those ruins east of the river so much reduced, that its for- Meles, were no other than temmer consequence is not likely ples, and burying-places of the to be restored.
dead. From history and the remains After such a lapse of ages; of antiquity, of which few are after such serious calamities now to be seen, we may learn and changes, Smyrna is at this
day the rendezvous of mer, SOCOH, Socuo, or SHO: chants from almost every civ. CHO, a city of Judah, Josh. xv, ilized nation of the world, and 35, 1 Sam. xvii, 1. Heber, of the magazine of their merchan- whom mention is made in the dize. Here reside in security Chronicles, repaired Socoh, 1 a great number of Christians Chr. iv, 18, and his family dwelt of all nations, sects, and lan- there. Eusebius says, there guages.
Here the Christian were two cities of Socoh, one religion flourishes more than in the higher, the other the lower any of the ancient churches of Socho, nine miles from EleuAsia Minor. God fulfils his theropolis, towards Jerusalem. promise made to them in Rev. SODOM, the capital city of elation: "Fear none of those Pentapolis, which for some time things which thou shalt suffer; was the dwelling place of Lot, be thou faithful unto death, the nephew of Abraham, Gen. and I will give thee a crown xiii, 12, 13. The crimes of of life.” The streets are more this city were come to such open and better paved, and the an height, that God destroyed houses better built, than in it by fire from heaven, with other towns of the country. three other neighboring cities, Smyrna is twenty-five days Gomorrah, Zeboim, and Adjourney from Aleppo by the mah, which were as wicked as caravans, six from Cogni, sev. itself
, Gen. xix. The plain in en from Cataga, and six from which they stood, which beSatalia. The caravans of Per- fore was pleasant and fruitful, sia often bring two hundred like an earthly paradise, was bales of silk in a year, beside first inflamed by lightning, cloth and drugs. The other which set fire to the bitumen, commodities brought here, are with which it was replete, and thread made of goat's hair, was afterwards overflo:ved by cotton yarn, cotton in bags, the waters of Jordan, which and all sorts of carpets. The diffused themselves there, and fortifications consist of a fort, a formed the Dead Sea, or lake castle, and an old citadel. The of Sodom. See Asphar. town stands at the bottom of It is believed that Sodom a large bay, 183 miles W. by was one of the southermost of S. from Constantinople. Lat. the five cities that were des. 38, 28, N. long. 27, 19, E. troyed, because it was near Cruthwell, Newton.
Zoar, which was beyond the SOBAL, the city of Seir southermost point of the Dead the Horite, Gen. xxvi, 30. Sea. It is doubted whether
Sodom stood within the space relates, that a tradition still of land that now is possessed prevailed in his days, of certain by the sea, or whether it was powerful cities having been only upon its border. The destroyed by thunder and lightprophets speak often of the ning, and of the plain in which destruction of Sodom and Go- they were situated being burnmorrah, or make allusions to ed up. He adds, that traces it, and every where insinuate of such a catastrophe evidently that these places shall be des- remained. The earth was arts, dried up and uninhabited; parched, and had lost all its that they shall be places cov. natural powers of vegetation, ered with briars and brambles, and, therefore, whatever hapa land of salt and sulphur, pened to spring up spontanewhere there can be neither ously, or was planted by man, planting nor sowing, see Jer. gradually withered away, and xlix, 18, and I, 40, Amos iv, crumbled to dust. Strabo, af11. Josephus says, that round ter describing the nature of the lake Sodom, and the place the lake Asphaltites, adds that where these cities once stood, the whole of its appearance are still to be seen the dismal gives an air of probability to effects of this dreadful catas- the prevailing tradition, that trophe. Strabo speaks of the thirteen cities, the chief of ruins of Sodom, which were which was Sodom, were once sixty furlongs in circumfer. destroyed and swallowed up ence, and were to be seen on by an earthquake, and fire, and the shore of the Dead Sea. an inundation of boiling, sulPhe Notitia make express phureous water. Mr. Maunmention of Sodom, as an epis- drel visited this lake, and copal city, though Mr. Reland makes the following observacannot be persuaded, that it tions: “Being desirous, saith was ever rebuilt. Diodorus he, to see the remains, if there Siculus mentions the peculiar were any, of those cities, annature of the lake, which cov- ciently situate in this place, ered the country, where Sod- and which were made so dreadom and the neighboring cities ful an example of the Divine were formerly situated. The vengeance, 1 diligently survey. water of it is bitter and fetid ed the waters, as far as my eye to the last degree, so that nei. could reach; but neither could ther fish, nor any other crea. I discern any heaps of ruins, tures can live there.
Tacitus nor any smoke ascending above GO
the surface of the water, as is According to Cieza some usually described in the writings tradition of the miraculous deand maps of geographers. But struction of Sodom had travelyet, I must not omit what was led to South America, before confidently attested to me by it was discovered by Columthe father guardian, and the bus. The Peruvians believe procurator of Jerusalem, both that a race of giants was once of them men in years, and destroyed by fire from heaven, seemingly not destitute either on account of impurities, simof sense or probity, that they ilar to those, which according had once actually seen of these to scripture drew down the ruins, that they were so near vengeance of God upon Sod. the shore, and the waters so om. Faber. shallow at that time, that they SOPHIRA. The Septuagint went to them, and found sev. translate Ophir by this word. eral pillars, and other fragments Sophira is supposed to be the of buildings. The height of same as Sofala, which is a the water was, I suppose, the kingdom on the east coast of cause that we were deprived of Africa, extending south from this sight. Thevenot gives Zanquebar, from the river much the same account. He Cuama to the river Del Espirsays that there is no fish in this ito Sancto, that is from lat. 17 sea, by reason of the extraor- to 25 south.
This country dinary saltness of it, which contains mines of gold, and is burns like fire, when one tributary to the Portuguese. tastes of it. And when the The mines yield annually five fish of the water Jordan come millions of dollars. In this down so low, they return back wealth, the Portuguese, the again against the stream; and Arabs of Zidon, and Mecca, such as are carried into it by and the merchants of Quiloa, the current of the water im. Morbase, and Melinda, all have mediately die. The land with a share.
a share. From India the Ara. . in three leagues round the bians bring goods to the awater, is not cultivated; but is mount of 623,000 dollars. The white, and mingled with salt merchants of Sofala exchange and ashes. In short, we must goods for gold from Mocaranthink that there is a heavy ga, whose prince is called the curse of God upon that place, golden emperor. Moquet and seeing it was heretofore so many other learned men suppleasant a country.”
pose, that Sofala is the Ophir