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to which Solomon sent his more fertile than either. Being fleet, once in three years. By enclosed by the ocean and the a variety of facts Mr. Bruce Pyrenees, it is not scorched like. has rendered it very probable, Africa, nor wearied with perpetthat Ophir must have been in ual winds like France. Spain, as this region. It has been said well as Europe at large, was that the inhabitants boast of probably first peopled by the having books, which prove, Celtes; but the Spanish histo. that in the time of Solomon, rians derive the origin of their king of Israel, his subjects nation from Tubal, the fifth came to this country for gold. son of Japhet; asserting, that This opinion is coufirmed by Spain had been a monarchy for several ancient edifices, which 2226 years before the arrival of seem to have been built by the Celtes. Till the coming of foreigners; also by several in- the Carthaginians into Spain, scriptions in unknown charac- however, nothing very certain ters. Sophira, the word of the can be affirmed of the Spaniards. Seventy, might easily become This happened, not long before Sofala. Liquids are often put the first Punic war; the Carone for the other. West from thaginians reduced the country; Sofala is a mountain which is but were afterwards expelled by now called Ophir, and remark- the Romans. able for its gold. Lopez,

It is believed that Christiani. Bruce, Mollini, Walker. ty was planted in this country

SOREK, the name of a by the Apostles themselves, brook that passed through the soon after the resurrection of tribe of Dan; as also of a valley, their divine Master. Simeon where dwelt the famous Deli. Metaphrastes, who wrote in lah, Sampson's mistress, Jud. the ninth century, affirms, that xvi, 4. This valley of Sorek the apostle Peter visited Spain. was famous for choice wines, But almost all the ancient Spanas may be gathered from Gen. ish writers affirm, that the aposxlvi, 11; Isa. V, 12; and Jer. tle James, the greater, the son of ii, 21. Lat. 31, 34.

Zebedee, and brother of John, SPAIN, this is one of the was the principal missionary of few countries of Europe, which the Spaniards. Nor is it less is mentioned in the scriptures. probable, says a learned abbot, This country, to use the words that St. Paul visited Spain. of an ancient writer, lies be- For he promised the Romans, tween France and Africa, and is that after visiting them he would

go to Spain. Not a few writers, ing idle, or employed in one Latin and Greek, testify that place, but flying from JerusaSt.Paul did execute this design. lem to Illyricum, and proceedEpiphanius, in the fourth cen- ing to Spain. We might easily tury says, that Paul did indeed increase the witnesses to this come into Spain, and that Peter fact; but, who will doubt the visited Pontus and Bithynia, testimony of those already ad. Dorotheus, bishop of Tyre, duced? I therefore, only add, clearly asserts, that St. Paul, that Dr. Wells supposes that after the assumption of Jesus Paul went into Spain, and obChrist, by whom he had been serves, that the ancients genercalled, and added to the cata- ally assert the fact without seemlogue of the apostles, went from ing to entertain any doubts. Jerusalem, preaching the gos- Theodoret, in the fifth century, pel, as far as Illyricum, and Ita- tells us, that he not only preachly, and Spain.

ed in Spain, but in other nations, The sublime Jerome, in the and brought the gospel into the fourth century says, that Paul isles of the sea, by which he was determined and furious to undoubtedly means Britain,

, destroy the church of God, like and therefore, elsewhere, he a violent whirlwind, a cruel reckons the Gauls, or French, tempest, or a whirlpool of the and Britons, among the nations, raging sea; who being called of which the apostles, and particGod, went forth over the face ularly the tent-maker, persuadof the whole world, preaching ed to embrace the gospel of the gospel from Jerusalem to Jesus Christ. When Paul was Illyricum, where the Gospel had liberated from his first imprisnot been preached, that he might onment at Rome, it would be not build on the foundation of very natural, considering his others; that he went as far as known activity, to suppose, that Spain, and that he flew from he would visit different parts of the Red Sea, and even from the country, round that celeone ocean to the other, imitat- brated metropolis. That Spain ing the genial rays of the sun, ' would arrest his attention, .re or the mercy of his divine Lord. may infer from his letter, writ

The eloquent Chrysostom, in ten to the Romans, in which the fourth century, describes he mentions a determination to the spirit of Paul,asturned from visit that country..: Judaisın to Jesus Christ, by a Clemens Romanus, in the he avenly voice, and not remain• first century, in his letter 19 the

Corinthians, observes, that St. to Rome, where he appeared Paul preached in the west, to before Claudius, with a deits utmost bounds, which no portment and dignity, which doubt then included Spain. commanded the admiration of There seems, therefore, to be all who saw him. Some of no period more convenient in his attendants might become the short time, which remained acquainted with the Christians to St. Paul, than soon after his at Rome, and imbibe their spirliberation, for an excursion from it, and adopt their doctrines. Italy to Spain, probably by sea; Some have supposed, Chrisand also from Spain to Britain, tianity introduced to the island probably by sea,

and then from of our fathers at an earlier peBritain through France to Italy, riod. Mr. King observes, that probably for the most part by probably Aulus Plautius, the land. Though he requested Prætor, the first governor of Philemon to prepare lodgings the province in the island, infor him, it is very uncertain troduced the gospel in A. D. whether he ever returned to the 43. His wife, Pomponia Græ. East.

ciana, was the first person in Paul being in a sort at liber. Rome accused for having emty, only guarded by a soldier, braced Christianity. Having he would naturally visit the been tried, according to the Pretorian camp in the city very Roman laws for embracing a often; he would undoubtedly, foreign superstition, she was become acquainted with some pronounced innocent of every of the officers; these being from thing immoral. Taciti annales, time to time sent into Spain, lib. 13, chap. 32. he might easily, on being set What may be deemed of at liberty as he was, accompany more authority is a passage in some of them to that country, Gildas, who was a Briton, and and thence proceed, as the an- therefore to be credited in mat. cients assert he did, into Great ters of British history; "he is Britain. Here, as the subject the only English author of the is interesting, we shall hint, that sixth century, whose works report says, an old Welsh have reached this age. He chronicle attributes the intro- says, "In the mean time, Christ, duction of Christianity into the true Sun, displaying his. Britain to Chractacus, or Cha. glorious rays upon the whole rada, the Briton, who was taken world, in the latter end of Tiprisoner, A. D. 50, and carried berius Cæsar, as we are assur

ed, did first vouchsafe his rays celebrated by the poet Martini to this cold frozen island, situ- for her beauty and virtue, and ated at so vast a distance from who is by him described as the visible sun." It is also al- being both the wife of Pudens, leged that Eusebius says, that and a Briton. Martial, lib. v, some of the apostles passed epigram 13, and lib. xi, epiover the ocean, "to those which gram 54. are called the British Isles.” Aulus Plautius was goverTheodoret as expressly names nor in Britain, in A. D. 43. the Britons among the nations Caradoc was at Rome in 50, converted by the apostles, and and Claudia is mentioned by saith elsewhere, that St. Paul St. Paul in A. D. 65. Thus “brought salvation to the isl, while the gospel we know, was ands that lie in the ocean.” enlightening the Eastern naClemens Romanus saith, that tions of the world, it was also St. Paul "preached righteous. preached in the West. The ness through the whole world,” Sun of truth was pouring his and in so doing, "went to the beams with irresistible energy utmost bounds of the west.” upon every quarter of the Every one acquainted with an. world. cient writers, knows that this Though the Carthaginians embraced Britain.

I might and Tyrians had carried from swell this article with the opin- Spain prodigious quantities of ions of many learned moderns; silver, yet was it a very rich some supporting, and others country when it was subdued opposing, the opinion of the by the Romans. Originally, early dawn of Christianity on it seems to have been a much England and Spain. But I have richer country than ever South given the substance of the evi. America was.

Aristotle says, dence from antiquity, and every that when the Phænicians first reader will judge for himself. arrived in Spain, they ex

I only add, that another of changed their naval commodi. the first and most distinguish. ties for such immense quantied among the early Christian ties of silver, that their ships converts, was also an English could not contain it, so great woman. Claudia, the wife of was its bulk, nor support it, so Pudens, mentioned by St.Paul, vast was its weight, though 2 Tim. iv, 21, who is with good they used it for ballast, and reason thought to be the same formed their anchors of this Claudia, who has been so much precious mctal. The silver

was still as plenty as ever, when national sins; he is now, as it the Carthaginians arrived in were, giving them blood to Spain; their inhabitants, then, drink; and though their enemy made all the utensils, and is of all men among the most even their mangers of silver. wicked and impious, he is the The gleanings of the Romans scourge of God, and Spain may were by no means despicable; yet have a series of unheard of in nine years they carried off miseries to be endured. more than fifty tons of silver, Spain has a fine climate, ly. and two tons of gold, beside ing between lat. 36 and 44, an immense sum of coined north, with a population of money, and other things of 10,268,150 souls, though once value. Spain gradually apos- its inhabitants were reckoned tatized from the true faith, and at 20 or 30,000,000; but the became a pillar of the Roman persecutions, which have been church, a persecutor of Jews mentioned, with some other and Christians. In the eleventh causes, have reduced the councentury, about half a million try to its present desolate situJews endured the dismal hor. ation. rors of persecution. In the SPARTA, a city of Greece thirteenth century, more than mentioned in Maccabees; it lay two million Jews were banish- in the south-western province ed from Spain; at one time fif- of the Peloponnesus, called Lateen thousand were put to conja. It was also called Ladeath, merely because they re- cedemon, from the name of fused to receive baptism. In the country in which was is situ1492 a million more fled froin ated. Homer makes this disthis country to preserve their tinction, and calls the country lives, enduring a thousand un- holy, because it is encompass. describable miseries in their ed with mountains. This city precipitate flight. Within four was also called Hecatompolis years after the Court of Inqui- from the hundred cities which sition was established, six the country contained. Sparta thousand Christians were burn- was the capital of Laconia, sited for their faith in Jesus Christ; uate on the west side of the in no long time after, a hun- Eurotas. It was smaller in dred thousand Christians suf- compass, but superior in pow . fered the terrors of a merciless er to Athens. Polybius makes persecution. Bigland. it only six miles in circuit.

God punishes nations for The present or modern city is

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