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violence to them, which oblig- rives its name from Edon or ed them to fly to the neighbor- Esau, who there fixed bis habi. ing cities. St. Paul undertook tation. Or to be more exact, a second journey to Iconium, Idumea advanced into Judea in the year of Jesus Christ 51. on the south, and Arabia adA Christian church was planted vanced into Idumea on the and supported here for about north. Esau settled at first in 800 vears. Iconium was made the mountains of Seir, in the a Roman colony, probably by land belonging to the Horites, Adrian. The ravages of the Sar- to the south-east of the Dead acens and Turks reduced the Sea, and the Mediterranean. . Christians to a very low condi- The Idumeans or Edomites, tion. At present it is the most who were the posterity of Esau, distinguished place in Carama- had kings long before the Jews, nia, and the seat of an Ottoman Gen. xxxvi, 31. They were Beglerbey. It is surrounded first governed by dukes or by a strong wall, four miles in princes, and afterwards by extent, and fortified with one kings. They continued indehundred and cight noble tow. pendent to the time of David, ers, at equal distances, yet a when they were entirely conconsiderable portion of the city quered, 2 Sam. viii, 14, and lies waste. The inhabitants Isaac's prophecy, that Jacob are all Turks. Not a Jew, not should rule Esau completely a Christian may live within the accomplished. walls; but they reside in the Uzziah, king of Judah, took suburbs. The situation is de- from them the city of Elath, on lightful, on a spacious and fer- the Red Sea, 2 Kings xiv, 22. tile plain. The sheep are of But Rezin king of Syria retook the Syrian kind, the tails some- it from Uzziah, and drove out times weighing thirty pounds, the Jews. Some think that which
a light Esar-haddon, king of Syria, sledge, drawn by the sheep. ravaged their country, Isaiah Iconium is 110 miles from the xxi, 11, 12, 13, and xxxiv, 1. Mediterranean. Lat. 38, 27, Holofernes subdued them, as long. 33, 30. Folio Geog. of well as the other people, who Moll. vol. ii.
dwelt round about Judea. JuIDALAH, a city in the dish iii, 14. When Nebuchad. tribe of Zebulon, Josh. xix, 15. nezzar besieged Jerusalem, the
IDUMÆA, or Edom, a Idumæans joined him, and enprovince of Arabia, which de- couraged him, utterly to des
troy this city, and root up its IIM, a city in the tribe of very foundations. This cruelty Judah, Josh. xv, 29. did not continue long unpun
IJEABARIM, one of the ished. Nebuchadnezzar, five encampments of the Israelites years after the taking of Jerusa- in the land of Moab, after their lem, humbled all the states, departure out of Egypt, Num, which bordered upon Judea, xxi, 11. This place was east and in particular the Idume- from the land of Moab. ans, Judas Maccabeus attack. IJON, or HETHLON, a front ed and defeated them in seve. tier town of Canaan towards ral rencounters, but John Hyr- Damascus. canus entirely conquered them, ILLYRICUM, a province obliged them to receive cir- lying to the north-west of cumcision, and submit to oth. Macedonia, along the eastern er observances of the Jewish coast of the Adriatic gulf, or law. They continued subject gulf of Venice, being 480 miles to the later kings of Judea, till long, and 120 broad. It has the destruction of Jerusalem by Austria and part of Hungary the Romans. They even came north, Mysia or Servia east, to the assistance of this city part of Macedonia south. St. when besieged; and entered into Paul, Rom. xv, 19, says that it in order to defend it: they he preached the Gospel from did not however continue there Jerusalem round about to Il. till it was taken, but returned lyricum. So that he must into Idumea, loaded with have preached in Syria, Phoe. booty.
nicia, Arabia, Cilicia, PamWith respect to the religion philia, Pisidia, Lycaonia, Gal. of the Idumeans, it is thought atea, Pontus, Paphlagonia, probable, that in the beginning Phrygia, Troas, Asia, Caria, they adored the true God, the Lycia, Ionia, Lydia, the isles worship of whoin Esau learned of Cyprus and Crete, Thracia, in the house of his father Isaac. Macedonia, Thesalia, and A The Scripture does not re. chaia. It does not appear, proach the Idumeans with however, that Paul preached idolatry, nor does it any where in Illyricum; but travelled to mention their idols. Job, whom its borders. Paley. we suppose to belong to this The province of Illyricum country, and at least a part of was divided into two parts, Li, his particular friends, worship- burnia north, which is now ped the true God,
Croatia, and Dalmatia which still retains its name. In this ventured there for traffic and country are many Christians. Other purposes, as we know
INDIA, a country of Asia that many of them at that time mentioned in Scripture, Esth. had travelled to Africa and i, 1, &c. “Ahasuerus reigned Europe, where they were from India to Ethiopia.” This “dwellers.” Still the learned by very learned men is suppos. have not arrived at certainty, ed to refer to Hindostan rather or precision respecting India. than the present India. It has India, on its most enlarged also been supposed that this scale, in which the ancients country is referred to in Acts appear to have understood it, ii, 9, where among the enu. comprises an area of near forty meration of foreigners then degrees on each side, including at Jerusalem are mentioned, a space almost as large as all "Dwellers in Judea."
This Europe, being divided on the certainly is liable to some cor- west from Persia by the Ara. rection. Plausible reasons have chosian mountains, limited on 'been suggested for substituting the east by the Chinese part of India. It also deserves some the further peninsula, confined notice, that while the people on the north by the wilds of from Parthia, Media, &c. are Tartary, and south extending mentioned as natives or citi. to the isles of Java. This trazens of those countries, those pezium comprehends, there. of India and Mesopotamia are fore, the stupendous - hills of said to be "dwellers," or tem- Thibet, the beautiful valley of porary residents, as the people Cashmire, the domains of Ne. while at Jerusalem, attending paul, Asam, Siam, · Ava, and the religious festival, are called Racan. By India may be un"dwellers.” This suggests that derstood the whole of that a more remote and eastern country, where the primitive Mesopotamia is intended, than religion and languages of the the country between the Hindoos prevail at this day. Tigris and Euphrates; here This country has been inhabit. the Jews were settled and fixed. ed from the earliest antiquity But in the original Mesopota- by a people, who have no remia, referred to by St. Stephen, semblance, either in their fig. the country of Abraham, and in ure or manners with any of the India, it may well be supposed, nations contiguous to them; the Jews had no fixed settle. though different conquerors ments; yet numbers have ad. have established themselves at
different times, and in various uniting with others; while othparts of India; yet the aboriginal ers of them, it is thought, found in habitants have lost very little their way to Mexico and Peru, of their original character. Af- where rude traces of literature ter so frequent subjections to and mythologywere discovered, their conquerors, ' still their resembling those of Egypt and sources of wealth are abundant, India. These facts corroborate their manufactures of cotton Scripture prophecy. Noah fore. surpass all the world, and their told that the children of Ham features, probably, remain un. should be servants of servants. altered, and though now hum. Seventy millions of them in bled and debased, they for- India, not to mention the con. merly, it may be supposed, tinent of Africa, and the mil. were splendid in arts and arms, lions in America are subdued happy in their government, and and oppressed by one governs eminent in various knowledge. ment of Europe. Asiatic Researches, vol. i, page It is generally believed that 418-421.
Christianity was preached in The original population may India at a very early period. be generally considered as indi. Socrates, who wrote in the begenous,or in other words, pecul- ginning of the fifth century, iar to this country. Pinkerton. says that when the apostles had
India it is supposed was set. taken their different lots, that tled by Ham, a son of Noah, Bartholomew chose India; but or his posterity. See Asiatic the middle India, he remarks, Researches, vol. iii, page 490. was inhabited by barbarous naThe children of Ham, who tions and did not receive the founded in Iran or Persia, the gospel till the reign of Conmonarchy of the first Chaldeans, stantine, (book i, chap. xv.) invented letters, observed and But others ļassert with much named the luminaries of the assurance, that St. Thomas firmament, were dispersed at preached the gospel in India. various intervals, and in various In the Asiatic Researches, vol. colonies over land and ocean. X, page 69, it is asserted that The tribes of Misr, Cush, and Christianity at a very early peRama settled in Africa and In. riod, had made very great dia, while some of the family progress in the Peninsula. The passed into Greece and Italy, venerable Pantænus of Alex® supplanting part of the clans, andria visited India about the who had preceded them, and year 189, and there found
Christians, who had the gospel cated. Asiatic Researches, vol. of St. Matthew in Hebrew, x, p. 73. which he carried to Alexandria, When Vasco de Gama ara where it was known in the rived at Cochin, on the west of time of St. Jerome. In the Malabar, in the year 1503, he year 325, at the council of found Christian churches, and Nice; John the primate of In- a Christian king; since which dia, was present and subscribed little has been known respecthis name. In the sixth centu- ing the Christians of India, till ry there was a seminary for within a few years they have Christians at Serinda; in 636 been visited by the learned and two monks went thence to pious Dr. Buchanan, who asConstantinople. In the ninth sures us that more than two century Sighelm, bishop of hundred thousand Christians Shereburn, was sent to India now inhabit these countries, of hy Alfred in consequence of a pure morals, enjoying gospel vow. In the thirteenth cen- ordinances, and colleges for the tury, before the Portuguese education of their youth; but had visited the country, Marco as this interesting work is well Polo and others say, that Chris- known, I add no more. tians were numerous in India. IONIA. See Javan. I might have been more par
ISHMAELITES, a people ticular and mentioned Theoph- descended from Ishmael. See ilus, an Arian bishop, who e. Hagarenes and Arabians, for a rected churches in India about very particular account of this A.D. 354; also Marutha, a wonderful people. Hindoo bishop, who assisted ISLES OF THE GEN. at the Synod of Sides in Pam- TILES, the countries of Naphylia, A. D. 683, and that in tolia and Europe. It is evi522 there were churches and dent from several passages of priests, with the whole liturgy Scripture, that by the word in Ceylon, also on the Malabar which we have translated isle, coast, and in the north-west of the Hebrews understood not India. In these countries at only such countries, as are that time were a vast number on all sides surrounded by sea, of churches. The mission of but also such countries as St. Thomas to India, with the were separated from them by surprising progress of the water, or the lands to which Christian religion are, there. they went by water, Is. x1,10,11. fore facts sufficiently authenti. In the opinion of another