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writer, island imports settlement at first called Hebrews, being
or plantation, that is, a colony or descendants of Heber and final.
establishment in opposition to ly Jews. This name was also
a wild, unappropriated region. often appropriate to the ten
I shall add a few instances to tribes, who revolted, and elected
confirm this opinion, and show Jeroboam king, and for a long
that the sense would be im- period constituted a separate
proved by such a rendering of kingdom, independent of the
the word "By these were the kingdom of Judah, which
settlements of the Gentiles di- consisted of Judah and Benja-
vided in their lands.” The min. This division of the
sacred writer had just enume- tribes into two kingdoms took
rated countries, which were place about 847 years before
not isles, in any proper sense; Christ. While the kingdom
therefore, to call these isles of of Judah in a great degree
the Gentiles, must be improp: maintained their religion in
er, Job xxii, 30, “He shall de- purity, the Israelites, or the ten
liver the island of the innocent." tribes, abandoned themselves to
How much more just to read infidelity, rejected the rites and
settlement. Isaiah xlii, 15, I solemnities enjoined in revela-
will make the rivers islands, i.e. tion, and plunged into all the
on the rivers, I will plant colo- absurdities of paganism.
nies or settlements. Isaiah xii,

For their impiety they were 21; Wild beasts of the islands finally conquered, and carried 1. e. vernin of the plantations. into captivity, and have long I only add that the Oases of ceased, “to be reckoned among Africa, which are small dis. the nations.” In A. M. 3264, tricts of verdure and popula. which was about two hundred tion, surrounded by a desert of eighteen years after their resand, are called islands among volt from the house of David, the Arabs, even at this day. Tiglath-pileser took several No doubt such settlements or cities, and carried away capinsulated colonies, were by the tive the tribes of Reuben and Hebrews called islands, though Gad and the half tribe of Mathere was not a drop of water nasseh, who were more exposed near them.

to invasion, lying on the fronISRAELITES, a remarka- tiers of the country, east of the ble

people, descended from great river and lakes of the Israel or Jacob. They were country. Nineteen years after,

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A. M. 3283, and A. C. 721, signing to make that city, the Salmaneser took Samaria, the capital of his mighty empire, capital of the kingdom, after a and of the East, introduced siege of three years, and carri- there a multitude of captives, ed the other tribes, beyond the whom he had taken from dif. Euphrates. The general opin- ferent countries. Here the ion is, that these ten tribes have Jews established themselves never returned from this cap- and built them houses, as if tivity. We may better examthey had been in their own ine this for a moment after country; here they had Rulers mentioning the ruin brought of their own election, and were on the house of Judah.

In the governed by their own laws. year A. M. 3398, about 134 We see a proof of this, in the years after the final captivity story of Susanna, who was of Israel, the Lord gave Jelioi- tried and judged by the elders akim, king of Judah, into the of her own nation. In the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king year A. M. 3457, Cyrus perof Babylon. With the royal mitted the Jews to return to city, and its king, a part of the their own country, but they vessels, belonging to the tem- had no permission to rebuild ple, fell into the hands of the their temple, and their deliverconqueror. Daniel was among

Daniel was among ance was far from being comthe captives; they were carried plete. But in 3486, which “into the land of Shinar," or was twenty-nine years' after, Babylon. In A. M. 3401, in Darius by proclamation allow. the seventh year of Jehoiachim, ed them to rebuild the temple Nebuchadnezzar, again, carri- of Jerusalem. The Jews howed 3,023 Jews to Babylon. ever, assert that only the reAgain, five years after this, fuse of their nation returned Jehoiachim was king, he and from Babylon, that the chief a part of his people were sent men of Judah continued in, or to Babylon. Finally, in A.M. near Babylon, where they be3416, under Zedekiah, anoth

came very numerous. In the er conquest and captivity of Asiatic Researches, we learn, this people took place. From that a people have been recent this period begins the seventy ly discovered in the East, who years of captivity foretold by it is confidently believed are the prophet Jeremiah. The the lost ten tribes of Israel. Jews were now removed to These people are called AfBabylon; Nebuchadnezzar de. ghans. " lo Esdras xiii, 41–

47, we read, "that those ten Jewish origin. 2. The best tribes, who were carried pris- Persian historians, with whose oners out of their own land, empire they have always been took counsel among them. connected, assert the same. selves, that they would leave 3. A large district of their the multitude of the heathen, country is called Hazaret, and go forth into a further which may well be supposed to country, where never mankind be the same as Azareth. 4. dwelt, that they might there Their language is manifestly keep their statutes, which they of Hebrew origin. To these had never kept in their own we may add, as a distinct proof, land to that country it is a the names of their families are great way to go, namely of a denoted by those of the twelve year and a half, and the same patriarchs, Reuben, Judah, and region is called Arsareth.Simeon, &c.

The Afghans Accordingly, a considerable are numerous; they are fordistrict under the dominion of midable by their bravery and the Afghans is called Llazarehor, population. Dr. Buchanan Hazareth, which might: easily, speaks of them as a kingdom be formed from the word men of Jews. The ten tribes, saith tioned by Esdras. In addi- lie, so long lost, have at length tion to this, the Persian histo- been found. It has been suffi. rians assert that the Afghans ciently ascertained by the inare descendants of the Jews. vestigations of the learned in It is also declared, that though India, that the Afgan and Pythis people, as the Jews often ran nations consist of the Jews do, strive to conceal their ori- ish tribes. When I was in gin, their families are distin- the south of India, I asked the guished by the very names of Black Jews, where their breth. the Jewish tribes. Another ren the great body of the ten strong evidence is, their lan- tribes were to be found. They guage, of which I have seen a answered promptly, that they dictionary, says Mr. Vansittart, were to be found in the north, which has a manifest resem: in the regions adjacent to Chal. blance to the Cixldaic. Here dea, the very country into which are four distinct arguments, or they were first carried into separate proofs that the Af- captivity. On my return to ghans are of Jewish descent, if Calcutta, I prosecuted the inso, probably the lost ten tribes. quiry, under the advantages, 1. They have a tradition of a which my superintendance of

the College of Fort William tribes inhabit at this day the afforded me.

Sir W. Jones cities and mountains of the had recorded it as his opinion, Medes.” that the Afghans were Jews; "There is no room left for and referred to various author. doubt on this subject. Have ities. A further investigation we heard of any expedition of confirmed the judgment of this the Jews, "going forth from illustrious scholar. They are that country, since that period, recognized to be Jews by their like the Goths and Huns to countenance, by traditions, by conquer nations? Have we ever peculiar rites, and the obser- heard of their rising in insurvance of the Sabbath.

rection to burst the bands of Josephus, who wrote in the their captivity? To this day reign of Vespasian, recites a both Jews and Christians are speech made by king Agrippa generally in a state of captivity to the Jews, in which he exhorts in these despotic countries. them to submit to the Romans, :No family dares leave the king. and expostulates with them in dom without permission of the these words. “What, do you king; i stretch your hopes beyond the 'The tribes of the Afghan race river Euphrates? Do any of are very numerous, and of difyou think your fellow tribes ferent casts. They extend on will come to your aid out of both sides of the Indus, and inAdiabene? Besides, if they habit the mountainous region, would come, the Parthian will commencing in western Pernot permit it.” We learn from şia. They differ in language, this oration delivered to the customs, religion, and counteJews themselves, and by a king nance, and have little knowl. of the Jews, that the ten tribes edge of each other. Some were then captive. in Media, tribes have the countenance of under the Persian princes. the Persian, and some of the In the fifth century, Jerome, Hindoo; and some tribes are author of the Vulgate, treating evidently of Jewish extraction. of the dispersed Jews, in his Calculating then the num: notes upon Hosea, has these ber of Jews, who now inhabit words: “Unto this day the ten the provinces of ancient Chaltribes are subject to the kings dea or the contiguous countries, of the Persians, nor has their and who still profess Judaism,

ever been loosed,”. and the number of those, who and again he says, "the ten embrace Mahomedanism, or

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some form of it, in the same When this tribe left Egypt
regions; we may be satisfied, their soldiers were 54,400; in
that the greater part of the ten the wilderness they amounted
tribes, which now exist are to to 64,300; in the time of David
be found in the countries of they were 143,600.
their first captivity.”

judge, and Baasha the king, ISSACHAR. This tribe was were the most distinguished situated in one of the best ter. men, produced by this tribe. ritories of Canaan. It had the They were a laborious, wealthy, Mediterranean sea west,the Jor. and sober people. Two hundan, with a section of the sea of dred of their principal men at. Galilee east, the half tribe of tended at the coronation of Da. Manasseh lay south, the tribe vid, and brought much provi. of Zebulon north.

sion wi:h them. A number of Issachar,” said Jacob, “is them attended the solemn passa strong ass couching down be over of Hezekiah, 2 Chron. tween two burdens,' &c. But xxx, 18. This tribe inheritthe Chaldee gives another turned a fruitful soil, watered by the to this passage: “He shall sub- Jordan, the Kishon, and several due provinces, and make those other streams. Several celetributary to him, who shall re brated mountains were in this main in the land;” or as it is tribe, as Gilboa, Carmel, &c. in Dr. Clarke, "He saw his Here were also several famous portion that it was good, and the vallies, as Jezreel and Megiddo. land that it was fruitful, and he ITHNAN, a town of Judea, shall subdue the provinces of in the tribe of Judah. the people, and drive out their ITTAH-KAZIN, a town of inhabitants, and those, who are Canaan, in the tribe of Zebulon. left shall be his servants, and

ITALY, see Rome. bis tributaries." Grotius un ITUREA, a province of Sy. derstands the passage nearly in ria, between Damascus and the the same manner. In the song tribe of Manasseh, to the east of Deborah she commends this of the Batanea, and south of the tribe for their powerful assist- Trachonites. Philip, one of ance. “The princes of Issa. Herod's sons,was tetrarch of Ituchar were with Deborah.” In rea, when St. John the Baptist, Chronicles, they are said to be entered upon his ministry,Luke valiant men of might in all their iii, 1. This country was much families, and in all their gener- the same, as the kingdom of ations,” i.e. through the whole Bahan, it was an extensive tract, period of their history. and given to the half tribe of

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