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houses in a bad condition, in them a share of their food. It
which the laborers, who culti- is strictly forbidden to all Chris-
vate the gardens, shelter them. tians to take these fish, or even
selyes. The plain around is to frighten them. The Greeks
extremely fertile, and watered would infallibly excommunis
by several rivulets, which run cate the man who should trans-
into the Jordan; yet with all gress this order. The peasants
these advantages only the gar- resort here from their labors to
dens, which lie near the town eat their meals in the hot sea-
are cultivated. We saw here son, the fountain being shaded
abundance of trees, which bear by a large fig tree.
fruit as large as plums, the not for the shade of this tree,
stones are pounded, and yield the water would be too hot to
an oil, which is a kind of bal. be drunk.
sam, excellent for bruises, cold The brook of Elisha, says
humors, nervous contractions, Dr. Shaw, which flows from
and rheumatism. We visited the mountain of Quarantania,
the fountain of Elisha the pro. and waters the gardens of Jeri-
phet, which for ages has fur. cho with its plantation of plum
nished the gardens with water. trees and date trees, hath its
The head of these waters is en- banks adorned with several spe.
closed in a basin of triangular cies of brook-thyme, water-
figure, each side being about cresses, betony, and other a-
three fathoms long. It is lined quatic plants, resembling the
with hewn stone. There is an same in England.
orifice in one side, through

The situation of Jericho was which the water issues in a pleasant, which might tempt stream, large enough to turn a Hiel to encounter the danger mill

. It is said the water enters of building it, which circumthe basin through various ou stance might also induce the penings, but its depth prevents prophets to establish a Theolo.' an examination. We found in gical Seminary, or school of the this basin fishes of a middling prophets in this town. The size, and cray-fish, which are talmud of Jerusalem says, there so tame, that they come to the were twelve thousand priests edge of the bank, when they at Jericho to supply the temple • perceive any body sitting and at Jerusalem. A singular miseating there. The country fortune was, the place had no people have taught them this goud water, the ground was familiarity, by always giving barren. Elisha healed the was

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ters, since which the water has road. "A certain man went been sweet and refreshing, and down from Jerusalem to Jerithe grounds, which are water- cho, and fell among thieves," ed, have become fruitful. Jo. Luke x, 30. sephus says that in his time the

JERIMOTH, a city of Ju. country around was furnished dah, Josh. xv, 35.. with curious gardens, and thick

JERUSALEM, a very fagroves of palm trees, and that mous and ancient city, capital great quantities of balsam, the of Judea, now a province of choicest commodity of the Turkey in Asia. According to country, were produced there. Menetho, an Egyptian histoIn the last days of the Jewish rian, it was founded by the government this city was reck, shepherds, who invaded Egypt, oned next to Jerusalem. It had in an unknown period of an. splendid palaces and theatres, tiquity, probably while the Isand other magnificent build. raelites were there. Accord ings; here Herod the Great di- ing to Josephus, it was the caped. Mr. Volney says, it is ital of Melchisedeck's kingdom, now a ruinous village. Mr. called Salem in the book of Maundrell tells us, that now Genesis. And the Arabians Jericho is only a poor, dirty vil. assert, that it was built in honor lage, inhabited by Arabs. He of Melchisedeck by twelve was shown the house of Zac- neighboring kings; which he cheus, which is a square build- called Jerusalem. We know ing of stone, on the south side nothing of it with certainty, of the town.

that the however, till the time of king fountain, whose water was ren- David, who took it from the dered good by the prophet, is. Jebusites, and made it the capsues in great plenty, and is sep- ital of his kingdom. It was arated into small streams and first taken in the days of Jehoconduits, through the fields ash, by Hazael the king of which are by this measure, ren- Syria, who slew all their nobil. dered very productive. The ity, but did not destroy their country between this place and city. It was afterwards taken Jerusalem is a rocky desert, by Nebuchadnezzar, king of and anciently was much in Babylon, who destroyed it, and fested with robbers. This carried away the inhabitants. probably induced the Savior to Seventy years after, permission lay the scene of the good Sa- was granted by Cyrus king of maritan's benevolence on this Persia to the Jews, to rebuild

He says

their city, which was done, and who, accompanied by his son it continued the capital of Ju- Titus, and a powerful army, dea till the time of Vespasian, arrived in Syria, in the year emperor of Rome, by whose 67, of the Christian era.

Ves. son, Titus, it was totally de- pasian, soon after being chosen stroyed. Under the emperor emperor, sent orders to his son Tiberias, Pontius Pilate, being Titus, to continue the war a. president of Judea, for the Ro- gainst the Hebrews, who set mans, vur Lord and Savior out for Rome, where he arrived Jesus Christ, at the age of 33, amidst the acclamations of the Was condemned to death on the populace, in the year 70 of the false accusation of the Jews, Christian era. Jerusalem, at and crucified on mount Calva. this time, was torn by different ry, which was then without the contending factions, and a prey walls of the city. In the year to all the miseries of a civil 66, of the Christian era, and war, within in its own walls. the twelfth of the reign of Ne- Nothing was seen throughout ro, Gessius Florus, the procu- the whole city but slaughter, rator of Judea, had by his in- tumult, and murder; while justice and extortion, reduced patriotism was made a pretence that rich country to a misera. for committing every species ble condition; and adding cru- of atrocity. In this miserable elty to rapine, was the princi- state was the city of Jerusalem, pal cause of the Hebrews at- and all Judea, when, on the tempting to throw off the Ro- 14th of April, in the year 70, man yoke. Being declared Titus undertook the siege of rebels, they began to commit the former, having encamped every kind of iniquity. The at the distance of 7 stadia, or a Romans employed ihe severest mile from it. On the 4th of punishments, to reduce these May, Titus made himself inaspeople to obedience, but still ter of the first wall of Jerusawithout effect. Having attack- lem, and caused a great part of ed Cestus Gallus, the governor it towards the north to be de. of Syria, they obliged him to molished, Notwithstanding retire; and this success, inspir- this success, he offered very ed them with fresh hopes and favorable terins to the besieged, courage. The flames of war if they would submit; but his being thus kindled in Judea, offer was rejected. Five days Nerc intrusted the management after he took the second wall, of it, to his general Vespasian, from which, he was however

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repulsed; but in four days lem. In order to hasten the more, he regained and demol. capture of the city, he caused ished what remained of it in all the trees, which were within the northern quarter. Having the distance of some miles, from failed in his attempt, to batter Jerusalem, to be cut down, and down the third wall, Titus employed them in his machines made new proposals to the He- and military works. Having brews, through the medium of made every necessary disposiFlavius Josephus, who had tion for continuing his operabeen taken prisoner, and after tions with vigor, he applied his receiving his liberty, had at- battering rams to the third

ched himself to the Romans, wall, that is to say, the wall enand was with Titus in his en- closing the fortress, and made campment. The greater part himself master of the tower of the people were inclined to called Antonia. The Romans accept the easy conditions, pro- being desirous of getting pos- . posed them by Josephus, in session of the temple, without the name of the emperor, but destroying it, were obliged to being opposed by some zealots, sustain a fierce conflict in it. Josephus was treated with ev. But a soldier instigated by ery mark of indignity and re- some unknown motive, threw proach. After this behavior, a burning torch into the norththere remained no more mercyern part of it, where there was for the Hebrews. Titus caused a great quantity of combustible the hands of those who had vol. materials, by which means it untarily sought shelter in the was set on fire. This magnifiRoman camp to be cut off, and cent building, therefore was resent them back to the city, duced to ashes, and the Heand others were crucified in the brews, with great grief and sor. sight of their countrymen. row, saw a monument destroy Famine, in the mean time, be- ed which was the principal obgan to make dreadful havoc ject, that had animated their among the people. The effects hopes, and awakened their cour. of hunger were so great, that a age. In short, on the second noble lady called Mary, devour- of September, in the year 71 ed the flesh of her own son; of the Christian era, and the this action appeared so unnat. 2d of the reign of Vespasian, ural to Titus, that he swore he the city of Jerusalem, fell enwould bury the remembrance tirely into the hands of Titus. of it under the ruins of Jerusa- It was then given up to be plun

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dered by the soldiers, and most Hebrews, to destroy three towns
of its inhabitants were put left by Titus, for the con.
to the sword. According to venience of the Roman garri.
the order of Titus, the city was son, and to sow salt in the
destroyed to its foundations, ground, on which the place had
and even the ruins of the tem- stood. Whatever may have
ple were demolished. Josephus been the cause that induced
says, that the number of pris- Adrian, to make this devasta-
oners, taken during the whole tion, and to show so much re-
time of the war was 97,000; sentment, against the remains
and the number killed in the of a wretched nation, he fulfilled
city, during the same period, the prophecy of our Savior, who
amounted to 1,000,000; but foretold, that neither in the city,
Tacitus, who lived in the first nor the temple should ono
century, in the time of Vespa- stone be left upon another.
sian and Titus, heard it report- This, therefore, may be called
ed, that the number of the be- the final destruction of Jerusa.
sieged, including those of every lem, which took place forty-
age and sex, was only 600,000. seven years after that of Titus.
Notwithstanding the destruc. In the year 614, the Persians
tion of their country, a good came before Jerusalem, which
many Jews remained in it, and having fallen into their hands,
even in Jerusalem, or rather in was sacked and plundered.
new buildings, which they Ninety thousand Christians, of
erected amidst the ruins of the both sexes, and all ages and
city; but they now paid tribute conditions, were made slaves
to the Romans, and were en- in this war, and sold by the
tirely subject to their laws. Persians to the Jews; who con.
In the year 118, they attempt trary to the laws of humanity,
ed to rebel, but were soon butchered them in a cruel man-
overcome by Tinius Rufus, the ner. In the year 628, Jerusa-
Roman president in Palestine. lem was restored to the Em,
On account of the turbulent peror Heraclius, who banished
disposition of these people, all the Jews, and interdicted
Adrian, it appears, highly in- them from approaching within
censed at their conduct, resol- three miles of the city.
ved the same year to level the It was however, rebuilt by
city of Jerusalem with the Adrian; and seemed likely to
ground; that is to say, those have recovered its former gran-
new buildings, erected by the deur, being surrounded with

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