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Physicians and Massage.

occurred. There occurred three hemorrhages. The members of the medical profession The shortest duration of fever was twelve days; should bear in mind that they are themselves the longest, a case which relapst, forty-four exceedingly ignorant in what constitutes high- days. The average duration of fever was sixclass massage and remedial movements, few of teen and three-fourth days, counting from the them having learned the simplest rudiments of first day of the headache, malaise, etc., until mechanotherapy; and that consequently, they the temperature reacht normal. After that, in are rarely competent critics. In Europe this most of the cases, there was an evening rise for is not so. Again, in this country we have few one or two, and sometimes for five or six, of the thoroly trained masseurs, such as are days; which is the usual course under any graduated at the Swedish, Danish, and German high-class institutiors, where the course is two full years of nine or ten months each. Unfortunately, our local schools of massage turn out graduates after a three months' course, and even American aptitudes can become only superficial in the fundamental branches in so brief a training. Few are conscientious enuf to carry their studies to an adequate thoroness; yet a few do so and are then often better than the foreigners. The European masseur finds almost none of our physicians able to appreci• ate his skill, much less competent to direct him, hence the temptation is for him to practise on his own responsibility. Thereupon, in the minds of many, both of medical men and masseurs, there arises a bitter antagonism based on rivalry. This is not as it should be; they ought to work in harmony, each appreciating the special skill of the other.

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Two men, in no way associated, applied for work in massage recently, one a graduate of Dr. Clodhausen's Institute, in Copenhagen, and one of the Royal Institute for Gymnastics, in Stockholm. The first, after completing his two years' course in Denmark took a postgraduate course of a year in the Swedish School. On coming to America, each hearing of the marvels of osteopathy, which pretends to proceed on similar lines, but with a mystical quality of omniscience, determined to learn this "science." Each one took the full course at Kirksville, the school of Dr. Still and the fountain head of osteopathy, graduating in due course. They both assured me that they learned no facts of importance not already known to them. Such instances can be readily duplicated in the experience of others.-Dr. J. Madison Taylor, in New York Medical Journal.

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Castor Oil Treatment of Typhoid Fever.

I have already stated the thoro diagnosis of all the doubtful cases, Widal's test being made, and will now summarize the results in seventynine cases. In the majority of these cases no medicin except castor oil was given. All were given an abundance of pure drinking water. The diet was strictly liquid, generally milk, and sometimes predigested food. No deaths

treatment.

There were only four relapses. This was attributable, in part, to the continuation of the diet during convalescence; but it was attributable, more than anything else, to the fact that the castor oil was continued until long after the fever subsided, and the patient was safe from the likelihood of a relapse. As a rule, during convalescence from typhoid fever, there is more or less constipation, which is prevented by the continued use of the oil. There occurred, practically, no complications. The fact that the poisons were eliminated nearly as fast as generated, and that the patients were not doctored to death with useless and harmful drugs, is probably the reason there were no more complications, and that the cases generally ran a mild course. In almost every case the temperature was below 102° within two or three days after the treatment was begun In some cases the fever fell faster and went lower than it did in others. I have seen it fall from

the effects of one dose of oil three degrees in five hours, and again I have seen a single dose fail to reduce it at all; but I have always found that the temperature would promptly rise if the oil was withdrawn.

The method I think best is to begin promptly with a dose of pure castor oil every twelve hours, regardless of the stage of the disease. The dose should be so regulated as to cause one or two actions, and will vary from one to eight drachms, depending upon the patient, the stage of the disease and the condition of the bowels. This should be continued thru all stages of the disease.-Dr. C. C. Bass, of Columbia, Miss., in N. Y. Med. Jour.

The use of oliv oil in ulcer of the stomach as suggested by Waldo in Cent, fur innere Med., Nov. 8, 1902, is rational, and should be given a trial. It is said to reduce the acidity of the gastric juice, thus preventing further erosion; it quiets irritation, and acts gently on the bowels. It is given in desertspoonful doses, and the patient allowed to rinse the mouth with some aromatic mouth wash. The dose is gradually increast to fifty cubic centimeters; if this creates nausea, the oil is made into an emulsion and cautiously introduced thru the stomach tube. He reports a series of cases demonstrating the success of the treatment and believes it would also be efficient in duodenal ulcer. (We suggest the addition of a mildly healing antiseptic, and believe such a course would favorably influence gastro-intestinal catarrh and ulceration following prolonged diarrheal trouble.-Ed.)

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1. Give symptoms and treatment of pyemia and septicemia.

2. Describe any one of the dislocations of the shoulder-joint and the mode of reduction.

3. Describe the diagnostic symptoms and the surgical treatment of congenital inguinal hernia.

4. Describe the varieties and the treatment of fracture of the patella.

5. Give the etiology and symptoms of nasal polypi and describe the surgical treatment.

6. Describe the operation of ligation of the lingual artery.

7. Give the operativ treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremity.

8. Define necrosis and give the cause, symptoms, and treat

ment.

9. When and why is ether preferable to chloroform for anes

thesia.

10. Describe the surgical methods for the reestablishment of joint function in confirmed ankylosis.

OBSTETRICS.

1. Give the causes and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage.

2. Give the relations of the cephalic and pelvic diameters at three points during the birth of the head in an L. O. P. presentation.

3. In prolapse of the funis what are the dangers and how should you proceed to overcome them?

4. How would you prevent phlebitis in the puerperal period?

5. Give the rules for applying the forceps and describe the method of application in the R. O. A. position.

6. Cite the conditions requiring version.

7. Diagnosticate rupture of the body of the uterus during labor. 8. Diagnose pregnancy in the sixth month from phantom tumor. 9. What are the conditions justifying the induction of premature labor?

10. In what stages of labor is it improper to give ergot?

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"Or are you going to practise medicin? If your pa tients were all reasonable men and women, your task would be easy; but they are not. Even in their best estate they are not all reasonable men and women, and you will have to deal with them when they are not in their best estate, but are morbid.

"You will have to deal with patients who throw your medicin out of the window, and still expect you to cure them; in one house with a mother busy with other things and careless of the sick child; in another house with a mother whose weak and tearful sympathy does much to negativ the influence of your presence and the effect of your medicins.

"It is not enuf for you to know physiology and anat omy and therapeutics; not enuf for you to know what your medical school has told you; you must know men and women-their physical constitutions, their mental and moral constitutions.

"You must understand them-their life, their narrowness, their prejudices, their unreasonablenesses. You must see into them, that you may minister to them."-The Outlook.

Complete and Authentic Expose of the "Free
Electric Belt" Fake as Workt by the
Heidelberg Medical Institute
of St. Paul.

As indicated by the heading and the cut which is introduced on this page, our attention this week is given to a gang of fakirs who carry on an extensiv business thruout the states by means of the endless chain and follow up system of correspondence.

The Heidelberg Medical Institute, with head offices at St. Paul, Minn., pays large sums for the square yards of advertising space they occupy in the leading provincial dailies and fireside journals. The first advertisement reproduced by us is taken from a journal "Devoted to the Idealization of the Home."

We took the Heidelberg Medical Institute of St. Paul at their word when we made application for their Free Electric Belt, and it is only their word we have for stating that it is an institute capitalized at $100,000, and that it is giving away thousands of its great Electro-Chemic belts to prove and advertise their wonderful curing power, and that it recently restored 18,976 ailing men to vim, vigor, health and happiness.

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There is practically no beginning and no end to the circle of diseases which this belt can cure. It embraces and 'quickly cures" rheumatism, lumbago, lame back, nervous exhaustion, varicocele, failing vitality, kidney, liver and stomach trouble, female weakness, and many other ailments," and this charitable institute, incorporated for the physical welfare of the weak and decrepit, declares that they give this belt away "absolutely free to all those who need the one great curativ agent, Electricity." "Remember," they state, "the belt is not sent on trial, but is yours to keep forever without the payment of one cent. So write to-day for the great Electro-Chemic Belt, Free. Address Dept. 5, Heidelberg Medical Institute, St. Paul, Minn."

after examining our case, they thought it a curable one, they would immediately "forward the New ElectroChemic Belt without one cent of cost to us." They would do this, because they knew it was without doubt one of the best belts ever manufactured, and that their gift was for advertising purposes only, knowing that for every Electro-Chemic Belt they gave away they would be able to sell twelve in our locality, and that after that their belts would be put on the market for sale at $28.00 each. All this in an imitation typewritten letter which is run off on the neostyle or mimeograph machine at the rate of about 1,000 a minute.

We wrote in due course and this is how they tried to work us. They acknowledged the receipt of our application for their electric gift. They went on to express what happiness it would afford them to send us the belt absolutely free of charge, if we in turn would do them the small service of taking them sacredly into our confidence and fill out their diagnosis sheet, which they enclosed, and return it at once. They stated that if,

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We returned the diagnosis sheet without delay. We were as promptly favored with a further letter of over 900 words of the usual stereotyped gag of which the fake medical institute is parent. They told us that the diagnosis sheet had received their "careful attention," and that our case had been given a most thoro" examination, and that they found us suffering from a frightful complication of troubles, which were the direct results of causes which they knew all about and understood. They imprest upon us that we allowed our ailments" to advance to such a severe stage that ordinary or common treatment would be of no avail."

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So hopelessly wreckt did they diagnose us that it was their conviction that none but the most skilled specialists should attempt treatment of us, and that it was their "Electro Medical treatment we should have by all means." No ray or spark of hope lay in any other treatment. It would act directly upon our entire system and give us new life and strength.

In this letter-another stock-printed effusion, with spaces at intervals to stick the name of prospectiv victims in for the purpose of gulling poor fools into the impression that a letter was written specially to meet the requirements of each individual case-they were pathetically sorry for us-for us, mentioning our names and appealing to us directly. They took paternal interest in us the moment they examined the diagnosis sheet. They addrest us now confidentially. It was no business, or commercial, or skin game. They had our name and case already fixt indelibly in their philanthropic minds. But the sad thing about us was that they found us to be in such a deplorable condition that No Electric Belt could cure us without being used in conjunction with proper medicin." Notice how the veil was gradually lifted. Electricity was all

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very fine in its way and, indeed, it would perform wonders if properly applied; but there was a limit to it, as there must be to faking and to all things else. In our case, per exemplum, their Electro-Chemic Belt would not rid us of our complications without the assistance of medicin properly taken and applied, but what the Electro Belt, given away absolutely free by the Heidelberg Medical Institute of St. Paul, would do for us, no other electric belt in the world could accomplish. They were not backing out of their promises in the newspaper, undertaking to send us one of the ElectroChemic Belts free of all charges and without the cost of a single cent to us. No! they would keep their promise as honorable men. They were not incorporated for the purpose of swindling and faking. They had a capital of $100,000, and their already long list of 18,976 ailing men, recently restored by them to vim, vigor and happiness, was a sufficient and noble reward for their self-sacrificing interest in humanity. They repeated that "Besides electricity our case required a special course of medicin, for the Body Battery, without this special treatment, could not effect a cure." They, of course, promist to send us their belt, and they promist to present it to us as a free and irrevocable gift. But, like everybody else who makes a promise, they had reserved to themselves the privilege of waiving, or modifying, or breaking it altogether. From their careful and correct diagnosis of our physical collapse it was apparent to them that the ElectroChemic Belt could not, per se, effect a cure. It would now be "absolute folly" to essay our cure by electricity alone in our advanced stage of disease. As a matter of fact, they could not thus help us, nor could they afford to take chances, for a single failure would bring opprobrium upon them and dim the fair name of the Heidelberg Medical Institute of St. Paul and eventually switch them off the market as a group of deceiving

fakirs.

However, our case was an exceptional and special one. They appreciated our promptness and frankness in filling out and returning their diagnosis sheet. They appreciated this, and would carry out their promise to the spirit and the letter, and were sending us their belt free. They were, in addition, sending us a special course of medicin for internal use and external application. This they prepared specially for us, and it must be taken and used while wearing the belt. Their regular charge for this medicin, which would carry us over about two months, was $20.00, but we were so prompt and frank in taking advantage of their generosity that they decided to let us have it, the whole business, belt thrown in, for a mere song-not for the $20.00 they regularly charged others, but for $5.98. The $5.98 scarcely paid for the labels on the bottles; the belt alone was worth $28.00. This did not matter. Their desire was to cure us, and they did not mind losing

over it.

They were sending the box containing the belt, and the medicin-to take on the side-by express. They knew how sensitiv we were about anybody suspecting we were under treatment. It was only natural

we should be so, but long experience and unbounded tact enabled them to devise a way out of this difficulty, They would send the parcel carefully packt and labeled as it it came, not from the Heidelberg Medical Institute, but from a friend named Franklin, who, for aught anybody might know, could be a personal pal out in Minnesota. Nobody could thus suspect the contents of this package, and even tho it passed thru the hands of the curious they would not be one whit the wiser. It was already, in fact, at the express office at our end, so all we had to do was to drop in and examin it carefully and take it home. We were in immediate need of the treatment, and as they wisht us to be rid of our disagreeable symptoms at once they decided that no time must be wasted. This was why they took the kindly liberty of sending us the package so quickly. Thev urged us to go right ahead and win-not to worry about payment; there was no hurry about that. Call for the free belt, anyhow, at the express office; call for it at Adams' and pay for the medicin when we conscientiously felt we were cured. It would cost us nothing for the belt, of course. They would keep their promise. The only condition they would impose on us in the matter would be an expression of our gratitude and appreciation by acknowledging in a letter how they cured us and how honorably we had been dealt with by them.

Now, let us analyze their honesty and their honor. It is a very easy task, for you will find that the virtues of this and all similar concerns do not include either one or the other.

This belt was advertised and offered us free of all cost in the first instance. Then the veil was lifted. The merits of the belt were ingeniously relegated to second place and all importance given to a special course of medicin, of which, "after mature and care ful consideration," they found us to be in real and urgent need. They sought to inveigle us into this trap by insinuating that the $28.00 belt was being given us free, and that we were askt to pay only for the two months' course of medicin, and to report progress occasionally, so that more medicin, and more still, might be forwarded to us at the usual rates, and in the usual discreet manner. They offered this at $5.98not $6.00, but at two cents less than $6.00. The price was cut down to the cost of manufacture, and no margin left for profit. They did not seek profit. The more they thought of us, or rather, the longer we kept them waiting, the more hopeful they grew. They now felt sure that instead of 12 they would be able to sell 20 belts at from $20.00 to $28.00 in our locality, as soon as our cure was completed. This bait did not work. They could not understand us. They pointed out how "fair" and "honest" they had been with us so far. Why, therefore, did we let such a trifling sum as $5.98 stand between us and speedy cure. They would now let us have the whole outfit, bottles and belt for $4.65; they would knock off $1.33. Surely, we now had no

excuse.

But we had. We decided to play the game out. We delayed still further, and ignored their letters-the

same style of stock-printed letters right thru, with the usual provision for our name, which was introduced at critical periods in the body of the letter to give it the semblance of good faith and genuinness.

They were now prepared to lose further in order to induce us to take immediate steps to prevent our untimely death. They would charge us now, not $5.98, as originally demanded, but $3.60! Just think of it! A two months' course of medicin for internal and external use, and a $28.00 Electro-Chemic Belt, all for $3.60. This they assured us was their last offer.

This offer," they said, "is final-it is our last offer." But we were not wrong in assuming that it was not their "last offer."

We have been four times approacht by an emissary from the Express company's office, offering the case for $2.90. But we have also declined this offer, which we feel sure is not their bottom price. We declined this, and we have now told them, politely, to give us up as hopeless.

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It has come to our turn now to endeavor to light the ignorant and the unwary out of the darkness into which hordes of unscrupulous harpies of this class inveigle those broken down in health, who are always too credulous and always too ready to be influenced by the flamboyant, stereotyped twaddle which these electric belt and patent medicin institutes introduce into their advertisements, circulars and "follow up system" of correspondence.

As for the belts themselves. We have known cases where the source of the "static current" was little pads of cayenne pepper, and also pads of mustard, which generated, not electricity, but painfully raw blisters when perspiration from the body came in contact with the pepper or the mustard.-GERALD KEATING, in Physical Culture for June, 1903.

After the above article was set up, another communication came to the writer's hands, offering the belt and medicin for 98 cents!

[The above has been in type for a number of months, but has been crowded out month after month until now.-ED. M. W.]

RECENT BOOKS

The Story of New Zealand. By Frank Parsons, Ph.D., Director of Department of History in the Bureau of Research, Washington, D. C.; Lecturer in Boston University School of Law, etc. Edited and publisht by Dr. C. F. Taylor, Editor of THE MEDICAL WORLD, Member American Academy Political and Social Science, American Medical Association, etc. 1520 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Pa. $3.

This is indeed a great book; great in its conception and ideals, and great in its complete fulfillment.

New Zealand is a country about which there is at present a great deal of interest in the minds of the people of the world at large. This book is just the one to supply all one desires to know about this beautiful, wonderful and progressiv country. The natural beauties and wonders of New Zealand excel those of any other country on the face of the globe. In the small space of about twice the size of our New England States we have mountains grander than the Alps, deep fiords equal to those of Norway, hot springs and geysers equal to those of the United States, a climate more equable than that of California, the blue skies of Italy, vegetation green the year around, beautiful

rivers, cascades, glaciers-the whole cosmos of natural beauty and grandeur of scenry in a few days' travel. This book sets it all forth in text and illustration. The country possesses a nativ population of fine physical perfection and intellectual vigor. This book describes them and gives the history of their gradual change under the influence of a still stronger race-the hardy English and Scotch-who sought there a broader freedom than they could obtain at home or in any nation of long establisht precedents of socalled vested rights." This brings us up to the great value of this book-the history and full details of the political and industrial emancipation of an intelligent people, making them in the broadest sense free, prosperous and happy. The industrial evolution which began in 1870 and the political revolution which began in 1890 have lessons of great interest and value to citizens of other republics-for despite the fact of the slender tie that binds New Zealand with Great Britain, it is today the freest and most advanced republic on the face of the globe. Every citizen of the United States, and especially every young citizen, should read this book. Doctor, see that copies are secured at once for all the libraries you have access to. A philanthropist would do more good to his fellow-man by presenting copies of this book than by building monuments or endowing hospitals, scholarships or colleges.

[The above review is clipt from the February issue of The Medical Council, and it approaches nearer to "the perfect book review" than any review of any book we ever saw. We thank our contemporary, sincerely.-ED.]

The American Year-Book of Medicin and Surgery for 1904. A Yearly Digest of Scientific Progress and Authoritativ Opinion in all branches of Medicin and Surgery, drawn from journals, monographs, and text-books of the leading American and foreign authors and investigators. Arranged, with critical editorial comments, by eminent American specialists, under the editorial charge of George M. Gould, A. M., M.D. In two volumes. Volume I, including General Medicin. Octavo, 673 pages, fully illustrated; Volume II, General Surgery. Octavo, 685 pages, fully illustrated. Philadelphia, New York, London: W. B. Saunders & Co., 1904. Per volume: Cloth, $3 net; half morocco, $3.75 net.

This work is one of the best of its class. We know of no other which will so well enable the man with a limited library to keep abreast of the rapid strides in medicin.-A. L. R.

Dr. Joseph Leidy. A portrait etcht by James S. King, of Newark, N. J. Engraved surface is 131⁄2 x 16 inches. Edition is limited to 150 copies. Printed on imperial Japan vellum, and signed by the artist. Publisht by William J. Campbell, 1218 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Pa., 1904. Price $15.

Truly a superb work of art; one of the finest portraitures we have ever seen. It is fit to grace any office or home, and will prove its possessor to be one of taste and judgment. The limited edition, with the author's autograph, will be exhausted early. Few medical men were more appreciated than Doctor Leidy, and it is with the greatest satisfaction that we realize that so magnificent a monument to so great a man is now within reach of his friends. The etching is carefully packt, and will reach any destination safely. We commend it to all friends of the Doctor as being all that could be desired in the way of an etching.

A Few Comments on Our New Zealand Book.

"Whatever interpretation may be drawn from New Zealand's example, the record of her struggle and the showing of results made in this work are most valuable and interesting, and The Story of New Zealand' is bound to have a wide and far-reaching influence upon those who would apply the lessons to our own country."-Philadelphia Public Ledger, January 31, 1904.

The subject, the wonderful progress of New Zealand, is one of which we know too little. I emphatically confess that if we possest a knowledge that can be obtained by reading this work so splendidly written, we would be better citizens, and our education would be

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