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become numerous, it will be hard work to give each, and brought five cents each in New each the attention absolutely necessary, much Orleans. Plant that farm with peaches and less what you would like to give them. And other fruit trees, and let them grow up while it then is the time for you to take an assistant, and is used for pasture; and in time a second crop start him in the same way of doing thoro work. would be afforded.

I see in the papers that there is another The price mentioned for land is not unusual. great rush for lands where the Government is There is plenty to be had at any price from opening a small Indian reservation. About two bits an acre up to $250. 50,000 people are struggling and fighting, How about doctors ? I think there are enuf murdering, to get possession of homesteads there for the income-half the present populaenuf to supply one twentieth of that number. tion of the South is not to be counted on as Do you ever think how much the prosperity of able and willing to pay, so that the allowance our country has depended on that homestead of thirteen white and three colored doctors for law, and how scarce suitable land has become ? Baton Rogue, with 15,000 inhabitants, is not We used to sing in school that “Uncle Sam is to be lookt upon as too little. But as the rich enuf to give us all a farm." But the country attracts immigration there will be boundless West has had its bounds set, it is room for many more doctors. And if there is full, and there remain only the dry lands that any prejudice against northern men there now, require capital in large masses to establish it kept carefully out of our sight. We found irrigation plants. And so we are losing hun- the couotry and people very much to our dreds of thousands of our farmers to Canada. liking. But in the South there are millions of acres of Snap Shots at the May WORLD'S Quiz Department. good land still available for the homesteader ; Dr. Taylor, page 212, should examin his cotton and timber land open for entry. Why pneumonia patient's sputa for tubercle. Give is it neglected? The state of things described mercury and arsenic iodids, iodoform and by Tourgee, in his “ Fool's Errand," no phytolaccin, steadily, and you will find one of longer exists, if it ever did exist. The South the most powerful and effectiv absorbent comwelcomes the northern immigrant; it seeks to binations ever put together. attract him, and gives him a hearty welcome. “ Mich.'s" thyroid case, page 213, will imIt is no longer considered disgraceful for a prove if he stimulates the menstrual flow, not white man to work there at any decent occupa- otherwise. Give sanguinarin, three granules tion. Mechanics get big wages and have four times a day; alternate weekly with same plenty of work. Lands are easily obtained, by dose of senecin ; activ emmenagogs at periods. lease or purchase at easy terms.

“Dysmenorrhea," page 213. It will do no tunities for investment of small sums harm to paint the lacerations with tinct, benplentiful—the South presents numberless open- zoin. ings for business. Take this example: In our Gallstones (page 213):-After failing with all trip down the Mississippi and residence in ordinary remedies for this, we have used soda Louisiana and Mississippi this past winter, we succinate for twenty years with few failures. never once got as much milk as we needed- Give it with boldin and chelidonin ; and treat not at a price below ten cents a quart. They use paroxysms with hyoscyamin, gloroin, strychnin Holsteins, because they give so much milk. arsenate and dioscorein, aided by hot enemas. We askt one man why he did not get some Keep them up for a year and cure your cases. cows that gave richer milk, like the Alderneys ; If there is a specific for albuminuria (page but he askt why he should, when he could sell 214) it is arbutin, that priceless medicament all the poor thin milk he could supply at the rescued by the alkaloidists from its enveloping above price.

masses of tannin in the crude drugs. Give Do cattle thrive there? A bunch of fat cattle one to ten grains a day, with suitable dietsent from Louisiana to Chicago a few months and watch the steady improvement. ago made a sensation by their high quality. Dilation of the veins (page 216) may be Are they expensiv to feed ? A field of alfalfa relieved by hamamelin and hydrastin, taken opposit Baton Rouge was cut eight times last for long periods, if care is taken to avoid the year; and plowing goes on the year round in causes of relaxation, such as the excessiv use Louisiana.

of fluids and an idle luxurious life. · Beer We made a calculation that a forty acre drinkers are incurable. Ice-water swillers farm a mile from Baton Rouge-offered with ditto. buildings for $4,000-could be bought and Dr. McCall's eye pain (page 217) may indistockt with Alderneys for $5,000, and that it cate accommodativ imperfection and strain, or would pay a gross income of that much every uric acid storms, or malaria-brow ague. This year. We saw peach trees blooming in Feb- is a very nice case for study and investigation, ruary, whose fruit weighed thirteen ounces but the data are not given here. However,

The oppor

are

this part.

the great alkalometric, antispasmodic triad - mal may be had without injury, providing this hyoscyamin, glonoin and strychnin arsenate- position be not too long maintained.

For a will relieve. Possibly the eye may be the certain degree of abnormality of position the place of lowest resistance, in which autotox- body has compensated by elasticity, anastoemia shows its effects.

mosis, and lubrication of tissues. This degree WILLIAM F. Waugh, M.D. of compensated subluxation we speak of as Chicago, Ill.

normal motion. This normal motion if re[Read in “ The Story of New Zealand how tained for an abnormal degree of time becomes that country disposes of its public lands; par- abnormal. Who has not awakened with “a ticularly read contrasts between their system crick in his neck" from lying too long in an and ours on page 699. Let me add this abnormal position. A few moments of such a remark: If any World subscriber purchases position would have produced no such results. “ The Story of New Zealand," and is dissatis- The condition resulted more from an abnormal fied with his investment after reading the book, degree of time than of motion. By excess of we will return the purchase price upon return time the normal becomes abnormal

- the of the book in good condition, and receipt of physiological becomes pathological. a written statement to the above effect. -- ED.] Most of the subluxations that we as osteo

paths find are abnormalities of time rather than Osteopathy :-Subluxation of Bony Tissues

of position, and as such are usually more comand Their Relation to Disease.

mon and more pronounced in the direction of

the freest motion of the joint involved. These No. 2.

osseous lesions like those of the softer strucThe consideration of sensitiv areas along the tures are more common and more important spine, as well as muscular and ligamentous along the spine, tho by no means confined to lesions when accompanied by soreness, together with the cause and effect of these con- The spine as a whole is an elastic structure ditions, brings us to the point where we may composed of bony segments between which intelligently consider subluxation of bony tis- are interposed elastic cartilaginous discs. sues and the relation of such to disease These bony segments are held together by ligaprocess.

ments, muscles, and other soft tissues, the The existence and importance of such elasticity of which allows no small amount of lesions, which is a fundamental teaching of normal motion between the articular surfaces. osteopathy, may at first thought appear unrea- The degree and direction of this motion is sonable; but a little meditation and study of limited by bony processes and softer structures the skeleton from the living and the dead sub- which also, in a measure, prevent dislocation. ject will convince anyone that such lesions can This spinal column is not a straight structure. and do exist, and that they demand considera- It has, normally, posterior dorsal and sacral tion and treatment.

curves, and compensatory anterior curves in Let us first understand what the osteopath the cervical and lumbar regions. The motion means by a subluxation. A subluxation is allowed normally between the vertebrae differs usually defined as a partial or incomplete dislo- in degree and direction in different parts of cation. While this is true it does not always the spinal column. Flexion, extension, lateral convey the same idea to all physicians. Every

Every flexion and rotation are permitted in all parts movable articular surface has some position in of the spinal column; the lateral flexion in which the muscles, ligaments, blood vessels, the dorsal and rotation in the lumbar regions nerves, synovial membrane and other tissues are but slight. Accordingly any vertebrae may connected therewith are free from abnormal be deviated and retained (or subluxated) in tension, pressure, and irritation. This posi- any of these positions. The effect upon the tion, which the joint may maintain for a long contour of the spinal column will depend upon period of time without injury to the part, may the degree and direction of the subluxations be considered its normal position. All the and the number of vertebrae involved. various positions from the slightest deviation Hyper-extension of the vertebrae in the from this normal to the point of complete dis- upper dorsal region reduces or obliterates the location are but varying degrees of subluxations. normal posterior curve in that region, giving Any deviation from this normal position will rise to the “flat upper dorsal ; associated produce tension, pressure and irritation of the with this there is a corresponding decrease of tissues involved. Such deviations are therefore the compensatory anterior curves in the lumbar limited both as to degree of motion possible, and cervical regions, producing a • straight and degree of time that this motion may be spine." This condition causes an approximamaintained without serious damage to the part. tion of the spines in the dorsal region and Within certain limits deviation from the nor- separation of them in the cervical and lumbar regions. An increast posterior dorsal curve a degree of deviation directly anterior may produces the opposit condition in these regions. be obtained, especially in the cervical and Two or more vertebrae may be thus involved dorsal regions. Again a vertebra may be rowithout affecting the others. Approximation tated laterally on the one below it on an axis of two spines necessitates increast motion of corresponding to either of its articular procthe articulations above or below, resulting fre- esses. This subluxation necessitates a lateroquently in separation of the spine at these posterior motion between the bodies of the points. These breaks are particularly liable to vertebrae which does not normally exist, and is occur between the twelfth dorsal and the first only possible owing to the elasticity of the lumbar and between the fifth lumbar and the intervertebral cartilage. Such rotation can sacrum. The depression or elevation of an occur only toward the side opposit the articuindividual spine, particularly in the dorsal lar process around which such rotation takes region, may give the appearance of an anterior place. These three latter varieties of subluxaor posterior subluxation of that vertebra if we tion being deviations in directions other than judge alone from the spinous processes.

that of normal motion, are subluxations of deLateral flexion of the spine produces scoli- gree as well as of time. osis if it involves a sufficient number of the Another spinal lesion frequently found vertebrae, and may or may not have a compen- subnormal mobility between two or more satory curve in the opposit direction in other vertebrae. This condition is due to the conparts of the spine. In this condition there is traction, inelasticity, and increase of tissues an approximation of the transverse processes connected with the articulation-a sort of of the vertebra on the concave side, and a fibrous ankylosis resulting, which partially or separation of them on the convex side. This completely prevents mobility of the parts. lateral subluxation may also involve as few as This condition may or may not coexist with two vertebrae, giving somewhat the appearance the subluxations previously described. of vertebrae slightly rotated, judging from the The articulation between the atlas and occispine alone, which is due to the approximation put deserves special consideration. This of the transverse processes on one side and a vertebra having no body, articulates only by separation of those on the opposit side. the articular processes. The motion allowed

Rotation of the spinal column as a whole is in this articulation is according to Morris, produced by slightly rotating each vertebra ginglymoid, directly lateral and anteroupon the one next below. This produces a posterior; consequently the occiput may be lateral deviation of the spinous process of each subluxated in any of these directions. The vertebrae and an anterior deviation of the character and position of this articulation transverse process on that side away from which makes it especially liable to such deviations. the vertebrae are rotated, and a posterior This with the close proximity of its transverse prominence of the transverse process on the processes to the important nerves and vessels other side. One or more vertebrae may partake passing thru the jugular foramen, as well as its of this same motion, in which case its spine relation to the vertebral arteries and the first and transverse processes will assume the posi- spinal nerve, makes subluxations at this point tion as given above. These rotary lesions are both far reaching and important in their

common in the cervical and dorsal effects. Subluxations of the fifth lumbar region. Only very slight rotation of the last vertebra on the sacrum are also especially fretwo dorsal and lumbar vertebrae is possible, quent and important. Such lesions make owing to the positions of the articular proc- chronic invalids of many women and cause esses. Subluxations, like normal motion, may sexual organs to be sacrificed on the altar of be in only one direction or may combine two surgery. The coccyx too may be subluxated or more; e. g., a vertebra may be rotated and anteriorly or laterally. flext both anteriorly and laterally at the same The pressure, tension and irritation resulting time. Vertebrae retained in positions of nor- from the prolonged retention of an articulamal motion are the most common subluxations tion in an abnormal position produce sympwith which we have to deal, tho there are toms of local temperature, tenderness, conother subluxations of vertebrae which are of a tractions, and pain; such symptoms in fact as different character. A vertebra may be sub- Hammond and others have described as charluxated posteriorly upon the vertebra below acteristic of spinal irritation. Vertebral without partaking of the normal motion of the subluxations are sometimes found in which no articulation. This is true of all the vertebrae soreness is present. Such lesions are probably excepting the atlas, which is prevented of long standing, and by its marvelous powers from such posterior deviation by the odon- of adaptability the body has readjusted the toid process of the axis. By abnormal parts so that the new condition is as nearly separation of the vertebrae or their spines normal as possible with the subluxation still remaining. A similar process is observed even to scoliosis. Contractions of the rotawhen an unreduced dislocation of the head of tore spina will produce rotation of the vertebra the femur forms for itself a new socket and to which it is attacht. Bilateral contractions acquires a degree of normal function with a will produce rigidity or approximation of two decrease of subjectiv symptoms.

more

or more vertebrae, and by so doing may change These bony subluxations and the coexisting the general contour of the spinal column. lesions of the associated softer tissues may Such contractures in the lumbar region by produce pathological conditions elsewhere by approximating the posterior edges of the verdirect mechanical obstruction and irritation to tebrae will produce lordosis. Similar condithe blood and nerve supply, or the local tions in the upper dorsal region will lessen or pathology may reflexly produce similar condi- obliterate the normal posterior curve in that tions. Such pressure and irritation may area producing a “flat upper dorsal” which stimulate, inhibit, or otherwise modify the decreases the capacity of the chest and often activity of the parts affected ; or a primary gives rise to a long train of systemic disturbstimulation

may be followed by exhaustion or ances. The result of contractures along the paresis from over stimulation, the result vary- spine resolves itself into a matter of mechanics, ing with the nature and intensity of the pres- the condition produced being but the result of sure or irritation. Pressure upon a nerve may the totality of the forces acting. be sufficient only to obstruct the free circula- Dorsal and lumbar vertebral deviations can tion of the nutrient fluids within the nerve frequently be seen, if the subject is not too fat, sheath, and yet by such may produce far by having him sit upon a stool with bare back reaching effects.

curved posteriorly and shoulders drawn well Subluxation wherever found produces ten- forward, thus bringing the spines prominently sion, pressure and irritation both intra- and into view. If there is much muscular or extra-articular; but aside from this local adipose tissue, inspection will show little and pathology, vertebral subluxations are particu- resort must be had to palpation. Subluxations larly injurious from the number and impor- in the cervical region cannot be inspected. tance of the nerves and vessels subject to With patient on his back and the neck thoroly involvement. Approximation or rotation of a relaxt, the anterior, lateral, and posterior survertebra, especially in the dorsal region, faces of the transverse processes may readily decreases the size of the intervertebral fora- be felt. mina, causing irritation of and pressure upon

The general origin and distribution of the important structures found therein ; viz. : nerves with tissues affected by lesions of certain The anterior spinal nerve roots, the posterior centers will be considered in my next article, spinal nerve roots, and their ganglia, the recur- as also lesions and subluxations other than rent nerves, sympathetic fibers, and blood

fibers, and blood spinal that are productiv of disease. vessels. The cord itself may be affected and Peoria, Ill. W. A. HINCKLE, M.D. systemic disturbances, apparently much out of

(To be continued.) proportion to the cause, may result, from such lesions irritating and obstructing the afferent

Please understand clearly that we freely and recurrent nerve fibers and the blood vessels passing thru these foramina.

admit that Dr. J. J. Lawrence, of the Medical

Brief, has as good a right as anybody to make, The causes of these lesions are numerous. Trauma, which Hammond credited with being

advertise, and sell proprietary medicins; and the chief etiological factor in producing spinal with the Listerine people, Battle and Co., and

any business connection that he may have irritation, plays a very important role here. It is surprising how many troubles, especially body's business whatever, except his own and

any other business concern whatever, is nochronic ones, can be traced directly to strains, those immediately concerned." But when he falls, blows, etc. Faulty position is also a factor. Many of these subluxations are un

persists in pushing proprietary medicins to the

medical profession in an unethical, unjournaldoubtedly secondary to lesions of the softer tissues. We have shown how unilateral afferent it becomes the business of the medical profes

istic, unbecoming, and objectionable manner, impulses, unless of great intensity, beget uni- sion and of the journalistic profession. lateral contractures, relaxations and other secondary lesions along the spine and else. where. Such unilateral contractions or relaxa- American Medical Editors' Association. tions from this or any other cause exerts an The annual meeting of this Association will be held

in the parlors of the Hotel Dennis, Atlantic City, N. influence upon the osseous tissue which may

J., at 2 P. M., June 6th. A most interesting program result in subluxations. Contractures of the has been prepared, and many instructiv papers upon muscles along one side of the spinal column

medical journalism and allied subjects will be pre

sented. All medical editors are most cordially invited will produce lateral flexion of the vertebrae,

to attend.

QUIZ

drugs “to cure the goiter,” you must learn to

treat the case symptomatically, and to keep it New books as they appear, are sent to our Assistant Editor,

in the best hygienic condition. Fatigue must Dr. A. L. Russell, of Midway, Washington Co., Pa., never be allowed. Indigestion and constipafor review As the Doctor thus has all the late books for reference, and is made familiar with them by reviewing each one care- tion must be corrected. They must be removed fully as it reaches him, he is unusually equipt for answering queries. Therefore it has been our custom for a long time to send

from all opportunity for excitement of any queries to him for reply. In fact, the Doctor made a special kind. Vary the preparations of digitalis as request that this be done, as he enjoys this work. It now occurs to us that time will be saved if you will send directly to Dr. Rus

distaste arises for the drug; and at the very sell matter intended for the Quiz Department, which has grown so outset of the treatment it may be laid down as much under his vigorous “ treatment Please notice that our query department is not used to " boost” proprietary remedies, a safe rule, to never allow patients to know almanac fashion. The Medical World has no interests other than to give to the medical profession the greatest amount of honest

what they are taking. service possible. It has absolutely no interests in any proprietary There is no absolute cure for every case of preparation nor any medical supply house. Other medical editors have become, and are becoming, wealthy, by using their pages to

goiter; study each individual case, and you increase the sale of preparations that they are interested in; but we prefer to render service to our subscribers that is above suspi.

will probably derive benefit for each from a cion of personal pecuniary interest. How can a man interested in different method. -Ed.] the sale of certain preparations render the best service? He is always trying to push one of his preparations in. That is commercial journalism. We prefer ethical journalism-and so does the Labor Complicated by an Ovarian Cyst. profession, for THE MEDICAL WORLD is growing in popularity faster than ever before-and our subscribers are paying ones. Editor MEDICAL WORLD:-I have just been reading They must be, for we have no medicins to "boost," nothing to

in a medical journal as to an ovarian cyst and pregsell, nothing to depend on but pure journalism ; but doctors that want honest, straight journalism are willing to pay for it-they are

nancy being present in the same patient at the same glad of the opportunity.

time, and as to the probable effect or cause of such a Only such queries will be publisht as are likely to interest and condition. Years ago I was consulted by a lady who instruct many others as well as the one asking help. No charge had noticed an enlargement of the abdomen. I found has ever been made, nor will any charge be made, for this service a cyst, supposed to be ovarian. It was not large, but to our subscribers. However, those who wish an immediate and

still it was quite noticeable. In a few months this personal reply by mail may obtain the same by inclosing two dollars to Dr. Russell. This is really a consultation in the interest

lady became pregnant, when she had two growing of the patient, and should be charged to the patient-two dollars tumors. They continued about equal size until about being a very moderate consultation fee. The Doctor agrees to give the seventh month, when the womb became and confull, careful and immediate attention to such consultations. We tinued the larger. Of course the abdomen was over reserve the right to publish in this department any such consulta

sized, but the patient got along quite well. I feared tions that may be interesting and helpful to our readers. Name and address will be withheld if requested. Come freely for help,

that when labor should come on, the abdominal conbut read up as fully as you can before coming to us.

tractions might burst the cyst, with fatal effect. So at this time, when the cervix was sufficiently dilated, the

forceps were applied to assist the effect of the pains, Goiter.

and at the same time chloroform was administered to Editor MEDICAL WORLD:-I have three cases of

keep the patient as quiet as might be. A twelve goiter; two in women 32 to 37, and one in a girl 17

pound boy was born, who is now attending our public years old, the daughter of the last named. This

school; and, altho ten years have elapst, the lady is daughter is very nervous, and during any excitement

still coddling that watery cyst, being about as large as the gland enlarges very much, and any excitement

a pregnancy at term. Her health is fairly good. Pierre, S. Dak.

0. N. HOYT, M.D. will cause her menstruation to come, regardless of time. Have been giving her iodid of potassium intern- [Both the patient and yourself are to be ally, oxid of mercury and ichthyol externally; with complimented on the happy termination of very little success. Have tried thyroid extract with little benefit. Would be pleased if you can give me

the labor, as labor complicated by ovarian any thing to cure these cases.

INDIANA. cyst is frequently a very serious matter. If she [You should have stated the duration of the were to again become pregnant, we would not disease, and the length of time you had adhered advise risking the expectant plan again, as to treatment of a given kind. Effect of medi- your “luck” might fail you. "The accepted cation is always slow, and nearly imperceptible teaching in such cases is to remove the cyst as in goiter.

soon as the pregnancy is positivly diagnosed. In severe goiter, especially in those in which Such operation rarely causes an untoward inthe nervous symptoms are well markt, no treat- terruption of pregnancy. In 17,382 births in ment is so effectiv as complete rest in bed, the Berlin Frauclinik, but 5 ovarian cysts were massage, liberal milk feeding, and electricity: found. Of 321 pregnancies complicated by In other words, the well known S. Weir ovarian cyst, 55 underwent premature expulMitchell “ rest cure." Belladonna, continued sion of the fetus. In 271 cases of delivery just short of the maximum physiological effect, complicated by an ovarian cyst, there was a for several months, has workt well in numerous maternal mortality of over 25 percent and a

Hydrastis canadensis has many cures fetal mortality of 66 percent. In version with. to its credit. Arsenic, in the form of Fowler's out puncture, in forceps deliveries, and in solution, is useful in nearly all cases. Supra- puncture, the maternal mortality has been renal gland, in tablet form, has been admin- about 50 percent (Hirst). istered with benefit. Digitalis is the best drug The lack of trouble in your case may have to quiet tumultuous heart action. The ice bag, been due to the cyst being in the upper part locally applied, will give service in emergen- of the abdomen, where it could not fall into cies.

the bony pelvis to obstruct the presenting Beside seeking a method or combination of part.—ED.]

cases.

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