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are feminine they must be controlled by a noun of that gender, unanimously and analogously indicated as nuépa, “ day.” Will our friends give us the translation of the word σαββάτου therein ?
But, behind all this growing usage of the LXX was that of the speakers of the West Aramaic—often falsely called “ Chaldee" and even "Hebrew," as in Acts xxi, 40—the vernacular of Jesus and the apostles. Through the Greek Testament and even into the English shine certain of the actual precious words of Jesus in his Aramaic tongue. They are found in Mark v, 41; vii, 34; x, 9, 10; xv, 34. Another word therefrom in 1 Cor. xvi, 20. In that language we have the names of the days of the week * as Mary taught them to her son Jesus. The allied ancient East Aramaic, or Syriac, had exactly the same.t It should be noted in the correspondences made that “day” is masculine in Hebrew, but feminine in Greek:
First day, paea TI (01"), (“day” m.),“one [m.] in the Shabba ":=? (ημέρα).f: μία (f.) των σαββατών, day” f.)
[f.] of the Second day, xus 7 (-i"), ("day")"second in the Shabba = ?" (iuépa) devrépa oaß3átw, (“ day") "second of the
Third day, rada (ai"), ("day")" third in the Sabbath "= ? (qué pa) pirn oaspárwv, ("day") "third of the po
?" Fourth day, nea ??? (+1"), ("day") "fourth in the Sabbath"=? (ημέρα) τετρας σαββάτων, (“ day”) fourth of the
"1 Fifth day, (exactly the same formation). See Teaching, etc.
Sixth day, no ,"eve of the Sabbath.” Mark xv, 42, “preparation" παρασκευή a pocáßßatov = the “fore-sabbath."
Seventh day, ngun Dia " the Sabbath.” Josephus, Ant. 3. 6. 6; to ¿ßSoump cáßßara kahowpev, “the seventh [day] we call Sabbath." After examining this table who is there with the temerity to deny that in the dialect of Jesus and his companions the
See Lightfoot's Horce Hebraicæ, 1686, vol. ii, p. 389. According to him, also, the Jews were wont to speak of the first day of the week as 1 079, or the “day of the Nazarenes.” + See Nestle's Syriac Grammar, 1889, p. 132.
At various times the Talmudists spelled the word now as ou and . They also used the Aramaic form xmax = Shabbetha, which the Greeks transliterated now as a singular neuter noun oá 33atov, and now as a plural neuter noun ca 3327 with like singular significance.' See Gesenius's Handwörterbuch, Elite Auti.
$ The philosophy of this cardinal number will be later set forth. I See The Teaching of the Twelve for this form, which will be discussed hereafter,
word σάββατον or σάββατα τneant not only a day, but also the period following that day until the next, which we call a week ?
One of the writers demands a case in Greek literature outside the New Testament in which oáßßatov is used for a week." It is close at hand, and occurs in connection with the Pharisaic fasting mentioned in Luke xviii, 12, which was later baptized into the Christian Church and morals. Abundantly established is it * that the Pharisees fasted twice a week,t namely, “on the fifth day of the week, on which Moses ascended to the top of Sinai [Thursday];” and “on the second day, on which he came down [Monday). This biweekly [sic] fasting has also been adopted in the Christian Church; but Monday and Thursday were changed to Wednesday and Friday (feria quarta et sexta), as commemorative of the betrayal and crucifixion of Christ.” † The process of weaning the early Christians from these Jewish twice-a-week fasts, and that by the ingenious substitution of two other days in the week, is laid bare in the lately found Teaching of the Twelve, which was published not much more then twenty years after the death of the apostle John and cites principles long settled at that time. In viii, 1, are found these words : Αι δε νηστείαι υμών μή έστωσαν μετά των υποκριτών νηστεύουσιν γαρ δευτέρα σαββάτων, και πέμπτη: υμείς δε νηστεύσατε τετράδα και παρασκευήν. The writer dares render
See Taanith 12a, and McClintock and Strong, vol. iii, p. 489, col. 1. † Groundlessly does the article in this Review (November, 1897) deny this, alleging that “the Pharisees came into existence to revive the literal teachings of Moses. He never taught weekly fasts. There is no intimation of anything of the kind in the Old Testament or anywhere in the New, except by misrepresenting this passage of Scripture," that is, Luke xviii, 12. A tissue of misrepresentations is this entire passage. How strange that Jesus so sadly misjudged this animus of the Pharisees, but constantly cried against them, " Woe unto you, hypocrites! Why do ye make the word of God of none effect by your traditions ?" Strange that the evangelists should so have misrepresented them as “fasting oft” and “washing their hands oft, holding the tradition of the elders,” since Moses said as little about eating with “unwashed hands" as about “weekly fasts!" Ergo, they gave no heed, forsooth, to such things! In addition to a fuller and unbiased study of the Bible very informing would be a greater familiarity with such works as those of Schürer, Edersheim, Delitzsch, Weber, and Stapfer. Judith (viii. 6) religiously feasted (not fasted) all the Sabbaths.
| John Wesley's Journal shows how, in the days of his legal struggling, he adopted these two days of fasting as “ kept by the ancient Church.” It was done in the same spirit in which on March 28, 1738, just eight weeks and one day before his heart's strange warming at Aldersgate Street, he resolved "not willingly to indulge” him. self " in laughter, no, not for a moment.” The Friday fast he never outgrew, but sought to enforce it among “the people called Methodists.” The history and fate of the attempt may be instructively studied in the various editions of the Discipline.
this exhortation only thus : “ Let not your fasts be in conjunction with the hypocrites; * for they do fast on the second day of the week and the fifth; but do ye adopt fasting during the fourth and Preparation !” That last was the sixth day of the week. What were the others by number referred to in the passage?
But the most delicate point of all remains. It clearly reveals that we have here to deal with a Hebraism and Aramaism which has clothed itself in Greek words. The keen eye has noted that uiav is a cardinal numeral, not an ordinal, as in the other cases. Elsewhere we have had "second," "third ” (Luke xviii, 33), “ fourth,” etc. But in all these seven passages alone, which are rendered “the first day of the week,” the numeral is really the cardinal“ one." Thereby hangs a true tale, not a pious fiction. The fact is that the Hebrew, and after it the Aramaic, had no ordinal corresponding to “one.” t It therefore used the cardinal, not only as a cardinal, but as an ordinal also. The Revised Version now shows this peculiarity at the end of the first creative day. We have in Genesis i, s, “ second day;” 13, “third day ;” and so on to 31, “sixth day.” In verse 5, however, it is “one day," or, following the exact Hebrew order, “ day one."
With all the delicacy of the Bertillon system of identification this mysterious cardinal uíav, “one,” exceptionally used in just these seven cases of the day of the week # where Greeks, Latins, Germans, and English would use their ordinal, “first,” reveals the fact that we have here nothing but the slavish Greek wording of the Hebrew Aramaic phrase
a 7 (-i"), or, “ (day) one in the week,” which in Matt. xxviii, 1, and parallels is Grecized as piav tūv oaþjátwv. In
* Observe how this characterization of the Pharisees by Jesus appears as the standing term for them, even a hundred years later.
* The Hebrew word piury meaning “head,” “ chief,” not a numeral at all, is often used, and is usually rendered by the LXX by põroç and by the A. V. as “ first."
Strangely corroboratory is the fact that in speaking of “the first day of" other periods than the week, as the “days of unleavened bread," Matt. xxvi, 17; Mark xiv, 12, the ordinal porn is invariably used. The classical and anomalous use of A pótn (followed too by the singular, caBBátov) in Mark xvi, 9, astonishingly eredits the statement lately discovered that, as long suspected, the last twelve verses of that book are not Mark's, but were written by the "Presbyter Ariston, a disciple of the Lord."
the light of its history and syntax it can be intelligently and honestly rendered other than “ the first day of the week.” *
As a vital or corroboratory part of any argument for the sanctifying of the Lord's Day this traversed exegesis, instead of being a monumental discovery, is but a monumental blunder. Thereby our foes will have us in derision.
Tell it not in Gath,
Lest the daughters of the Saturdarians triumph. Translating the New Testament into the most idiomatic Hebrew for the Jews, Delitzsch hesitates not to render Matt. xxviii, 1, as nowa 7778, “One (masc.) in the Sabbath,” after the Hebrew Aramaic usage. Born a Jew, and for the larger part of a century a devout and scholarly Christian, he may be trusted to have known something about the Holy Scriptures. In order to prevent a misunderstanding, however, he renders Luke xviii, 12, by ytan, the word customary for “week,” when the order of its days is not in mind.
Wilbur Fletcher Steele
27-FIFTH SERIES, VOL. XV.
ART. VII.—JOHN WESLEY'S SCHOOL AT KINGS
WOOD. METHODISM owes more than it knows to the fact that its founder was a gentleman and a scholar. The rector of Epworth gloried in the knowledge that he had given his three sons “the best education which England could afford,” yet he little dreamed that the training received by John and Charles Wesley at Charterhouse and Westminster schools and at Christ Church and Lincoln colleges in Oxford would become a lever for raising the whole tone of education throughout the Eng. lish-speaking world. Charles Wesley's poetry was itself an education for the early Methodists. All his classical learning, all his reading, all his studies of the English poets were brought to bear on his work as the hymn writer of the evangelical revival. Doors were thus opened into literature, and a tincture of scholarship given to the colliers, weavers, tinners, and common folk who sang the Methodist hymns at Moorfields, Gwennap, Kingswood, Bolton, and Newcastle. John Wesley's influence was not less decisive. · He had to deal with common people and early mastered the art of simplicity, but never forgot the words of John Richard Green in his exquisite volume of Stray Studies, "I must confess that my own experience among the poor agrees pretty much with Edward Denison's
, and that I believe 'high thinking' put into plain English to be more likely to tell on a dockyard laborer than all the 'simple Gospel sermons' in the world.”
Wesley's zeal for education found notable expression in the founding of his famous school at Kingswood, which celebrated its third jubilee in June, 1898. It has long since left its first home in the colliers' village near Bristol for a splendid site near Bath, but the third jubilee carries us back to the homely beginning of a scheme which might not unaptly be described, with all due regard to his wife, as Wesley's “thorn in the flesh.” None of his schemes tried his faith and patience more than this institution at Kingswood. In the spring of 1739 George Whitefield had laid the foundation of a school for the colliers' children there. Wesley had to take over this unfin