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Worcester. The new Jefferson Medical College Hospital has used a preparation called Magnesite. They like it because it is non-absorbent, easily cleaned, resilient, and wears well. For operating rooms the favorite floor is tile. Next in popularity is terrazzo.

A few have marble; and among the list of remaining floors we find florette, monolith, asbestolith, asphalt, asbestos, stone, murall and carbolite; while many of the old-fashioned hospitals still use hard wood either bare or covered with linoleum.

SCHEDULE SHOWING NAME OF CERTAIN HOSPITALS, NUMBER

OF BEDS, COST OF BUILDING, COST PER PATIENT.

... 150

132

Name of Hospital.

Beds. Rochester, City

139 State Hospital, Hazelton, Pa.... 110 German Town Dispensary. Chicago Baptist

100 State Hospital, Springfield, Ill.. 100 Cincinnati Hospital

500 Bell Memorial, Kansas.

35 Bridgeport, Conn.

140 Homeopathic (Allan)

350 Lebanon, New York.

250 New England Baptist

50 Manhattan Ear, Eye and Throat. 150 Alleghany General

350 Grace Hospital, Detroit.

150 Worcester, Mass.

280 National Jewish Prsbyterian, Chicago

275 Lincoln, New York

500 Central, Maine

80 St. Mark's, Salt Lake City. 150 Newark, N. J....

340 Clifton Springs, N. Y.

400 Lowell, Mass.

150 Wesle, Chicago

175 Blank Hospital, N. H.

30 Mount Sinai, N. Y.

480 Grand Hospital, Col..

85 St. Joseph's, Glace Bay

75 Backus Hospital

65 New Britton

60 Beverle Hospital

45 City Hospital, St. Louis..

600 German Hospital, Kansas. Meth. Epis. Hospital, Brooklyn.. 200 Charlotte Hospital

40 Lacrosse Hospital

51

Cost of Approximate building. cost per patient. $ 230,000 $1,654.67

120,000 1,000.90
210,000 1,400.00
40,000 400.00
7,000

70.00
900,000 1,800.00

8,000 228.67 300,000 2,142.85 600,000 1,701.42 25,000 100.00 13,000 260.00 506,676 3,377.84 600,000 1,742.85 200,000 1,333.33 563,440 2,012.28 315,000 2,386,37 250,000 909.09 350,000 700.00 127,937 1,599.21 180,000 1,200.00 300,000 882.35 300,000 730.00 145,000 966.66 200,0000 1,142.85

30,000 1,000.00 1,800,000 3,750.00

95,000 1,117.64 60,000 800.00 250,000 3,846.15

38,000 633.33 100,000 2,222.22 800,000 1,333.33

25,000 250.00 800,000 4,000.00 150,000 3,750.00 391,183 7,670.25

.... 100

There are many points of more or less interest and importance with which you have dealt in your replies; but my paper is already too long.

QUESTIONS RE HOSPITAL CONSTRUCTION.
1. Name of hospital.
2. At what date did the erection of your hospital commence?
3. What is the estimated cost of your hospital?
(a)

Site.
(b) Building

(c) Equipment.
4. How many patients does it accommodate?

5. What is the location of your hospital with respect to your city?

6. How do you like it?
7. What is the acreage of your grounds?
8. What is the type of construction of your hospital?

Do you like it?

Can you send me a picture of it?

9. In which direction do your wards run and how is the light admitted and from which direction does the sunlight enter during the various portions of the day?

10. What is the average number of beds in each of your general wards for the poorer classes?

11. What, in your opinion, should be the number of beds in a general ward?

12. Would you kindly enclose a rough sketch, showing a general ward and its dependencies (bathroom, sink room, laboratory, etc.), giving dimensions ?

(a) Medical.

(b) Surgical.
13. Do you have private and semi-private wards?
14. Do you approve of them in a general hospital?
15. Please state briefly your system of ventilation ?
16. How do you like it?
17. What other plan, if any, would you prefer, and why?

18. How is your hospital heated and what are the virtues of your system?

19. What light do you use and why do you prefer it?
20. What sort of floors are in your building ?
21. What is your favorite floor, and why?

(a) Operating rooms.

(b) General wards.
22. What is your favorite preparation for walls?

(a) For operating rooms?
(b) For general wards?

23. What is your roof made of?
24. What are its virtues and defects ?

25. Where is your kitchen and what provision in construction is made for sending the food quickly to the wards and obviating kitchen odors in the building ?

26. Would you send me a plan of an ideal kitchen showing its position in relation to the room for receiving food supplies?

27. Where are your dining rooms located with reference to the kitchen?

28. What is the location of your officers', servants', nurses' and convalescent patients' dining rooms in relation to the kitchen?

29. How many operating rooms have you and are they adequate for your purpose?

30. How many accessory rooms have you to your main operating theater and how are they located with reference to it?

32. How is your operating theater lighted ?
33. How is it ventilated ?
34. What is its size?
35. What is the relation of your operating room to

(a) Out-patient department?

(b) To the emergency department? 36. What would be your idea of having these three more or less amalgamated if you were building a new hospital?

37. Is your out-patient department in a separate building ?

38. Is your preference to have such a department in a separate building or in the main building of the hospital?

39. Would you enclose a rough sketch of what you would consider an ideal arrangement for receiving 100 out-patients a day (who suffer from general complaints), showing how you would separate the various rooms?

40. Is your obstetrical department in a separate building? 41. Are your gunaecological patients in a separate building?

If not, would you pre it so? 42. What provision is made for patients suffering from diseases of the eye?

43. Do you have separate wards for ear, nose and throat cases? 44. What arrangement have you made for treating erysipelas?

(a) Patients developing it in the hospital?
(b) Patients brought to the hospital with it?
(c) For chicken pox?

(d) For whooping cough? 45. What arrangement if any, have you made for treating scarlet fever?

46. What for diphtheria and measles ?

47. Have you made any provisions for tuberculosis?

(a) Cases developing in your wards?

(b) Cases from outside ? 48. What provision have you made for convalescent patients ? 49. What provision do you think should be made?

50. What system of calls have you installed and how do you like it?

51. What special provisions have you made to minimize the amount of noise ?

52. Would you give me an idea, by sketch if possible, of an ideal arrangement for administration offices to accommodate a superintendent, a superintendent of the training school, an admitting officer, and an accountant and their assistants?

53. What provision in your construction have you made for the collection (and storage until removal) of garbage?

54. Where do you house your domestics?
55. Why do you favor this plan?
56. Where is your laundry and do you like its location ?
57. Where are your pathological laboratories placed ?

58. Where do you think they should be placed in a teaching hospital to be most convenient for the use of:

(a) Internes ?

(b) Students ? 59. What provision have you made for the disposal of the dead pending removal of remains ?

60. Please let me know of any faults or defects in the construction of your hospital and also please tell me of any special ideas you have in respect to hospital construction generally.

320

[Copyright, 1908, by Meyer J. Sturm.]

THE PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF HOSPITALS FOR SMALLER CITIES

AND TOWNS.

BY MEYER J. STURM, B. S.,

Hospital Architect, 84 La Salle St., Chicago, Ill.

(By Invitation.)

To you who are professionals, it has, no doubt, often occurred that the specialist in any line of endeavor is not wholly aware of his opportunities, or if he is, that by misdirected judgments or an inaptitude to grasp the responsibilities and the opportunities afforded, he has not fulfilled a mission which is illimitable in scope.

If the modern business man is becoming more and more a specialist, what vast strides has the professional made in this direction. Owing to the ever-increasing demand, I might say the insistent demand for hospitals, there has arisen from the ranks of "general practitioners” in architecture the specialists in this particular branch.

Their road has not been an easy one, inasmuch as each and every individual who has had the direction of the building of a hospital has his fad or hobby to work into the general order of things. It may be safely said that there has not been a hospital planned in the last twenty years wherein there has not been something injected of these hobbies and foibles which are expensive at best and often absolutely unnecessary.

The general idea, the initial thought for the planning, is practically the same for all hospitals,-the greatest amoun of serviceability at the lowest cost consistent with a firstclass structure, and a minimum of fixed and maintenance charge for the maximum work to be done.

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