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sition of the powers and the belligerent Will Japan acquiesce ? Time will tell. attitude of Japan (which even at this writing is apparently ready to declare war on Russia To Mark Twain's sojourn in Vienna a few in order to prevent the annexation by her of years ago we are indebted for one of his most Manchuria) the Chinese government found graphic descriptive articles, in which with the courage to decline acceptance of the great fidelity he reported a cyclonic session
treaty, even as of the reichsrath of Austria-Hungary. The modified by Russia. strife of parties has become so bitter in that The official organ of misnamed “ deliberative assembly” that all the tsar's govern- the rules of parliamentary order have been ment published a violated; even the principles of common delong “explanation" cency have been disregarded. Day after day of the diplomatic and week after week a small group of vocifercontroversy, inti- ating and desk-pounding delegates has been mating that Russia able to obstruct completely the progress of blamed the powers business. The utmost political enmity exists for the failure of between the pan-Germans and the Czechs. her attempt to The Hapsburg dual monarchy is bound together solve the Manchu- by the frailest of personal ties, and as rian problem. Im- the aged Emperor-King Franz Josef nears mediate evacuation, the bound of life, the divisive forces in the the statement realm gain strength. The Germans are
declared, was im- captivated by the idea of an all-Teutonic MAJOR-GENERAL A. R.
possible, and Russia, empire, and are bent upon having the German CHAFFEE, Commanding the American
true to her original lands and peoples of Austria annexed to the Troops in Peking. pledges and non- empire of Kaiser Wilhelm II. The Czechs
aggressive purposes, of Bohemia have the union of the Slavs at desired a modus vivendi which would have heart. They favor a Russian alliance for enabled her to turn the province gradually over to the civil and military control of China. That having failed, the statement continues, matters must remain in statu quo. The intention to retire “can only be carried out when the normal situation is completely restored, and the central government established at Peking is strong enough to afford the necessary guaranties against a recurrence of disorder and assaults upon the property of Russian subjects.” The statement concludes with these somewhat laconic, if not ironical words: “While the Russian government maintains its present organization in Manchuria, to preserve order in the vicinity of the broad frontiers of Russia, . . . it will quietly await the further course of events.”
The general construction, and the correct one, put upon these words is that, though the treaty had to be abandoned, Manchuria will remain indefinitely under Russian control. Russia will decide when pacification is complete enough to permit evacuation — and that decision may never be reached. We
QUITE AT HOME. must remember England's experience in BRITISH AND GERMAN ALLIES: - "Hi! What are Egypt. There is no practical change in the you doing there?” situation in the far East. Manchuria is now RUSSIAN COSSACK:— "I'm the man in possession ! under Russian rule, and will probably never Are you going to turn me out?"
BOTH ( hesitating ) :-“N-N-No. No. We only asked." revert to China. Will the powers be satis- Russian Cossack :-“Then you know." [Goes on fied with their barren diplomatic victory? smoking.)
- London Punch.
the present, and the ultimate amalgamation the venerable monarch is stimulating active of Slavic Austria with the tsar's domain. speculation as to the probable rearrangeHungary, again, feels quite competent to ments which his death will precipitate. The manage her own affairs, and there is yet an accession of a young, energetic, and ambi“ Italy unredeemed ” about the head of the tious sovereign to the throne of Italy has Adriatic whose inhabitants would gladly given a new turn to the policy of that kingexchange the Austrian tax-gatherer for the dom. The alliance one from Rome. At a recent uproarious with the Teuton has session of the reichsrath a noisy Czech mem- served its turn. It ber named Silenz taunted his German served Bismarck by colleagues with squinting toward Germany. tying one hand of At this Herr Stein shouted back, “ We do France in 1870, and not squint, we look; we are as eager to join the first Victor EmGermany as you Russia," following this with manuel took his the frank avowal that his party hoped for a profit when Rome, no consolidation with the German empire. Herr longer garrisoned by Silenz declared that the Triple Alliance was the troops of Napoa failure so far as Austria was concerned. leon III., fell helpShe would have been better off with Russia lessly into his hands at her back. Say openly that you wish to to become the capital belong to Russia,” demanded the German, of United Italy. Now and when Silenz protested his patriotism, there are signs that Stein remarked, “ Any one remaining a good Italy would prefer an
ROBERT S. McCORMICK, patriot in Austria now is a fool.”
alliance with France
the While the Triple Alliance, which Bismarck two kaisers. Latin in race and Catholic in
compact with forged with so much labor and which proved religion, the kingdom would seem to have so useful to him in his plans for the aggran- more in common with the republic than with dizement of Prussia and less directly of the German reich. It is no wonder then Germany, is thus threatened with the loss of that the plan of the Italian government, as one of its members, a fresh element of disin- just made public, to have the spring naval tegration is developing in another quarter. maneuvers in French waters this year is It is generally conceded that as long as Franz seized upon by alert observers as a significant Josef survives there will be no disturbance of indication of friendly feeling which may the present status, but the advanced age of ripen into a definite alliance between the
two Latin powers on the Mediterranean.
In these days of wars and rumors of wars, it is interesting to note that the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which the convention at The Hague provided for in July, 1899, has been completely organized. The forty-nine members appointed represent fifteen nations. Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, Roumania, Russia, and the United States have four members each; Sweden-Norway and Japan have two members each; Spain has three members; and Portugal and Denmark have one member each. The first secretary of the court is J. J. Rochussen. The second secretary of the court is Jonkherr W. Roell. The members of the court from the United States are Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller, Attorney-General John W. Griggs,
and United States Circuit Judge George Gray. STOP THIEF! STOP THIEF!! Don't they need a bigger policeman on that beat?
Ex-President Benjamin Harrison, who - Minneapolis Journal. recently died at his home in Indianapolis, was
a member of this court. His successor has was friendly, reasonable, and argumentative. not yet been named.
Lord Landsdowne reminds the state depart
ment that when it originally requested Great The net result of the tracted diplomatic Britain to consent to a modification of negotiations concerning the Nicaragua ship the Clayton-Bulwer convention, it distinctly canal is the revival of the Clayton-Bulwer declared that it only desired such changes
convention of 1850, as, “ without affecting the general principle and the recognition [neutrality of the canal] therein declared, by our government would enable the great object in view to be of its binding force accomplished for the benefit of the commerce and quality.
The of the world.” He further states that, in attempt to secure view of the failure of the Anglo-Canadiana modification there- American commission to settle the outstandof has failed com- ing difficulties between the two governments, pletely. The Hay- Great Britain was at first disinclined to make Pauncefote treaty any gratuitous concession at all, but that would have enabled finally it resolved to subscribe to Secretary the United States to Hay's proposals “as a signal proof of its construct, operate, friendly disposition.” He proceeds to and control the pro- analyze the senate amendments and to show jected isthmian that they are inconsistent with the neutral
canal, subject to the character which has always been sought Copyright by Elmer Chickering, Bos. sole requirement of for the canal. Great Britain, he con
absolute neutrality cludes by saying, is ready to consider in a GEORGE VON L. MEYER,
at all times. But our spirit of comity any reasonable amendment New Ambassador to Italy.
senate was opposed of the original convention, but the neutrality to the limitations which that treaty imposed principle is deemed essential, and will not be upon our control, and demanded an all- waived or surrendered. American” canal — that is, a canal which
It is evident that the whole question will the United States might close to an enemy have to be restudied. The administration or prospective enemy in time of war or would be entirely willing to agree upon a apprehension of international complications. neutral canal under American control, but
It will be recalled that the senate radically the senate may decline to ratify any treaty amended the Hay-Pauncefote instrument. short of that guaranteeing an all-American It adopted a proviso reserving to the United canal. Several senators favor the passage States the right to protect the canal by its of a resolution declaring the Clayton-Bulwer own forces, and to maintain public order. convention abrogated. Such a step would, It eliminated the clause requiring the adhe- of course, be regarded as unfriendly and sion and sanction of the treaty by the other civilized powers of the world. Finally, it inserted a clause abrogating so much of the Clayton-Bulwer convention
not expressly modified, re-enacted, or superseded by the new treaty.
While these amendments were somewhat ambiguous in their phraseology, it was generally understood that their effect, as well as their purpose, was to do away with the obligation of neutrality, and to convert the canal into a“ part of the American sea coast line,” as the phrase is. The British government adopted this popular construction of the amendments and, after allowing the Hay-Pauncefote treaty to lapse by its own time limit for ratification, communicated to our state department its reasons for refusing to accept the instrument in its new form. The statement was signed by Lord Landsdowne, the minister of foreign affairs, and
- Minneapolis Tribune.
improper by Great Britain, but she would do were suspended, in spite of the fact that a nothing to prevent us from constructing a large majority of the inhabitants of the canal without reference to her and to Eu- island had voted in favor of the transfer. rope's desire for neutrality. The question for It was not strange that Denmark felt Americans to consider is whether abrogation of aggrieved at the failure of the treaty, espethe old convention without the consent of the cially as the price agreed upon was a generother contracting party would be consistent ous one, and the with national honor and good faith, and islands had for many whether vital national interests really de- years been a heavy mand the repudiation of the principle upon drain upon the treaswhich the Suez canal is operated to universal ury at Copenhagen. satisfaction. The great subject will have It is stated that the ample consideration in the next congress. transfer of the
islands will cost this Recent and apparently reliable information country about 12,indicates that the sale of the Danish West 000,000 kroner, or Indies to this country is about to be suc- $3,240,000, which is cessfully accomplished. The islands — St. less than one-half of Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix - belong to what Secretary Sewthe Virgin Island group lying to the east of ard agreed to pay for Porto Rico. They have an area of about one
them. The Danish hundred and twenty-five square miles, and a parliamentary compopulation of the usual West Indian sort, of mittee which recently about thirty-five thousand. The successful reported a bill favor
BENJAMIN HARRISON. termination of negotiations between the ing the sale advised United States and Denmark for the transfer the imposition as a condition that the people of these three specks of the Lesser Antilles of the islands be permitted to vote on the brings a long and interesting chapter of our question of the transfer, and that the sale international relations to a close. It was in be contingent upon a favorable vote. A 1867 that William H. Seward, then secretary St. Thomas newspaper has recently declared of state, signed a treaty with Denmark that the islanders “ do not want to be sold," transferring the islands to the sovereignty but the early disposition of the islands to of the United States, the price being fixed some other power is practically assured, as at $7,500,000. The negotiations had been Denmark is wearied with the financial burden conducted at Copenhagen, and were kept resulting from the possession of these secret. Commissions representing the con- dependencies which are of no particular tracting nations were sent to the islands, the value to her, and which may be of great leading inhabitants were assembled at the gov- strategic value to some other nation. It ernment house, the proclamation of the king should be stated that the newspaper which was read, announcing the transfer and bid- has been shouting “ We do not want to be ding farewell to his island subjects, and the sold,” is supported financially by a Dane who whole affair would have gone through accord- enjoys a rich monopoly. It is edited by a ing to the program had not a merchant who colored man. was enjoying a valuable monopoly filed a vigorous protest, and demanded that St. Not only the professed friend of the Thomas be made a free port as a condition negro, but all who have given serious thought of the transfer. The Danish commissioners to the problem of his political and social conwere inclined to defer the ratification of the dition in America, have learned to look for bargain until they had made an effort to hopeful signs in the annual reports of Presisecure the concession from the United States. dent Booker T. Washington of the Tuskegee The negotiations were suspended, and the (Alabama) Normal and Industrial Institute. whole matter was referred to Washington. In addition to the record of accessions to the Secretary Seward was unable to officially rec- property of the school and the constant exognize the Danish commissioners, who were tension of its scope within the past year -it plainly exceeding their authority in endeavor- now numbers 1,164 students and 88 officers ing to continue the negotiations at Washing- and teachers, giving training in 26 induston, but the matter became public, and when tries — the negro leader gives emphatic Senator Sumner of Massachusetts arrayed expression to his theory of the education himself against the project, the negotiations suitable for his race at the present juncture.
He thinks his people have not yet reached time. At the age of thirty-two he is a pristhe point where mere book-learning will meet oner of international note whose capture by their needs. The colored man must not stratagem makes a military hero of General pursue the ideal of an academic education to Funston of the United States Volunteers. the neglect of the humble opportunities of self-support which lie right about his door. In his plain Anglo-Saxon, “ time has been A bulletin recently issued by the Departlost and money spent in vain, because too ment of Labor contains a statement of the many have not been educated with the idea prices of commodities and rates of wages in of fitting them to do well, things that they Manila. The table of prices shows the retail could get to do.
In too many prices of about ninety articles in common use cases where mere literary education alone in the homes of workmen, distinction being has been given the negro youth, it has made between articles used by the whites, resulted in an exaggerated estimate of his by the natives, and by the Chinese. The importance in the world and an increase of prices quoted are in gold, and are just half wants which his education has not fitted him the prices in silver, which is used in the to supply." Continuing, he deals very sen- actual transactions. Among other commodisibly with the common question, Should not ties, bread is listed at four cents a pound, the negro be encouraged to prepare himself coffee not roasted twenty cents a pound, for any station in life that any other race fills? eggs twenty cents a dozen, bananas four “I would say, yes; but the surest way for the negro
cents a dozen, oranges five cents a dozen, to reach the highest positions is to fill well at the pres- turkeys three dollars each, brown sugar ent time what are termed by the world the more humble seven and one-half cents a pound, tobacco positions. This will give him a foundation upon which to stand while securing what is called the moro exalted twenty-five cents a pound, potatoes five cents a positions. The negro has the right to study law, but pound, and European matches one cent a box. in the end we shall succeed soonest in producing a num The table of rates of wages shows the ber of successful lawyers by preparing first a large wages paid for each occupation in 664 estabnumber of intelligent, thrifty farmers, mechanics, and lishments, covering sixty-nine distinct indushousekeepers to support the lawyers. The want of proper direction of the use of the negro's education
tries. The whole number of employees in results in tempting too many to live mainly by their these establishments is 22, 155 — 187 whites, wits, without producing anything that is of real value to 17,317 natives, and 4,651 Chinese. The the world, or to live merely by politics. The negro has rate of wages is given in gold. White the right to enter politics, but I believe that his surest road to political preferment that will mean anything is master bakers work twelve hours a day, and to make himself of such supreme service to the com- receive forty dollars a month and their meals; munity in which he lives that political honors will in Chinese and native workmen are paid from time be conferred upon him. “ Almost from the beginning this institution has
four to nine dollars a month, besides their kept in mind the giving of thorough mental and religious meals. White barbers are paid a dollar a day, training, and at the same time, along with it, such while natives receive half as much. Native industrial training as would enable the student to master bookbinders are paid one dollar for appreciate the dignity of labor and become self-sup- ten hours' work; ordinary workmen in the porting and valuable as a producing factor, keeping in mind the occupations open in the south for employment.
same line receive from twelve and one-half
to fifty cents a day, including board. Master The personality of Emilio Aguinaldo, the carpenters are paid a dollar and a half for a Filipino leader made prisoner on March 23, day's work. In the printing offices native comhas been much discussed. It is well estab positors work eight hours a day for from six to lished that he is not a half-breed, but the seventeen and one-half dollars a month; white son of native Filipinos (Malays), his father master printers are paid thirty dollars a month. occupying an office corresponding to mayor
It is stated that in Manila organization and of a town. His education was obtained in specialization do not exist to such an extent Cavite, the Dominican University in Manila, as in the United States, and in many estaband a Jesuit normal school. He was twenty: lishments a workman performs any class of five years old when he became mayor of
work he may be called upon to do. In genCavite, and two years later led the Filipino eral, however, the data are comparable to insurrection of 1896, which forced Spain to like data relating to similar occupations in promise a large indemnity. The exact rela. the United States. tions between Aguinaldo and the United States up to the date of armed conflict a According to authoritative announcements, little over two years ago will undoubtedly be the government of Canada has decided to dispassionately revealed in the course of nationalize the telegraphs and telephones of