« PreviousContinue »
great burden to take pains about the pres- before, but who, when they passed sixty, ervation of newspaper cuttings and the began to regret that they had not laid out classification of one's book-reading. The some of their time in preparing aids for a trouble that it involves should be considered, recollection no longer so retentive. To the however, as an investment. The benefit of busy writer or speaker, an index is a kind of it will be reaped after many days. I have literary banking deposit, steadily accumulatknown men whose exceptional strength of ing interest as he works and sleeps, and memory enabled them during middle age to beyond reach of the depredations made upon recall without effort the reading of years other kinds of capital.
(Of the Zürich Public Schools.) ÜRICH enjoys the credit of having schools, there are very few private schools in
good and cheap schools. A great Zürich. The same is true of any other town many of the numerous strangers or place in Switzerland, Lausanne and Geneva who come to live at Zürich come perhaps excepted. For children between the
because of the vast educational ages of six and twelve there are only five resources to be found here — parents who private schools in Zürich, and there are about wish children to get a good liberal education, as many for pupils above twelve years of age. students who wish to finish higher studies. Children between the ages of six and four
Since elementary instruction is made com- teen are compelled to attend school. They pulsory by law, and since the town, the can- must attend the Primary School. The obligaton, and the state do so much for the public tion is precisely this: all parents are bound
* This account of a remarkable public school system to give their children instruction at least in the most democratic country on the globe has been equal to that afforded in the public primary secured by Chancellor Vincent. Prof. Baumgartner has schools; but if they choose, the
are at become prominently identified with the spread of the liberty to teach their children at home, or Chautauqua Movement in Switzerland as being eminently fitted to supplement the exceptional means already ex- they may have them educated in private isting there for the education of the people. - [EDITOR. establishments. Attendance upon the Kin
dergartens, which have no state endowment, all of which are at Zürich; or the cantonal is optional.
Training College, which is at Küssnacht, four At the age of twelve any child may leave miles away from Zürich; or the cantonal the Primary School, and go either to the Technikum, which has its seat at Winterthur. Secondary School or to the Gymnasium (the The Cantonal School has three departclassical department of the so-called Cantonal ments: first, the classical, called Gymnasium, School). Those who enter neither of the which prepares for the University and the schools at twelve have to stay two years Veterinary School (now part of the Univerlonger at the Primary School. During these sity); second, the technical industrial or two years the student enters what is called realistic), called Industrieschule, which prethe Enlarged Primary School. This arrange- pares for the Federal Polytechnic; and third, ment is new for the canton of Zürich, the the commercial, which prepares for life, or legal steps having been taken recently. The for further studies at the University. Primary and Secondary Schools are free, and The University belongs to, and is mainthe books, stationery, and so on, are sup- tained and managed by the Canton, not by plied gratuitously by the town.
the town of Zürich. The Polytechnic School Children leave the Secondary School at the is federal; that is, maintained and adminisend of two or three years, in order either to tered by the Confederation. Its various learn a trade or to continue their studies. departments are: the schools of Architecture, To do the latter, girls go to the High School Engineering, Technical Mechanics, Chemisfor Girls, or to the School of Industrial Arts. try, Agriculture, and a school for teachers Boys have a greater choice of schools — the of mathematics and natural sciences. There Commercial School, the Technical or Indus- are also courses in historical, political and trial School (both being departments of the military science. Cantonal School), the Agricultural School, Girls go through the Primary and Sec
TABLE ILLUSTRATING THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM ZÜRICH.
(Compulsory and Gratuitous)
or:"Gymnasium" only for those who go
(Optional; fees $8 a year) neither to (b) nor(c)).
ends y here
Polytechnic School University
Other Municipal Public Schools :—Trades and Handicrafts, Silk-weaving, Music, Dressmaking and
ondary School. Those who wish to pursue Cantonal; the Polytechnic, which is Federal. their studies then enter the High School for Sir Francis 0. Adams and C. D. CunningGirls (höhere Töchterschule), which has three ham truly say in their book on the Swiss divisions: one for general education, another Confederation: “ The Swiss citizen takes an for a commercial training, a third for the honest pride in his school and everything training of female teachers for the Primary connected with it. The schoolhouse in any School. There are courses to train female town or village, from the capital of the canteachers for the Kindergarten system, also ton to the most remote hamlet, is certain special Latin courses for those who wish to to attract the notice of a stranger as one of enter the University, to study medicine, law, the most solid and commodious buildings in etc. At the age of fifteen girls may also the place, and no site, however costly, would attend the School of Industrial Arts.
be looked upon as thrown away by being used There are still other public schools main- for a schoolhouse. The town of Zürich, tained and managed by the city, and highly with 150,000 inhabitants, has about forty appreciated and much frequented; for schoolhouses for Primary and Secondary instance, the Gewerbeschule—(a) School education alone, all of them large edifices of Trades and Handicrafts, (b) School of (in fact, too large), and many of them really Industrial Arts — the schools of Music, of fine buildings. We give, as a specimen, the Dressmaking and Cutting-out, of Cook- newest, those on the Bühl, embracing the ery, of Silk-weaving, and a Mechanics In- Primary School, the Secondary School, and stitution. The only schools in Zürich not be- the Gymnastic Hall. longing to the city are the Cantonal School, Besides all these there are schools for the Agricultural School, the Veterinary the blind and deaf and dumb, and for chilSchool, and the University, which are all dren of weak intellect.
I would make use of life,
Out of all stress and strife,
- James Buckham.
CHAPTER XXIX. for the Chautauqua Literary and
THE STORM CENTER. Scientific Circle.
T the present time the attention of the world is focused upon China A
almost to the exclusion of other points of interest. The contact of China with the world through commercial intercourse is of immemorial antiquity. Just when in the dawning of civilized
life in Asia the Chinese people developed a national existence we
do not know, but there are evidences that trade was carried on between China and the the Chinese and the ancient empires of Egypt and Babylonia. China itself is ancient world.
supposed to have been occupied by the race that now inhabits it, about twenty-four or twenty-five centuries before Christ. It was known in the days of the early Roman empire, and it is described by Ptolemy as “ a
vast and populous country touching on the east the ocean and limits of Summary of Pre (Chapters I.-IV. appeared in the October issue. The first was an introductory discussion ceding Chapters. of the significance of the present age, the expansion of the nations, the industrial revolu
tion, the growth of democracy, and the world problems resulting from the interplay of these elements. Chapter II. explained the politics of Europe in the middle of the century, as turning upon the ideas of nationality and the revolutionary democracy; with the Eastern question as shaped in the Crimean war. In Chapters III. and IV. the development of England and France, respectively, in the last half century was traced, with especial reference to the rise of English democracy and the growth of republican government in France.
[Chapters V.-VIII. in the November number considered in a similar way the other four great powers of Europe, Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia.
[Chapters IX.-XI. in the December number dealt with the question of the near East. Chapter IX. described the reopening of the Eastern question after 1871, explaining the relations of Russia and Turkey and the status of the Turkish empire and the Balkan and Danubian provinces. Chapter X. discussed the developments from 1871 to the RussoTurkish war of 1877–78, the results of the war and the treaty of San Stefano, and Chapter XI. the resettlement of the Eastern question by the Congress of Berlin, the resulting conditions, and the effect upon Russian policy.
[In the January number Chapter XII. discussed the consequences of the Congress of Berlin in the Balkan peninsula; Chapter XIII. considered Egypt as a factor in the Eastern question, and the British control; Chapter XIV. was a general introduction to the subject of Colonial Expansion; and Chapter XV., on “Imperial England," began an examination of the characteristics, methods, and extent of the colonial activity of the different European powers.
[Chapters XVI.-XIX. in the February number continued the study of the expansion of the great nations begun in January, Chapter XVI. being a study of the growth of the British imperial idea in its spirit and manifestations. A chapter on German colonial policy showed the consistency and studied character of German colonial methods, and another dealt with French colonization in its chief aspects. The closing chapter was on Russian expansion.
[In the March number Chapters XX.-XXII. were devoted to a consideration of the advance of civilization in Africa, the scramble for territorial possessions, and the present relations and prospects of the European nations in the Dark Continent. Chapter XXIII. dealt with the entrance of the New World into world politics, the Monroe doctrine and South America. Chapter XXIV. described the growth of the foreign policy of the United States.
[Chapters XXV.-XXVIII. appeared in the April number. The first of these dealt with considerations growing out of the recognition of the United States by itself and others as a world power. Some of its needs, limitations, and responsibilities in this rôle were touched upon. Chapter XXVI. reviewed the great historic movements of nations, with the resulting reconstruction of the map, and considered “the new map of the world." In the following chapter “ The Problems of Asia " were taken up, starting from the basis of the four Asiatic empires, Russia and Great Britain, China and Japan. The especial importance of railways in the Asiatic problem was alluded to. Finally, in the fourth of these chapters, Japan, “ the new oriental world power," was traced to its present place among the nations.]
the habitable world and extending west nearly to Imaus and the confines of Bactria. The people are civilized men of mild, just, and frugal temper, eschewing collision with their neighbors and even shy of close intercourse, but not averse to dispose of their own products, of which raw silk is the staple, but which includes also silk stuffs, furs, and iron of remarkable quality. This description, so well corresponding to our knowledge of the modern China, shows that the knowledge of these people in the time of Ptolemy was something more than mere legend.
The overland route through Bactria (a year's journey) was open and The great Mongol used by European traders until shut off by the dominion of the Seljuk empire. Turks in Asia Minor and Syria. Much information has been broughť to light in recent years from Chinese accounts in regard to the early trade relations of China with the western people. In the thirteenth century the conquests of the great Mongol chieftain Jenghiz Khan, extended by his even greater grandson Kublai Khan, brought together in one vast empire, China, Corea, Thibet, Tongking, Cochin-China, most of India beyond the Ganges, a part of Persia, Siberia, and the Turkish possessions westward to the Dnieper river in Russia. These Mongol rulers were liberal men, with the ideas of statesmen as well as conquerors. Under them there was freedom of travel in China, as we know from the experiences of the Polos, narrated by Marco Polo, and from other travelers who ventured into this region. Kublai Khan made Peking the capital of his empire. He offered the pope an opportunity to introduce Christianity into the vast Mongol domains, but Innocent III. was too much occupied with European politics to respond to the hospitable call of the largeminded oriental ruler, and the opportunity was turned over to the Grand Lama, the pope of Buddhism.
Under the native Ming dynasty, which began in 1368, a new and more Exclusive policy. bigoted policy was adopted, which grew still narrower as the celestials learned to suspect European purposes. Nor did this change under the Manchu emperors, who established their power by conquest in 1644, and have maintained their rule over China, Thibet, and Mongolia until the present time.
Modern European intercourse with China began in the seventeenth
Cited in Yule, “ Cathay and the Way Thither.”