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that the husband had no bona fide domicile in the state Cardinals been so full as now. Its traditional of North Dakota when he obtained a divorce there, and number is seventy, although there is nothing it is not pretended that the wife had an independent domicile in North Dakota or was ever in that state. but tradition to hinder a pope making as The court of that state, therefore, had no jurisdiction.” many cardinals as he pleases. The present

This language clearly shows that the number is sixty-six. Never before during divorce was void simply and solely because any pontificate of recent centuries was the the law of the state in which it was granted Italian strength so was not followed by the petitioner, the great. In his last libelant, whose domicile there was not bona allocution Leo XIII. fide, but a device to lay the foundation for again referred to his a suit against his wife. The states are not position as the under any obligation to give faith and credit prisoner of Rome, to a judicial proceeding in a case where no and pleaded once jurisdiction has been acquired.

more for temporal In the second case, a decree obtained by power; something a New York citizen in Pennsylvania was held that only a brief to be invalid. The Pennsylvania law dis- sojourn in Rome and tinctly provides that the libelant must have in Italy is enough to had bona fide residence in the state for one show he will not year. This condition was wanting, and the soon get, if Italian supreme court annulled the decree on the public opinion does ground of “no jurisdiction" in the Pennsyl- not change or is not vania courts. There is no jurisdiction with- overpowered. The

Copyright, F. Gutekunst, Philadelphia. out legal residence as defined by state law, former apostolic dele

SEBASTIAN MARTINELLI, and where the evidence shows that the state gate to this country, law in relation to divorce has been complied Cardinal Martinelli, Former Papal Delegate to

the United States. Now with, even if the law be unreasonable and was duly invested

a Cardinal. revolting to the moral sentiment of the with the biretta country at large, the divorces granted under in the cathedral at Baltimore on May 8. it are entitled to “ full faith and credit.”

Once more the fact is emphasized that only The Congregational Home Missionary national or uniform marriage and divorce Society concludes three-quarters of a century legislation can do away with the abuses of of activity with a celebration to be held in inter-state migration for periods just suffi- Boston in June. When the society began cient to enable people to dissolve marital ties. work, a pioneer in Home effort, there were

1,200 Congregational churches, and their

membership was about 150,000. Fully Since 1872 Bible lessons recommended by seventy per cent of the 4,000 churches the International Sunday School Lesson Com- started since 1826 owe their existence to mittee have been uniform. At a recent this society, which has seen the church of meeting of the committee, at which the the Puritan fathers stretch across the counlessons for 1903 were approved, the sugges- try from Plymouth Rock to the Golden Gate. tion was adopted of having different lessons, Above forty states have organized associacovering one year, for children six years of tions, working with the parent society, age and under, and still another series, to besides associations in many of them conbe known as the senior, covering two years. ducted by women. Recently two new fields A new organization has been formed, called have been occupied. They are Alaska and the Sunday-School Editorial Association, Cuba. The Diamond Jubilee will bring to composed of editors of Sunday-school Boston an unusual array of great men and periodicals and writers of lesson helps. women, who will assist in the Congregational Under this association a conference is to be

rejoicings. held during June to formulate criticisms of Sunday-school lesson schemes, and if possible to put a stop to objections which have been

Church missionary societies are not feeling made almost continuously since uniformity in the effects of the good times to any extent. such schemes was undertaken.

Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist societies are scarcely any ahead of last year; the

Episcopal is several thousand dollars behind, Not before during the pontificate of Leo and the Congregational Home, which made XIII. has the Roman Catholic College of a special effort because of its celebration of

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the close of seventy-five years of history, gracious work outgrew him he turned it over held in Boston at the middle of May, got a to the King's Daughters, and it has grown in Jubilee Fund of only moderate proportions. ten years into a settlement. This settleAt the same time enormous sums of money ment is an important factor in transforming are going into charities and into all sorts of the thought and life of hosts of men, women, religious projects. Charity, outside of and children, who, like Mr. Riis himself, churches, usually runs $60,000,000 a year. have come from foreign shores. Estimates are that it will run $100,000,000 this year. The trouble with the missionary Opposition of an interesting character has societies seems to be that they are a dead broken out against the establishment of level of aspiration -- an old story, so to sixty-five libraries in New York as provided speak, and the public is, as always, taking by Mr. Carnegie’s recent gift to that city of more kindly to new things. The societies $5,200,000. Under the present library law have suffered somewhat from their attempt, the city spends $300,000 a year for the supa quite general although not concerted one, port of the Brooklyn Public Library and to stop contributions to special objects, and other affiliated libraries. Among these increase gifts to a general fund that can be latter is the Cathedral Library of the Roman administered by experts who presumably Catholic Church, which is partly supported make up their executive boards. Givers by bequests made with the condition that it ought to have sufficient grace to stand this shall remain under the control of the Cathestrain, but they do not seem to have it. dral, and of course, is wholly under Roman

Catholic ecclesiastical supervision. The increasing emigration of Greeks to A few weeks ago Archbishop Corrigan the United States in late years has attracted delivered an address in New York in which considerable attention. Newspapers reported he declared that the carrying out of Mr. that in a single month of this year 2,000 Carnegie's plan will be at the expense of the young Greeks sailed for this country, owing Cathedral Library, and that in common with chiefly to agricultural depression in Greece. the other affiliated libraries it will lose its auThe number of Greeks now living here is tonomy. He claimed also that “ there is a estimated at 30,000. Chicago is said to lamentable dearth of books giving our point have the largest Greek colony.

of view on burning questions of the day" in

the public libraries, and he thought it only Probably no man in this country has toiled fair that the Roman Catholics of New York more faithfully and successfully for the should have "three or four distributing cenamelioration of the harsh conditions of tene- ters” from the sixty-five for which Mr. ment house life than Jacob A. Riis, who, Carnegie's gift provides. This raises an though a newspaper reporter, is a sociologist interesting question as to whether a public and philanthropist of the highest type. The story of his life, which will shortly appear under the title “ The Making of an American,” is a remarkable recital of hardships, of indomitable courage, of contagious optimism, of generous devotion to the needs of humanity, and of the achievement of what is practically a revolution in social, domestic, and sanitary conditions among the foreign tenement house population of New York.

Considering the work done by Mr. Riis for the betterment of conditions among the foreign poplation of New York's east side it was particularly appropriate that the King's Daughters should call their new settlement house on Henry street“ The Jacob A. Riis House.” The work of these devoted women on the East Side had its inspiration ten years ago in Mr. Riis, who had for years been in the habit of distributing flowers from his garden on Long Island among the poor chil

AGGY — "I'll promise to keep the hornets off if you'll dren of that section of the city. When the make it worth my while.” --Minneapolis Tribune,

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library should have any particular religious with success in its attempts to persuade state body in view in the selection and distribution legislatures to enact satisfactory bird laws. of its books. While it is probably true, as This excellent record of deeds done has Archbishop Corrigan states, that the Roman encouraged the union to make a second Catholics number about one-half of the city's urgent appeal for funds. Money given will population, yet there is quite as much be used to extend the work to the South reason and justice in a demand for special and Atlantic and Gulf coasts, where there is exclusive distributing centers for the Hebrews, even greater need of bird protection than who form a considerable portion of New York's in the north. Mr. William Dutcher, of 525 population, as for the Roman Catholics.

Manhattan avenue, New York City, is treas

urer of the fund. The practical reasons for For Memorial Day last year coast towns of preserving sea birds are that they are beauCalifornia instituted a unique and beautiful tiful, and that they are economically valuable, form of paying tribute to the sailor-soldiers, being incalculably serviceable as scavengers whose unknown graves are in the sea. The

and as guides to fishermen and mariners. schools took active interest, and bands of children marched to bluff or wharf or water's

With the close of the study courses which edge and cast their flowers on the face of have been appearing in this magazine for the the ocean, their voices blending in patriotic current nine months, it is interesting to song with the murmur of the waves. The recall the fact that members of the faculties idea met with acknowledgment from the of seventeen leading institutions of learning White House, and with sincere approval by have been numbered among CHAUTAUQUAN Admiral Sampson, Admiral Schley, Secretary contributors. To enumerate:

Adelphi,

Wm. C. Lawton. Long, and other naval officials.

Allegheny,

W. A. Elliott.
Amherst,

Edwin A. Grosvenor. A little more than a year ago the Ameri- American School of Clascan Ornithologists' Union named a special Brown,

sical Studies at Athens, Rufus B. Richardson.

J. Irving Manatt. committee to devise means to keep sea birds Case School,

Walter T. Peirce. out of the hands of milliners. An appeal Cornell

,

J. R. Sitlington Sterrett. for funds brought in enough money to secure

Wm. P. Trent.
Columbia,

Garrett Biblical Institute, Charles M. Stuart. competent wardens for the protection of all

Harvard

T. N. Carver. the colonies still left on the Atlantic coast McCormack Theological from Cape Charles, Virginia, to Maine. A Seminary,

George L. Robinson. Oberlin

Adelia A. Field Johnston. new federal law now makes it a punishable

Princeton,

John Finley. offense to export from a state any birds or Tufts,

Edwin A. Start. animals unlawfully killed therein, or to University of the South, Benjamin W. Wells. receive such birds or animals in any other University of Virginia, James A. Harrison. state. This law, which is being properly

Western Reserve,

Pres. Chas. F. Thwing,

F. M. Warren, enforced by the Department of Agriculture,

H. N. Fowler, is prompting common carriers to refuse to

J. W. Perrin. transport birds and animals. Finally, the American Ornithologists' Union is meeting The author of “The Human Nature Club,"

the fourth “Required Book” in the C. L. S. C. course this year, is Dr. Edward L. Thorndike, instructor in genetic psychology at the Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. Dr. Thorndike graduated from Wesleyan University in 1895, spent the two following years at Harvard University, was university fellow in psychology at Columbia University in 1897-98, and received the degree of Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University in 1898. He has published various researches in the field of animal psychology and educational psychology, and

is assistant editor of the Popular Science DINING WITH THE PRESIDENT.

Monthly, and lecturer on psychology at the - Cleveland Plain Dealer. Wood's Hole Marine Biological Laboratory.

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INTEROCEANIC WATERWAYS.

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BY GEORGE B. WALDRON.
ESS than forty miles of land divides Cortes ordered the viceroy of New Spain to

the world's two biggest oceans in undertake the cutting of the same isthmus.
the western hemisphere; yet, after But the wars of Spanish-American indepen-
four hundred years of discovery, dence intervened, and Spain, shorn of her

settlement, and development, the sovereignty in these colonies, lost also her barrier remains as stubborn as ever. Ships opportunity to connect the oceans. that ply between our eastern and western Three routes in general have been proshores must make the journey of half a posed for canals from the Atlantic to the hemisphere around stormy Cape Horn, Pacific. The first is across the Isthmus of or take the longer course through the Suez Darien at its narrowest point — the famous canal. In the meantime, our nation has Panama route. Another takes advantage of taken first rank in wealth, trade, and power the mighty inland lake of Nicaragua and its among the world's forces.

tributary rivers. The third is through MexThe easy western water route to the Indies, ican territory, across the Isthmus of Tehuansought by Columbus, is yet to be laid open. tepec. The Tehuantepec route is not at Balboa, as he stood on the mountain heights present a live issue. Twenty years ago it overlooking the Pacific, thought that he was was revived by the daring proposition of on the brink of the discovery. Hendrik James B. Eads, the famous American Hudson, a century later, sailed up the river engineer, whose jetties on the Mississippi that bears his name, and believed that the yet stand as a monument to his genius. Mr. secret was his. But the time-lock for the Eads's proposition was to build a railroad opening of the Pacific treasure-house was across the isthmus from ocean to ocean over not set for the fifteenth century, nor even which the largest vessels could be bodily for the nineteenth. May it not be set for transported. This plan is not wholly a the new century?

dream, for just such ship railroads, on a The proposal to pierce the isthmus was smaller scale, are already in operation. made as early as 1520 by Angel Saavedra. Mr. Eads's road was to run from Salina After Cortez had marched his army into Old Cruz, on the Pacific, almost due north 154 Mexico, and after he stood in the halls of miles to Barra, on the Gulf of Mexico, the the Montezumas, he, too, thought to open maximum height above the sea level being an easier way to the Pacific. He ordered a 755 feet. It was to be composed of four survey of the route across the Isthmus of parallel tracks. The ship, resting on a Tehuantepec. Then for three centuries the cradle placed in position while it floated in project slumbered, until in 1814 the Spanish the harbor, would be drawn along the track

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CHART SHOWING NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL ROUTES OF CANAL TRADE. (Reproduced, by permission, from “ The Nicaragua Canal and the Monroe Doctrine," by L. M. Keasbey, published by G. P. Putnam's Sons.)

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by four engines, each on its own track. De Lesseps himself visited Panama. ConEads estimated the cost of such a ship rail- gresses were called, and the wisest men of road at less than nineteen million dollars. France consulted. De Lesseps came to the The Mexican government granted him a con- conclusion that six hundred million francs cession for fourteen years, from May 6, ($116,000,000) would suffice to build the 1881, and the entire strength of his genius canal, and the “ Company of the Interoceanic was devoted to the perfecting of the details Canal of Panama” was formed in 1880 to do of his plans. He labored for eight years, the work. De Lesseps called for subscripwhen death cut short his work, and the proj- tions of 590,000,000 francs capital stock. ect has never been revived. It is interesting So potent was the magic of his name, so to note, however, that the Mexican govern- fully did France believe in the success of the ment has since run a railroad of the ordinary enterprise, that the entire amount was subtype over nearly this same route. This road scribed twice over. More than a hundred was poorly built and badly equipped; so a thousand people, of whom sixteen thousand few months ago it was turned over to Pear- were women, put their hard-earned francs son & Co. of London, a famous contracting firm which is spending immense sums on the road and terminal harbors.

When gold was discovered in California in 1849, one of the first problems raised was that of quick transportation to the Pacific coast. Again the interoceanic canal question became a popular issue. But even at that early day the railroad had demonstrated its peculiar fitness as a pioneer. A route for a railroad was laid across the Isthmus of Darien, and American capital poured in to build the road. Dangers from climate, for

MAP SHOWING THE PANAMA, NICARAGUA AND TEHUANTEPEC ROUTES. est, and precipice needed to be overcome. It was said that a China- into De Lesseps's hands. The first ground man was buried with the laying of every was broken in 1881, and for six years theretie. American pluck triumphed, and in after the work was prosecuted to the satis1855, for the first time in history, trains faction of the hundred thousand stockholders. were running from ocean to ocean.

The first plans of De Lesseps were for a But the canal project would not down. It sea-level canal across the isthmus. But the was a favorite topic of the magazine. It expense of digging was found far too high, often came before learned bodies. In 1875 and M. Eiffel, a noted engineer, was called it was brought up for formal discussion in to design a series of locks. This was the before the Congrès des Sciences Géogra- first cloud on the horizon of the confiding phiques at Paris. Exploration followed, and stockholders. If their idol could be mistaken in 1878 the Colombian government granted in one essential point might he not be in the “ Civil International Interoceanic Canal others? In March, 1889, the blow fell. Society" the exclusive privilege of building Work was stopped on the canal for lack of the canal through Colombian territory. The funds. Six hundred million francs had been eyes of France naturally turned toward M. swallowed up, and the canal was yet far from de Lesseps. To him belonged the glory of completed. When the books were opened to cutting apart the eastern continents with public scrutiny, little more than half the funds the Suez canal. What more appropriate could be accounted for in work actually done than that he should round out his career on the canal. The awful scandal that folwith a similar achievement in the western lowed is a matter of recent history. With hemisphere?

De Lesseps fell not only those immediately

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