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it is because the Socialist deputies have been daily wages. The employer will be required to consolidly arrayed on its side.

tribute an equal sum in each case. The money will be Several labor measures have been enacted, focal securities. After the age of sixty-five any work

paid to and invested by the government in national or and tax reforms have been instituted. The man can demand a pension based on these payments. supremacy of the civil power has been To workmen disabled before the age of sixty-five the asserted and vindicated, and the intrigu- francs a year. Workmen who are sixty-five at the

ing generals whose time the law goes into effect will receive a pension not
anti-Dreyfusism was exceeding one hundred francs a year if they have
carried to dangerous worked for thirty years. Those under sixty-five will be
lengths have been similarly dealt with on reaching that age.
reduced to obedience. It is estimated that the state will have to
The so-called Nation- contribute 7,000,000 francs the first year,
alists are still sow- and that the amount will steadily increase
ing discord and dis- thereafter, reaching a maximum of 90,000,-
affection, but their000 francs in the eighteenth year, and then
influence is small, decreasing gradually to an annual charge,
and the stability of on the average, of 45,000,000 francs. As
the republic is taxation is heavy in France and the expendi-
greater than ever. tures are increasing at a rather disquieting
A general election is rate, some statesmen believe the pension
shortly to be held, scheme to be impracticable, if not ruinous.
and all the indica- But few deputies venture to oppose it, and

tions are that the there are Radicals who criticize it as falling SENOR LUIS F. COREA,

country will return a short of the requirements of justice and New Minister from Nicara- decisive majority of humanity. The act will undergo modificagua to the United States.

Republican deputies tion, as the trade unions have been invited and repudiate the enemies of the existing to offer suggestions freely and the cabinet is régime. The recent elections for the councils- ready to entertain friendly amendments. general in the departments resulted in over- The essential provisions, however, will stand, whelming Republican success. In but four and a landmark in “social legislation ” will departments are the new councils anti-Repub- have been established by the Republican lican. Evidently France is in favor of peace ministry of Waldeck-Rousseau. and the policy of the coalition now in power. The last, and perhaps the most important,

It might not be entirely correct to say that act of the French chamber of deputies prior the present general movement throughout to the prorogation was the voting of the first the country in behalf of public libraries is article of the government's bill for work- due to the liberality of Andrew Carnegie, but men's old-age and invalid pensions. This it is undoubtedly true that widespread interbill is an extraordinaryone in many re- est has been aroused because of his gifts. spects, and while it has encountered much In many places to which his generosity has opposition, it is certain to pass parliament not extended movements are under way for and become law. Great Britain has been the higher development of the people through discussing “universal” old-age pensions, the medium of the public library. In fact, but the South African war has banished this movement has become one of the that great social reform from practical greatest educational developments of the politics. France will be the first great nation

generation. to follow the example of New Zealand and

One of the chief fostering influences of this Denmark in the direction of making provi- movement is the woman's club, which in varision for the industrial army of the state.

ous parts of the country has made a special The act applies to all workmen, including effort in this direction. There are now agricultural laborers, but not to small mer- between thirty and forty state federations chants or other independent non-salaried of women's clubs in this country, and these elements. The beneficiaries of the pension comprise a large number of individual clubs, system will number about 8,300,000. The representing many thousands of women. In details of the plan are summarized as follows: nearly every one of these organizations there

Every workman under sixty-five is to be required to is a standing committee on library extension, pay one cent a day if he is under eighteen and earns and this committee is specially charged with less than two francs. For those above eighteen the the duty of urging the establishment of free compulsory deduction will be two cents a day on wages between two and five francs, and three cents on higher public libraries wherever possible. The


result is that in many states the traveling state as frequently as they may desire. In library has become a part of the library sys- isolated villages and school districts, where tem, and in several states where the traveling there are no public library advantages whatlibrary system has not yet been adopted, the ever, the traveling library is of especial value. federated clubs have put in circulation trav It would be well if every village could have eling libraries of their own. Eighteen state its own collection of books for free distribution, library commissions are now in existence, and it would seem and some of these owe their existence to the that such a result coöperation of the women, as for instance might be achieved at that of the state of Iowa, which was estab- the expense of a little lished last year largely through the influence enterprise and public of women's clubs, of which there are 224 in spirit. As a remarkthe state, representing 8,000 women. able instance of this

The Iowa traveling library is in some sort, the village of respects a unique institution. There are Greenup, Illinois, now between eighty and ninety fifty-volume might be mentioned. sub-libraries, made up of miscellaneous books, This place has a popuand a number of juvenile libraries. The plan lation of about one is to make it possible for an individual or thousand, and the association deprived of the advantages of a citizens decided to good local library to secure at the simple cost create a library, deof transportation any book or collection of pending wholly upon books. This idea has been eagerly seized their own resources.

DR. DANIEL PURINTON, upon in many villages of the state, where a This scheme also club, for example, interested in the study of originated with the New President of the Uni

versity of West Virginia. art, history, criticism, or household econom- woman's club, and it ics, or indeed any other subject, is enabled was not long before every resident of the to borrow from the state a well-selected village was interested. A “ book shower" collection of books such as it may need, and held at one of the churches brought out 282 to retain it either three or six months. desirable books as a beginning, and in a little

The value of such a system is readily seen, while this was increased to one thousand volespecially in its relation to the higher devel- umes. Later five hundred more were added, opment of the rural community. In Iowa and many contributions of money were there are a large number of small libraries received. A room in the schoolhouse was of less than two thousand volumes, and it fitted up as a library, the local carpenters greatly increases the value of these libraries furnishing the shelving and the work of conto secure fifty additional books from the struction as their contribution to the good

cause, and the librarians served without compensation. The village has now a good library, and the public spirit of the community has been greatly quickened.


An interesting experiment is being tried by the American Publishers' Association, in accordance with a plan formulated a year ago and discussed in these pages. The condition of the bookselling trade has steadily gone

from bad to worse in late years, owing to severe competition, lack of uniformity in prices, and the rivalry of the department stores. Many of the smaller dealers have been forced to add other “ lines” to their trade, and the old type of bookseller -- the purchaser's guide, counsellor, and friend – has nearly disappeared. The public, too, has suffered through the absence of a fixed price on books, for each dealer charged what he pleased and thought " safe."

After a great deal of intelligent discussion


-- Minneapolis Journal.


the reputable publishers of the country managed to get the books is clearly at liberty evolved a scheme designed to help the retail to sell them at any price he may see fit dealer without injuring the book-buyer. On even below cost. Some department stores May 1 it went into effect for a year's trial. may go into the publishing business on their If successful, it may be renewed. Here are the own account. Whether it is possible to main features of the plan: all copyright books rehabilitate the book trade and restore its

except current former dignity and importance to letters is fiction, school books, decidedly an open question. and subscription books are to be

The National Council of Women, which listed at net prices, will meet in a three days' session September and at a twenty per 11, 12, and 13, is a remarkable expression cent reduction from of the modern woman's enterprise. This the prices heretofore energetic body, which has created the condiclaimed in catalogues tions out of which other federations might and advertisements. grow, is probably the most cosmopolitan There is no gain to body ever formed for the single purpose of the public or loss to elevating and strengthening the legal, moral, the publishers in this mental, and social conditions of a sex. Its reduction, for the scope is all-inclusive; its membership a real price of the remarkable aggregation of varying creeds, books not marked net aims, tastes, and nationalities. For fourteen has been twenty per years its progress has been steady and

cent below the adver- remarkable. Its first president was the late Late United States Consultised price. The Frances E. Willard ; its present presiding offiat Gibraltar.

dealers must main- cer is Mrs. Fannie Humphreys Gaffney. Out tain the net prices, illicit cutting of them of the council has grown the Canadian counbeing punishable with rigid boycotting. The cil which, in numbers, is even sturdier than discount to the dealers is to be twenty-five per the parent organization, the councils of cent, but any publisher may grant a higher Indiana, Illinois, Maine, Rhode Island, New or impose a lower discount. Libraries are to York, and Minnesota, and the great Internareceive a discount of ten per cent from the tional Council of Women. The latter binds retail price. When a publisher sells at retail

, the humanitarian and philanthropic women of he must not only sell at the listed price, but the United States, Germany, France, Sweden, must add the postal or express charges to all Norway, Italy, Denmark, Great Britain and customers ordering books from out of town. Ireland, New Zealand, Austria, Greece, and

There is no injustice to any of the parties Russia. It has already played an active part concerned in this arrangement. Its benefits in the correcting of false social and induswould be much greater if fiction were trial conditions. Among the most active included, for it is notorious that the book- branches of this strongly organized force is sellers dispose of more fiction than of any the Universal Peace Union, which works other kind of literature. Department stores along the lines of international arbitration; must observe the new rules or find their the National Association of Women of Amersupplies cut off. Some of them are opposed ican Liberty, whose endeavors are for the to the plan, and at least one store in New preservation of public schools from all York is selling the net books below the pub- sectarian tendencies and to see that money set lishers' prices. It seems to have no difficulty aside for the sustenance and establishment in obtaining all the books it wants, a fact of public schools shall not be diverted to the which indicates laxity and breach of agree- use of any sect whatever; the National ment somewhere. There has been some talk Association of Business Women, designed to of appealing to the courts to enjoin the aid in every way the individual worker and recalcitrant store from underselling the reg- to protect her rights as trades-unions protect ular dealers, but it is doubtful if a case for the interests of the masses. Incorporated judicial intervention can be made out. The with the National Council are societies for publishers' agreement involves no monopoly rescue work among women; benefit societies and no restraint of trade, and they would that issue death policies and are provided probably be upheld in their refusal to supply with funds for sick members; the National with books those who decline to accept their Council of Jewish Women, established for conditions. But he who, in some way, has the purpose of deepening and strengthening


the religious feeling and training among chil- Women who are twenty-five years of age, dren of their race, and especially for sur- have had fixed places of abode for five years, rounding the families of newcomers with the and pay taxes on an income of not less than best influences.

three hundred kroner (eighty-one dollars) in Perhaps the boldlest step taken thus far by the country or four hundred kroner in cities, this amalgamated club body is the admission or live with husbands who pay these amounts, to its councils of the National Association of are to have the same rights as men in voting Colored Women, the first national organiza- and holding office in municipalities. Many tion of the educated colored women in intelligent women are still debarred from the America to help their own race. Its primary suffrage under the property qualification, but object is to secure a willing coöperation the step toward complete enfranchisement among colored people that shall work toward is a long one. The agitation will continue, a lessening of the disabilities that attend the leaders in the movement demanding natheir work in practically all lines; the tional suffrage as well for all the women of strengthening of their own lives, and to raise Norway. The Woman Suffrage Association the standards in housekeeping and in the was organized in that country in 1884, and home. Their motto is “ Lifting as we climb.” the chief leader is Miss Gina Krog, now fifty

years old, a refined, educated, and talented From time to time the progress of woman writer and speaker. suffrage has been recorded in these pages. In the United States and in New Zealand the

Horatio J. Sprague, “the father of Amergreatest victories have been won by the per- ica's consular service," died at Gibraltar, sistent advocates of political equality and July 18, at the age of seventy-seven.

Mr. truly universal suffrage, but in Europe the Sprague represented the United States at movement is by no means barren of notable Gibraltar fifty-three years. He was born of and significant results. In Great Britain American parents at Gibraltar and lived there they have been discussing the expediency of all his life, having visited his own country enabling women to serve on municipal gov- but once. During his official career Mr. erning boards, and even conservative organs Sprague entertained three presidents who have urged this reform on the ground that traveled abrcad after leaving the White on questions of education, sanitation, dwell- House - Fillmore, Pierce, and Grant. Mr. ings, housing of the poor, parks, and other Sprague is said to have successfully met local interests the voices and votes of ear

severe official difficulties during the Civil war nest, public-spirited women would be a potent and the Spanish war. He seems to have factor for good. But the lead in this respect been kept at his post because of his efficiency. has been taken by little Norway, that thrifty, progressive, model nation. By a law passed by the Storthing only a few months ago cer The new White Star liner Celtic reached tain classes of women are enfranchised so her dock in New York August 4 after her far as municipal politics and administration maiden voyage from Liverpool. The Celtic are concerned.

is the largest boat in the world, being 700 Municipalities in Norway are independent feet long, 75 feet broad, and 49 feet deep. in the management of their own affairs. Her gross tonnage is 20,880. She can Their governing councils are composed of accommodate 2,859 passengers and a crew from twelve to forty-eight members, accord- of 335. At the same time she can carry ing to the population. The members serve 12,000 tons of freight. She has nine decks. gratuitously and the term is three years. It is interesting in this connection to note

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that the Great Eastern, launched more than tively and pictorially the topic uppermost in forty years ago, was nearly as pretentious in the public mind, concerning which people size. The Great Eastern, the disastrous his- want to be well informed. With this series tory of which is familiar to all, was 692 feet as a basis, the magazine couples special long and 83 feet broad. Her gross tonnage articles dealing at greater length with parwas 18,915. She was propelled both by ticular phases from time to time, and in the paddles and screw. She could accommodate, editorial section of “ Highways and Byways" though not in accordance with our ideas of current happenings are treated so as to point comfort, about 4,000 passengers.

out their relation to the great permanent factors involved in the chief topic under

consideration. Readers of this magazine will notice that in this issue a portion of the contents bears there, and skim an article somewhere, gain,

Most people read a bit here, pick up a bit relation to the subjects of the Italian-Ger- ing only a mass of indistinct, unrelated man year of reading for the Chautauqua impressions. THE CHAUTAUQUAN, by giving Literary and Scientific Circle, which begins in October. The subjects of the nine-months' torical view of the important topic of the day,

a comparatively brief but comprehensive hisreading course ensuing appear in four books: sets up a standard in relation to which all “Men and Cities of Italy” in three parts, one's reading on this subject naturally falls by James Richard Joy, Elizabeth Wormeley into place. The detached, floating, incomLatimer, and J. A. R. Marriott; “Studies plete news of the hour is referred to a standin the Poetry of Italy,” by Frank J. Miller, ard of comparison, gaps are filled, relative University of Chicago, and Oscar Kuhns, importance is established, and the essentials Wesleyan University; “ Imperial Germany, by Sidney Whitman;'“ Some First Steps'in are the more easily remembered through the

law of association. In other words, one has Human Progress,” by Frederick Starr, Uni- established a base-line of discrimination, versity of Chicago. A part of the contents from an intelligent student point of view; of the magazine each month will be correlated with these subjects. “A Reading ing concerning current events.

one will get definite results from one's readJourney in Central Europe” will cover Italy

This method is not only sound in an educaand portions of Germany and Austria. A

tional sense, but we believe it is a real timeseries of “ Critical Studies in German Litera

saver for people nowadays, for whose ture” and a series of “ Inner Life Studies of historic figures in Italy and Germany will attention all kinds of publications clamor.

Specifically, the coming series on “Formabe presented. Attention is called in this tive Incidents in American Diplomacy” will issue to “ A Florentine Monk's Romance,

hang“ on line" for us, as artists would • The Beatification of a Saint,” “ The Ruin and Legend of Kynast,” “ A Pestalozzian in the policy which has been pursued by the

say, pictures of the significant developments Pilgrimage,” and “A Black Hussar at United States in its relations with other counWaterloo," as features suggestive of the tries, from the beginning to the present day topics about to be taken up in popular sys- of our supreme" international importance. tematic form.

At the end of nine months we shall have

learned what contributions the United States In this connection emphasis may be prop- has made to the machinery and spirit of erly laid upon what we are pleased to call international intercourse; how we have conthe Chautauqua method of studying current ducted ourselves internationally, and why the events to the best advantage. THE CHAU- current history of diplomatic developments TAUQUAN appeals to every person who desires is of paramount interest. to secure a correct perspective of current From these statements it will be seen that events. Two years ago the leading feature the magazine, by itself, seeks to present the was a series of illustrated articles on The best kind of current events course, for which Expansion of the American People”; during people who may not care for the entire C. the past year “ The Rivalry of Nations: L. S. C. course may be enlisted. A number World Politics of Today," was presented; of clubs and literary organizations have for the coming year Prof. E. E. Sparks, made a reading course out of the magazine author of the “Expansion” articles, will alone; for those who wish to specialize furnish the series on “ Formative Incidents further in this direction the C. L. S. C. office in American Diplomacy.” In such a series has formulated a special course of supplethe attempt is made to set forth authorita- mentary book reading.

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