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incorporating of this design into the basket a Hopi basket-maker at Mashongnavi, one signifies that its maker was desirous of propi- of the cliff cities of this interesting people tiating the evil power behind all rattlesnakes, whose Snake Dance has made them famous and that she constantly prayed that none of throughout the world. Connected with the them should ever harm any of her family. basketry of the Hopi are many singular facts. In this basket she kept the sacred meal There are seven villages of this people, and prepared by herself, but consecrated by the yet at only four are baskets made. Three shaman or medicine man, with many smok- of the villages — Mashongnavi, Shimopavi, ings, prayings, and other rites - which she and Shipauluvi - produce one kind of basket, daily sprinkled around her house and at a and Oraibi another. This engraving reprecertain shrine in order to secure the protec- sents the style made at the three villages. tion of herself and family from all evil. These baskets are more often found in the
round tray or plaque form, and are generally known as the sacred meal trays of the Moki. The name Moki should never have been given to these people by the whites. It is not their proper name, and is a term of reproach applied to them by the Navaho, on account of their uncleanly sanitary conditions. They call themselves the Hopituh, or People of Peace, and all wellinformed writers and speakers refer to them now as the Hopi. To return to the basketry. These trays receive the name “sacred trays” because they are used in the ceremonies of the Hopi to hold the sacred meal, without which no prayer is effective.
Meal is sprinkled upon every possible occasion.
Fig. 7 shows a number of Hopi women during the thrilling Snake Dance, standing where the dancers, carrying the snakes, pass them and so receive a pinch of the sacred and beneficial meal.
They are also thus FIG. 6. KUCHYEAMPSI, THE MASHONGNAVI BASKET WEAVER.
made the beneficiaries of the
prayers that accompany the A careful study of the various weaves sprinkling of the meal. The ceremony is found in North American basketry reveals most weird and interesting. wonderful ingenuity, taste, and skill. The In the finishing off of the baskets the Pomas alone have nine distinct weaves now Hopi woman is required by inexorable cusin use and five that are obsolete, all of which tom to symbolize her own physical state. have appropriate names; and there are
are There are three styles of finish, known perhaps twice as many other weaves in use respectively as “the flowing gate," "the by different peoples. To see the various open gate,” and “the closed gate.” The methods by which the stitches are made first is well illustrated in the rear basket to how colored splints are introduced; how the left in Fig. 6.
This is made by a strengthening ribs are placed; how the bottle- maiden. neck baskets are narrowed and again The open gate shows the ends of the inner widened; the various ingenious methods of grass cut off and the basket finished by finishing off the basket - all these afford tightly winding the wrapping thread of yucca subjects for interesting study.
over them, leaving about half an inch Fig. 6 is a photograph of Kuchyeampsi, exposed. This is the style of finish required
of a matron capable of bearing children. Colors, also, to the Indian are often sig
The closed gate, as its name implies, nificant of religious interpretation, and to shows the inner grass completely enclosed learn the many methods for producing splints in the yucca wrapping, and is the style of of pleasing color followed by the Indian finish observed by the barren married women woman, is to have a revelation of patience, and widows.
industry, skill, and invention. Nor are these facts all that are con Indian baskets can be made to contribute nected with these singular and interesting to the intellectual pleasures of any ladies' social revelations. Recently I learned that club or social gathering. Let a loan collecby a strange law of correlation between tion be made of as many baskets as can be symbol and thing symbolized existent in the found. Then let some intelligent and interHopi mind, the simple-hearted maiden or ested member of the club prepare a paper or mother weaver implicitly believes that if she deliver an extempore talk covering the closes the “flowing" or "open" gate of following points: the geographical home of her basket, she produces a similar result in the tribe of the maker of the basket under her own condition, which thus precludes her, consideration; the weaver's own home; the in the one case, from becoming a happy material used in making the basket; how wife, and in the other deprives her of the the colors are made, and the significance further joys of motherhood. For to the of the design, whether imitative, convenunsophisticated and uncivilized “heathen” tionalized, imaginative, ideographic, Hopi woman marriage without many children symbolic. Such a talk could be followed by is unhappy and unblest.
a general discussion and exchange of ideas In some baskets the whole history of a that would prove to be profitable and instrucnation is symbolized, and to an intelligent tive to the whole company. sympathy expressed towards the weaver and Merely a loan collection could not fail to her ideas, I owe the gleaning of much myth- give interest and increase knowledge, and if, ological, traditional, and historical lore that to complement it, a number of photographs had hitherto entirely escaped ethnologists were placed on exhibition showing the and others interested in the history of the “majellas" making the baskets, considerable Indians.
added interest would be secured.
BY RANDOLPH ILTYD GEARE.
greater force to the American, or that metal work takes the form of a gold collar,
acts of sterling heroism. Deeds of in enamel, and below them are the arms of valor have for ages formed the favorite Vermont, the admiral's native state, with themes of bards in every land, and the nation the motto, “Freedom and Unity," and the is unknown which fails in some degree, colors of the shield in enamel. Stars serve at least, to appreciate and honor the bravery to decorate the plain part of the collar, and of its warriors.
a graceful finish The United States govern
part of the hilt ment, from its
by a narrow incipiency,
band of oark grasped the
leaves. The importance of
grip is covered this fact, and
with fine sharkhas bestowed
skin bound with thousands of
gold wire and medals upon its
inlaid with gold military and
stars. naval heroes.
The guard is Swords, too,
composed of a have been pre
conventional sented by con
eagle, terminatgress, or pur
ing in a claw, chased from the
clasping the families of the
top, indicating heroes and
“ control and given to the
confidence"; nation as a last
the outspread ing tribute to
wings form the their fame.
guard proper. There is prob
The expression ably hardly
of the eagle is any one in the
that of cool decountry who has
termination. not read again
The bird, while and again the
firm, still bears account of the
a message of From a photograph Joaned by Tiffany & Co., designers and makers of the sword. victory which
peace in the THE DEWEY SWORD. Admiral Dewey
laurel wreath won over the Spanish fleet in Manila bay held in its beak. The wreath serves as a proon May 1, 1898. For this, congress voted tection, covering the point of the beak, and a costly sword, which was presented to preserving the proper outlines of the guard. him in October, 1899, by the president.
The scabbard is of thin steel, damascened The sword, with the exception of the in gold with sprays of ros marinus, a delisteel blade and the body metal of the scab- cate sea plant, signifying fidelity, constance, bard, is made entirely of 22-karat gold. On and remembrance. Sprays of oak leaves and the pommel is carved the name of the battle- acorns secure the rings and trappings of the ship Olympia, and the zodiacal sign for scabbard; above these, on the front of the December, the month of Admiral Dewey's scabbard, is a raised monogram in brilliants birth. Circling these, there is a closely (diamonds) entwining the letters “G. D.," woven wreath of oak leaves, the standard and immediately under them are the letters
THE GRANT RELICS. 1. Epaulets worn by Grant as brigadier-general at Belmont, Fort Donelson and Shiloh (1861-62). 2. Epaulets worn by Grant as lieutenant-general in the last campaign before Richmond and Petersburg. 3. General's epaulets worn by Grant after close of the war. 4. Hat ornament worn by Grant at Belmont, November 7, 1861. 5. Hat ornament worn by Grant at Fort Donelson, February 6, 1862. 6. The New York sword. 7. The sword of Chattanooga. 8. The sword of Donelson. 9. Field glasses used by Grant during Civil war. 10. Case for field glasses (No. 9). 11. Military buttons taken by Mrs. Grant from General Grant's coats as mementos. “U. S. N.," surrounded by sprays of ros and ornamented with the oak leaves and marinus. The ferrule, or lower end of acorns. The bullion tassel and embroidered scabbard, terminates in entwined gold belting is specially made, and much superior dolphins.
to that usually employed. The sword was The sword-blade is damascened with the designed and made by Tiffany & Company of
New York. The gift of the Nation to Rear-Admiral George
The city of Boston also presented Admiral Dewey, U. S. N., in Memory of the Victory Dewey with a sword, and both of these at Manila Bay, May 1st, 1898.
swords, together with the other presents The letters are of an ornamental charac- showered upon him by a grateful nation, have ter, and sufficiently large to be dignified. been on exhibition in the National Museum. The Phenician galley, representing the first It is unfortunate that they are now withcraft of the navies of the world, supplies the drawn, temporarily at any rate, for not a rest of the ornament on this side of the day passes during which numbers of visitors, blade. On the other side of the blade is who have come perhaps hundreds of miles to shown the flight of the eagles of victory, see them, are not heard to express keen bearing festoons of laurel to the four quar- disappointment. ters of the earth.
Two swords of General James Shields are The mounting of the belt and the trap- exhibited. They were purchased from his pings are the regulation buckles, pierced widow and children in honor of his gallant slide rings and swivels, all of 22-karat gold, services in the Mexican and Civil wars, and
several thousands of dollars were paid for in fight with two British vessels, the Serapis them. One was presented to him by the and the Countess of Scarborough. The Bonstate of South Carolina, and the other by the homme Richard was inferior both in size and state of Illinois. General Shields was an in armament. In the beginning of the fight Irishman by birth. He came to this country the American vessel was worsted, and, when in early life, and at the commencement of in an almost sinking condition, Jones was the Mexican war was appointed a brigadier- asked to surrender. He replied that he general in the United States army.
hadn't commenced fighting yet, and that he A handsome sword and medal were pre- would not strike his colors till he had been sented by congress to Commodore Jesse fairly beaten. Not long afterwards the Duncan Elliott for capturing two British British ships were forced to give up the fight. vessels (Detroit and Caledonia) at Fort Erie, A sword given to John Paul Jones by the king while serving under Perry. The exploit was of France is also exhibited, together with the remarkable for the lightning speed with simitar, as well as a sword, musket, and which it was arranged and carried out. It piece of the flag from the Serapis, and the is said that after the expedition left Buffalo entire flag from the Bonhomme Richard. Creek, hardly ten minutes elapsed before the Later John Paul Jones entered the Russian vessels and their men were made captives. navy and served under the Prince of Nassau Crowds of people watched the brilliant cap- in a war against the Turks. The Turkish ture from the shores. There is also exhibited fleet being destroyed, Jones retired from the the simitar, with hilt beautifully ornamented service and went to Paris, where he died in with gold, which was presented to Commo- 1792, and was buried with every honorable dore Elliott during his command of the distinction at the expense of the French United States squadron in the Mediterranean National Convention. An effort is now being (1835 - 36).
made by congress to have his bones exhumed, The victories of Commodore James Biddle brought back to the United States, and are still fresh in the minds of students of buried beneath the flag he loved so well. American history. At the age of twenty Brigadier-General Gabriel René Paul, who nine he was appointed first lieutenant of the served with much distinction in the Seminole Wasp, and when six days out at sea fell in war, the war with Mexico, and the Civil with six British merchantmen convoyed by war, has bequeathed two of his swords to the Frolic. A terrific fight, ending with a the nation. One was presented to him by hand-to-hand encounter, ensued, and the the Twenty-ninth Regiment of New Jersey Wasp was victorious. His sword, presented volunteers, the other by the citizens of to him by the viceroy of Peru, has a curved Missouri for gallantry. It was he who led blade, a gold hilt set with five diamonds, the forlorn hope at the storming of Chapuland a jeweled scabbard. It now adorns the tepec, for which he was highly commended historical exhibit in the National Museum. by congress. Commodore Biddle was conspicuous in the There is an antique Spanish sword, a relic Tripoli war (1801 - 1805), the War of 1812, of the war with Mexico, which was presented and the war with Mexico. He was also instru- to Captain J. T. Ord, U. S. A., when in mental in negotiating a treaty with the Mexico. Prominent among the naval heroes Ottoman empire in 1830 – 32, and in 1845 of that war was Commodore Matthew Calwas appointed one of the commissioners to braith Perry, brother of Commodore Oliver ratify a treaty with China.
Hazard Perry. The story of his capturing By no means the least interesting object in several pirate ships in the West Indies is full the national collection is a Moorish flint-lock of exciting interest. Later he was engaged gun, ornamented with silver and coral, which in the siege of Vera Cruz, and in 1852 comwas presented by the emperor of Morocco to manded an expedition to the China seas and President Thomas Jefferson. A naval cutlass, Japan, which resulted in the negotiation of captured from the English ship Serapis by a treaty that opened the Japanese ports to John Paul Jones, commanding the Bonhomme American commerce. While with the Concord Richard, is a reminder of the pluck of that at Alexandria in 1832, Ali Pasha, bey of indomitable fighter. In 1779 he sailed for Egypt, presented him and several of his the British coast for the purpose of inter- officers with thirteen simitars, all of which cepting the British Baltic fleet. After a adorn this exhibit. number of thrilling adventures, which are Enhanced by the luster of his grandson's well recorded in Wilson's “ American Mili- bravery at the battle of La Guasima, Cuba, tary and Naval Heroes" (Vol. I.), he engaged and of his son's warlike deeds through the