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tains — regiments of cuirassiers, artillery, guide and rode, in a dreadful storm, in the muskets. About ten o'clock I was ordered direction of the thunder of the cannon. into the city to procure food for the men Fortunately, I hit the desired point. After and horses of my regiment. While I was inquiry of an English officer at a picket how attempting this, the French marched in at the battle was going, he informed me that the other gate, and, of course, I said “Good- the English army was obliged to retreat. by” for the present. At the very first our This was good news for us. After several thirty thousand men were ordered to fall hours I arrived safe at our bivouac and made back at a slow pace, and thus Blücher's my report to the old general, who also was beautiful position had to be changed. This glad to hear the news.

He thanked me,

and day dreadful slaughter commenced; no quar- I turned on my heels. ter was given. Napoleon was determined At two o'clock in the morning of the 18th to crush Blücher first, because he feared of June we broke up and marched towards him, and then to finish Wellington. There- Wavre, where Blücher's corps concentrated fore he attacked Blücher's corps with his itself. After a long and dreadfully hard whole army and two hundred and forty pieces march — the whole day - and in spite of the of artillery. Foot for foot was disputed. great battle of the 16th and only one day's The village of St. Amand I saw taken and rest, and in spite of privation for men and retaken several times.

horses, we arrived at last, in full gallop, on At nine o'clock my light hussar regiment the field at Mont Saint Jean towards four was ordered to break a French square, but o'clock. Our brigade of four regiments of we were received with such a rain of balls cavalry was commanded by the brave Majorthat we became separated. Lützow was General von Folgersberg, Lützow having taken prisoner. Blücher's fine horse was been taken prisoner on the 16th. Hard work here killed under him, and an officer of my for the Prussian army again. Wellington regiment -Schneider gave_Blücher his was almost beaten when we arrived, and we horse and saved himself. The French cuiras- decided that great day. Had we arrived an siers drove us before them, but we soon hour later, Napoleon would have had Wellingrallied and drove them back. At this ton surrounded and beaten. moment Blücher was yet lying under his By nine o'clock in the evening the battlehorse. Nastich, his aid-de-camp, had cov- field was almost cleared of the French army. ered him with his cloak. After the French, It was an evening which no pen is able to driven before us, had passed, Nastich sprang picture. The surrounding villages were yet forward, took the first horse by the bridle, and in flames; the lamentations of the wounded Blücher was saved.

of both armies, the singing for joy, no one After eleven o'clock we left the field of could describe, nor could he find names to this great battle, and halted half an hour's give to the horrible scenes. During the distance. Exhausted, thirsty, and hungry, whole night we followed the enemy, and no I sucked clover flowers, halting in a large one can form an idea of the quantity of clover field. The French bivouac fires were cannon, baggage-wagons, etc., which lay on before our eyes. Neither party was con- the road along which the French retreated. quered. Napoleon estimated our loss in the Brandy, rice, chocolate, etc., in abundance French bulletin fifteen thousand men killed. fell into our hands. We also took Napoleon's Since no quarter was given on either side we carriage,' and amused ourselves with it. were not troubled with many prisoners. Among other things we found in it NapoSeveral of our brave generals were wounded. leon's proclamation, in which he said that

The next morning, early on the 17th (of he would dine at Brussels on the 18th, so June), we moved towards Wavre, ten miles certain was he of beating Wellington — not from Genappe, where we bivouacked. The expecting old Blücher and Bülow at Waterloo, rain fell in torrents all night. In the after- on account of the dreadful conflict of the 16th. noon we heard a brisk cannonade towards

At sunrise of the 19th we passed Genappe Quatre-Bras.

The English forces being and afterwards Quatre-Bras, where Wellingposted in that neighborhood, it was supposed ton was beaten on the 17th. Six miles that none except them could be engaged by beyond Quatre-Bras, to the right of the Napoleon. To guard, however, that my road, we rested till afternoon. The heat brigade might not come between two fires, I was ordered to reconnoiter in that direction

? This famous steel carriage has long been a conand make report to General Tresko.

spicuous object at Mme. Tassaud's on Baker street, I took

London. Doubtless many readers have personally three picked men of our lancers and a French investigated it.

was very severe. We marched forward the first which entered the city. Although again, crossed the road between Fleurys and the inhabitants hated the sight of the PrusGasly, the old grumbler, General Tresko, sians, it was astonishing to see the waving commanding our vanguard.

of white handkerchiefs at the windows in On the 20th, we marched to Charleroi every street we passed. The following was and passed Chatelet and crossed the river the march into Paris ; Chambre. Then we turned to the right, We arrived from Issy through the Gate of and here crossed the frontier of France. the Military School; crossed the Champ de

On the 21st, through Beaumont, in bivou- Mars over the bridge of Jena to the Champs ac; bad roads; found many obstacles in the Élysées, Place de la Concorde, Quai des forest made by the French to impede our Tuileries, Quai du Louvre, Quai d'École, advance.

Quai de la Grève, Quai St. Paul, Quai DelerOn the 22d, to Chappelle.

tin to the Place de la Bastille, to the Boulevard The 23d, rest-day.

St. Antoine, where we had to bivouac on the The 24th, near Gresen, a small fortress, pavement, and with nothing to eat or drink. in bivouac; Giesen surrendered this day. On the 8th, several of us, by permission,

The 25th, to Mai. Had a fine bivouac; visited some places of note the Jardin des provisions in plenty but at high price. Plantes, Musée d'Anatomie, Musée d'Histoire The 26th, to Majan.

Naturelle, Palais du Luxembourg, the Louvre In the morning of the 27th, to Campeigne with its picture gallery fourteen hundred which had been evacuated in the night by (sic) feet long; to the Palais Royal, to the the French. Passed the forest of Campeigne Jardin des Tuileries, and back. We witin the afternoon, near Crécy, and bivouacked nessed the entrance of King Louis XVIII. there.

There was an immensity of people. We On the morning of the 28th, Prince joked in the Hôtel de Niemen. William's dragoons took two pieces of ord On the 9th, after field-church, we were nance from the French. Our First Corps ordered to the Caserne Selection. concentrated here, and our cavalry attacked On the 10th, the king of Prussia arrived. Grouchy on the heights. Beaten, and left Dreadful fuss; on account of the unfriendly the rest of the artillery in our hands. We commotions on this occasion our cavalry had followed them up as far as Nanteuil, where to patrol the streets all night. we bivouacked. My regiment of hussars was On the 11th, to the theater. put under command of General Steinmetz. On the 13th, to the very great opera

The 29th, to Grau Drousie, twelve miles Castor et Pollux. from Paris, six miles from Mont Martre. On the 14th, to the Fabrique de Gobelins; Ruined Château of St. Denis. Beautiful then to the Palais de Luxembourg ; to the view of Paris and Mont Martre.

Panthéon and the catacombs with 2,400,000 The 30th of June and July 1, the first (sic) bodies; the church of Notre Dame; rest-days, it was hot. Nothing to praise. tour in the city to the Looking-glass Fac

On the 2nd of July we were relieved by tory; the Observatory; Hôtel des Invalides, the English and left, to the right, St. Denis with 4,800 inmates; the Panorama, and the which was yet in the hands of the French. Palais du Corps Législatif. We proceeded to St. Germain through Argen On the 16th, large parade, and then church. teuil, where I sold four horses. Here our To our great regret, we had to leave Paris army passed the river Seine.

on the 22nd; but the soldier has to obey orders. On the 3rd, to Mendun; in bivouac in the We marched to Versailles - Castle, splendid vineyards — charming bivouac. At our Garden ; Orangerie; Great and Small Trainon. arrival at Sèvres the French soon abandoned The 23rd, to the village of Bosemont; the bridge which was still defended by them. only average (mittel-mässige) quarters. The quantity of bivouac fires was an indescrib The 24th, to Bellechaise on the Seine, and able sight.

so on to Normandy, near Caën, towards the The 4th was rest-day.

Here we had first-rate quarters among On the 5th we had to change our beautiful the farmers, but only engaged these for two bivouac.

weeks. Then we were ordered to Picardy, The 6th was rest-day.

a poor country and poor people. Here we On the 7th of July, after a campaign of remained until the army was ordered home. twenty-three days, in action continually, we I had better luck than others of my fellow entered Paris. My brigade, which always officers, being commanded by Major-General led the van during the numerous actions, was von Lützow, and worked in his bureau for two


months. I had fine living and fun, but had here with whom I spent many pleasant hours. to write day and night.

Plenty of fun here — birthdays, punch-parWhen we arrived, on our march home, ties, and amusements of various kinds. near Versailles, I was ordered there with Shortly after we left France, and I arrived another officer to receive at this fortress safe. I had the good fortune to embrace provisions and forage for our troops. My my good old mother and all the rest. Wilquarters were in the hotel at the Big Docks. helm Geisse and Christie Dencklar had just I made the acquaintance of a Dutch captain arrived and saw me as a Black Hussar.



HE educational work of Protestant have taught in our own institutions before

to with the establishment of an Anglo- rule rather than the exception. Still others Chinese college at Malacca, where have left comfortable and even luxurious

Europeans might acquire Chinese homes to endure the deprivation and praclearning, and the Chinese, while being tical exile inseparable from their chosen grounded in western learning, might also be work. instructed in the principles of Christianity. In Peking, which is the educational center The school was removed to Hongkong in for North China, the various missionary 1844, and in the course of its history has boards provided comfortable residences sent forth hundreds of graduates.

for the corps of teachers, preachers, and From so small a beginning the various medical men and women whom they have academies, colleges, and universities, main- sent out. The building of substantial and tained and officered by American missions convenient houses was a matter of practical have increased until they have spread business sense, the Boxer uprising in which throughout the empire. The term “ Ameri- all were destroyed not being, of course, can” is used advisedly, for at least ninety foreseen. It was hoped that, by doing the per cent of foreign schools and hospitals are work well in the first instance, the structures endowed and supported by American mission- might last, instead of falling into speedy ary boards; while those that the Chinese decay. In every case a stated allowance themselves had begun to establish after the was fixed, to be expended in buildings, of western models were largely controlled by which a careful account was rendered; and, Americans chosen by the imperial govern- in one instance, at least - the Sleeper Davis ment. The educational institutions have not Memorial Hospital a considerable sum was been confined to the accessible parts, but returned to the donor after the building was they have been doing most efficient work completed and equipped, the full amount of even in the remote western and northern the bequest not being required. provinces.

The buildings of the various Peking misWhile it is true that there are among the sions stood within their own compound, or teaching corps the dull and the commonplace, grounds, which were many acres in extent. men and women of the most brilliant attain- The land had been secured by the purchase ments are also included. Of these may of native houses, at a price fixed by the be mentioned Dr. W. A. P. Martin, president government, and the houses were then torn of the Imperial University in Peking-a down. Each compound was graded, planted state institution founded and supported by with shrubs and such grass as could be the imperial government; Dr. Lowry of the induced to grow in the alkali soil, and the Methodist University; Dr. Pott of St. fine trees, which aside from the forests of John's College, Shanghai; Mrs. Charlotte the frontier survive only in the courtyards M. Jewell, and Professor Gamewell, whose of towns and cities, were carefully preserved. knowledge of engineering saved the British Strong brick walls, fifteen or twenty feet legation during the six weeks' siege. high, with two heavy gates — one at the

Many of the teachers in the mission schools front and one at the rear were built around have been thoroughly trained in American the entire compound. The gates could be normal schools, or have taken degrees, and closed and barred, and the gate-keeper, who

was on duty day and night, lived in an earth was beaten as hard and smooth as a adjoining lodge.

floor, which the pupils took special pride in The buildings comprised the residences of keeping clean. The doors and windows were the faculty, the school, college, hospital, protected from the drip of rain or melting and the Chinese houses of the students, snow by the broad, overhanging eaves. Each servants, and employees.

was furnished in Chinese fashion with a k'ang The Methodist mission in Peking with its or native bed. This is a brick platform, university, preparatory schools, Bible filling one end of the room, heated from a schools, and hospitals — all of which have square hole in the floor with pipes passing been destroyed -- was the most extensive, under the bed, upon which the occupants of modern, and well-equipped in all China. The the room not only slept at night rolled up in residences were plain houses of gray Chinese wadded comforters, but sat during the day to brick, built by a Chinese contractor who, study, sew, or gossip. The fuel used was supervised by the Americans, did his work “coal balls," which are composed of coalwell. The residences, although they would dust mixed with earth, and molded into balls. have been considered luxurious compared to These, after the gas had passed off — during those of other teachers elsewhere, were which process doors and windows must be left plainly but tastefully furnished. The floors open — became red-hot and retained the heat were covered with Chinese matting which for hours. The other appointments were a cost but a few cents a yard, or with the wash-stand — which was an innovation — a beautiful camel's hair rugs that were manu- Chinese table, and chairs or stools. The factured in Peking and warranted to last a floors were paved, and were regularly swept lifetime. These could be bought for ten or and scrubbed as they might require; instead twelve dollars, gold; a trifling sum for the of the paper windows which were made ragged purchaser, but representing ten or twelve by wind and rain, glass was supplied, and thousand cash to the Chinese manufacturer. this was considered the acme of luxury. All the residences were simply but tastefully The rooms were inspected daily, marks being furnished, the walls hung with pictures, and given for neatness, and demerits for untidiin each were bookcases with well-filled ness; the report being duly signed by the shelves — the private property of the occu- inspector and posted conspicuously, where pants, and generally gifts from their friends it met the eye not only of the pupil but of at home.

any chance visitor. As pride, or vanity, is The houses stood in a row, a comfortable one of the strongest traits of the Chinese, distance apart, a broad stone walk in front each person desiring to appear well in of each connecting the lawns and extending the eyes of his neighbors, this conspicuous nearly the entire length of the compound. posting of the inspector's report worked well This walk was invaluable, since it was the in both ways; the untidy pupil was shamed only place where a constitutional could be into better habits, and the neat were encourenjoyed in that city of “ dirt, dust, and aged to continued well-doing. disdain,” with its idle, staring crowds and Ordinarily, the lower and middle classes do horribly filthy streets.

not wear underclothing, and the people of Commendable wisdom has been shown by all classes, unlike the Japanese, are decidedly teachers everywhere and of every denomina- averse to bathing. The girls in all mission tion — for all have carried on their work schools are required to wear undergarments, upon much the same general plan — not to to change them regularly, and Saturday is denationalize the people among whom they the day set apart for the weekly plunge. are laboring. No other foreigners so well The water is heated in a huge kettle in the understand the weaknesses and the virtues of bath-house, and is carried to the big earthenthe Chinese, and the steadfast effort required ware bath-tub of the pattern seen everyto develop their noble traits and to help them where in the East. overcome those evils to which they yield In a short time the pupils look forward to most readily.

the advent of Saturday with great pleasure, In many respects the schools were models and seldom relinquish the habit of bathing for those in the United States. In the girls' when they leave school to take up their boarding-schools the pupils were not crowded abode in homes of their own. They are also together in dormitories, but lived, three or taught to wash their clothing, and for this, four together, in small Chinese houses. as for all the duties required of them, there These houses were ranged around a wide, is a fixed time. They make a sort of game open court, the playground, upon which the of it, bringing the small wooden tubs which

they use out in front of the door, rubbing taking his or her turn. The usual diet is and scouring in jolly rivalry, as they laugh rice, millet — which makes delicious porand talk over their work. When it is finished ridge - cabbage, carrots, turnips, soy, and they regard the rows of clean blouses and tea, with fish or meat two or three times a white cotton socks strung on the line with week. A certain number are detailed to commendable satisfaction. The clothes are prepare the vegetables, others superintend not ironed, but are smoothed before they are the cooking, while a third relay serves at quite dry, and are placed under a weight table. Food is supplied in abundance, and until not a wrinkle remains. That this is the pupils almost without exception are another innovation may be realized, when it healthy and well-nourished. is borne in mind that thousands of Chinese In addition to a knowledge of cookery, the wear clothing that is washed but twice in girls are taught to cut out, make, and mend the year: once, when the cotton wadding is their clothes; and, besides embroidery and removed in the spring, and again before it other fine needlework, for which they have is replaced in the autumn. All over north- an inherited aptitude, they are taught laceern China, at least, at these seasons the making, knitting, and crocheting, for which washerwomen may be seen busy at the they receive orders from foreign customers. streams, the results of their labor laid out This advances them, at once, to the dignity to dry wherever a place can be found — not and independence of wage-earners, and, from a trifling consideration in a land destitute of being unwelcome and dependent, they comgrass, shrubbery, and clothes-lines.

mand a respect and exercise an authority in Boys also, in their schools, take care of the family which is rare, indeed, among their rooms, are required to bathe, to wear Chinese women. underclothing, and to change it regularly. I saw one girl who had learned lace-makOne never sees among them any with soiled ing at school who made more than her father or ragged blouses, socks, or trousers. and brothers were able to earn by working

In the north the dress of both sexes is in the fields from the time the crops were much alike: a long blouse, drawers wound planted until they were harvested - a stateclosely about the calf and ankle, those worn ment that may be readily believed, since by the girls fastened neatly just above the Chinese laborers receive but a few cents a cloth shoe, with a pretty garter. Both girls day. and boys wear the queue, but the girls' heads I have dwelt at some length upon the conare not shaved above the forehead, and the sideration which is given the physical wellbeautiful braid that reaches below the waist being of pupils; one fact more should be is confined close to the head by many wind- mentioned, and that is the encouragement ings of cord — black for every day, rose- they receive to take active exercise, and the color for state occasions, and white, to efforts made to interest them in the athletic match their white garments, when they are games of western schools and colleges. With in mourning.

all the national industry, contradictory as it Neither girls nor boys have to be driven may seem, the Chinese student is slothful to their tasks; they are instinctively indus- and averse to exerting himself an inclinatrious. Work is second nature with them, tion intensified by an etiquette which places and they show the same and even more per- the utmost stress upon reserve, deliberation, severance in their studies, being anxious and and studied repose of manner. eager to learn. This inherited reverence But, with a taste for western science and for knowledge, which is almost universal, literature, Chinese lads, while they have not has lightened the labor of the foreign teacher abandoned their kite-flying and top-spinning, very materially.

are becoming proficient in leaping and runAs the pupils' manner of living is not ning, in tennis, football, and baseball. changed, except in the few particulars men- These active sports are doing more to abolish tioned, so they are given the food to which the foolish and slavish queue than all the they have always been accustomed, and with exhortations that could be brought to bear which, as Chinese, they must be content. against it. It is grievously in the way; Fortunately, it is the food which they prefer, propriety forbids that it should be worn in having a strong dislike for many staple any other fashion than neatly and smoothly articles of foreign diet, especially milk, braided, hanging down the back. In their butter, and cheese. In almost all the mission practise, should none of their instructors be schools — those for boys and girls alike — present, they deftly tuck it into the neck of the cooking is done by the pupils, each the blouse, and realize how comfortable and

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