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1781. They fought and pursued the Indians over the borders of North Carolina and Georgia. A few of them under Pickens and Lee were with Greene in his North Carolina campaign. Is not this a sufficient answer to the question as to the proportion of men which she furnished to the general cause? Can any State show better?

The condition of affairs in South Carolina was without parallel in the history of the Revolution. No other State was so completely overrun by British forces. There was no part of her territory, from the mountains to the seaboard, which was not trod by hostile forces, no ford nor ferry that was not crossed by armed men in pursuit or retreat, no swamp that was not cover to lurking foes. No other State was so divided upon the questions at issue, and in none other did the men of both sides so generally participate in the struggle. In none other were Tory organizations from other States so much used in connection with Royal troops to subdue American Whigs, thus attempting to carry out the British ministerial plan of overcoming Americans by Americans. While South Carolina received but little assistance from any State but North Carolina, and none from the North, her territory was garrisoned by Americans serving in the British army enlisted from Connecticut, from New York, from New Jersey, and from Pennsylvania. The British forces at King's Mountain and at Ninety Six were composed entirely of provincials raised in Northern States. Northern States furnished also several excellent Tory officers who operated with the British army in South Carolina. Among these were Lieutenant-colonels Turnbull and Cruger and Major Sheridan of New York, Lieutenant-colonel Allen of New Jersey, and two brilliant cavalry leaders from Massachusetts, Major John Coffin and Colonel Benjamin Thompson, afterwards Count Rumford. Pennsylvania, on the other hand, furnished the notorious Huck whose career was, however, soon ended. Connecticut sent the infamous Dunlap and Maryland the robber Maxwell. In no other State was the civil government set up by the Revolutionists so completely overthrown, and the country so given over to anarchy. The citizens of no other State suffered exile for the American cause as did those from South Carolina at St. Augustine. In other States the militia was occasionally engaged in operations with

the Continental forces, and sometimes, though rarely alone, in enterprises against the enemy. The complete overthrow of all civil government in South Carolina, rendering the employment of militia on either side within her borders impracticable, in their place partisan bands were organized by the Whigs, upon the nucleus of the old militia organizations, and, practically self-maintained for the last three years of the war, again and again upheld the struggle while there was not a Continental soldier in the State. The names of Sumter, Marion, and Pickens stand out in the history and romance of the United States, occupying a peculiar and unique position. And yet, neither they nor their followers could, for the brilliant services they rendered, be admitted to the Cincinnati Society. In no other State was there so much fighting and bloodshed. No State contributed so liberally of her means to the common cause of her sister States, a cause which was not originally hers; no State, we venture to assert, furnished so many men in proportion to her population in the actual warfare which ensued, nor so few upon the pension rolls of the country after it was over. More than a hundred battle-fields dot the map of South Carolina and blazon the glorious struggle of her people.

We may be permitted, in conclusion, to quote again, as we have before done in a former volume, the tribute of the great American historian to the conduct of the people of South Carolina when practically abandoned by Congress and its army.

"Left mainly to her own resources," says Bancroft, “it was through the depths of wretchedness, that her sons were to bring her back to her place in the republic, after suffering more and daring more and achieving more than the men of any other State."

GEORGE MCDUFFIE

[1790-1851]

E. L. GREEN

G

EORGE MCDUFFIE, son of John and Jane McDuffie, was born on the tenth day of August, 1790, in Columbia County, Georgia, about thirty miles from Augusta. His parents were natives of Scotland who had come to this country soon after the close of the Revolutionary War. In the neighborhood schools George McDuffie learned what little was taught in the backwoods schools of that day. From the country store of a Mr. Hayes he went to the store of James Calhoun in Augusta, where he was induced by the proprietor's brother, William Calhoun, to attend the famous school conducted by Dr. Moses Waddel at Willington, in Abbeville County, South Carolina. Here he was prepared in a remarkably short time for the junior class at the South Carolina College, which he entered in December, 1811. As at Willington, so at the college, he was easily the first in his class and graduated with highest honors in December, 1813. For several months he was compelled to leave college on account of the lack of funds and teach in a private family, which goes to prove that the assertion of his friend, Major Armistead Burt, was true, that George McDuffie owed his success more to his own indomitable will and pluck and less to the Calhouns than was generally supposed. His graduating speech on "The Permanence of the Union" was printed by the students.

Six months after he graduated McDuffie was admitted to the Bar and located at Pendleton; but, not meeting with success, he ran for the office of solicitor and was defeated. In 1815 he formed a partnership with Colonel Eldred Simpkins of Edgefield, which was the beginning of his rapid rise. Three years later McDuffie was in the State Legislature as a member of the lower house; three more years placed him in Congress, where, as in the General Assembly of South Carolina, he was soon one of the most prominent members of the House of Representatives. One who saw him a few years later describes him as not above medium height, his features large and striking. His nose was prominent and aquiline; his brilliant blue eyes were deeply set beneath a massive brow; his mouth, with lips finely chiseled, had the appearance of being compressed. He was by nature retiring and taciturn, but never awkward.

McDuffie was always a free trader; his whole soul was given to fighting the tariff, except for revenue. At first in favor of a liberal construction of the Constitution, which view he championed in a pamphlet signed "One of the People"-the cause of a duel in 1822 with Colonel Cummings of Augusta-he later became a Strict Constructionist and Nullifier, although he did not entirely agree with Mr. Calhoun in regard to the doctrine of Nullification. He has been called the "Orator of Nullification." He supported the United States Bank and urged the renewal of its charter in a brilliant report. In 1829 he married Miss Rebecca Singleton, who died the following year, leaving an infant daughter. As a reward for his distinguished services he was elected by the General Assembly of South Carolina Governor of that State in 1834. When his term expired at the end of two years, McDuffie retired to his plantation, Cherry Hill, in Abbeville County, where he devoted himself to agriculture with great success. He went to England in 1838 as the agent of the State to negotiate a loan of two million dollars to aid the sufferers from the great fire in Charleston. He was interested in the manufacture of cotton and in immigration. Following Calhoun, he took part in the bitter campaign against Colonel William C. Preston in 1840, whom he succeeded in the United States Senate in 1842. After he had assisted in revising the tariff, the purpose for which he had entered the Senate, he resigned from the Senatorship in 1846 in most wretched health. The remaining years of his life were spent at the home of his father-in-law, Colonel Richard Singleton. He died March 11, 1851, and was buried near Wedgefield, Sumter County, South Carolina.

Mr. McDuffie left behind him a great number of speeches, most of which are to be found in the publications of Congress. His pamphlet, "National and State Rights Considered," published over the signature "One of the People," July, 1821, was a masterful defence of the liberal construction of the powers of Congress. It was written in support of Mr. Calhoun, the South Carolina candidate for the Presidency of the United States, in reply to the "Trio," three gentlemen of Georgia who were urging the fitness of their candidate, Mr. Crawford. This pamphlet caused great comment and called forth a reply from Colonel John Taylor, of Caroline, Virginia, in his 'New Views of the Constitution' (1823). His report on the United States Bank in 1830 is a classic in the history of banking in America. Mr. McDuffie wrote the "Address to the People of the United States" for the Nullification Convention (1832). Among his speeches out of Congress are a speech in Columbia in 1828 advocating the boycott of Northern manufactures, a speech ("Tariff and Nullification") at a dinner in Charleston in 1831, a eulogy over

Robert Y. Hayne (1840), and an address before the South Carolina Agricultural Society (1840). Parts of his speeches are still tradition in South Carolina.

Mr. McDuffie's graduating speech is exceedingly rhetorical, abounding in all the turns of the traditional oratory of the day, which was a product of the Eighteenth Century. This, however, he soon worked off in the courtroom, although he belonged to the general type of the ante-bellum orator. He had the appearance of great spontaneity, and yet his speeches were prepared with extreme care; he was a man of tremendous energy. Milton was his favorite poet, from whom he made frequent quotations. There was always in him a harshness of manner, of which he never entirely freed himself. He had one gesture: he seemed as if he would hurl the truth at the Speaker of the House. He appeared best in invective, so that Colonel William C. Preston, himself one of the greatest of America's orators, said of him that he had heard the best orators of this country and of Europe, and that George McDuffie came nearest to his conception of Demosthenes. "He broke into the political arena with the fury of a competitor too late for the combat; and as if to redeem lost time, or to annihilate as soon as possible the antagonist who had summoned him to the fight, he amazed all by the unexampled impetuosity and fierce earnestness with which he smote down his foes. In his best days there was in him an impetuous and concentrated grandeur, a scornful energy, which was rendered exceedingly effective by a spontaneous fervor and a comprehensive mind." In the control and sway of his audience McDuffie has had few equals in ancient or modern times. When it was known that he was to speak, the galleries were filled. He was thoroughly honest and sincere in his convictions. An infringement on the real or fancied rights and liberties of his people awoke all the indignation of his soul. Those who came in contact with him were impressed with the mastery he had of every subject on which he spoke and the clearness with which he presented his arguments.

E. L. Green

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