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Resonance is the increase of sound by reflection or the co-vibration of other bodies. Exercises should be selected containing a redundance of open vowels.

1. Open the mouth and throat as wide as possible, inhale deeply, close the lips only, and endeavor to keep the throat open. Imagine the body a deep well and commence at its lowest depth a soft rumbling sound. Practise at first on low pitch; force and high pitch are to be added only after some time.

2. Repeat with rising inflection awe, ah, e, noting the change in register. The first is a chest-tone, the second a throat-tone and the third a head-tone. Begin at low pitch and aim at smoothness. Repeat with falling and circumflex inflection.

3. Hum b, I and m, singly and in combination.

4. Pronounce the following words on various pitches, bringing out the head resonance as much as possible: Bingle, dingle, jingle, mingle, ringle, single, tingle, klingle.

VOLUME

Volume depends upon the extension and regularity of expiration, energy and resonance combined in a given tone. The voice grows with use, and daily practise is therefore necessary to acquire roundness and volume. The abdominal muscles should be developed by daily respiratory and physical exercises.

1. Inhale deeply, and with an abrupt action of the abdominal muscles explode the voice upon be, ba, baw, bah, bo, boo. Avoid using much force at first.

2. The following should be combined with the same vowel sounds, first in loud whisper, then in loud voice, exhausting the breath on each sound: P, t, d, v, k, bl, br, ch, dr, dw, f, fr, gl, gr, kl, kr, pl, pr, sl, sm, sn, sp, sq, sk, sh, st, sw, tr, th, tw, wh.

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3. In calling tone repeat:
Ship ahoy!
Thou, too, sail on, O Ship of State.
Forward the Light Brigade!
Charge, Chester, charge!
On, Stanley, on!
Katherine, Queen of England, come into the Court.
Stand by the wheel five minutes yet and we will reach the shore.

Oyez! oyez! All-persons-having-business-to-do-with-the-CircuitCourt-of-the-United-States-for-the-Southern-district-of-New-Yorkdraw-near-give-your-attention-and-you-shall-be-heard.

Char-coal. Char-co-al. Char-coo000000-al.
4. Project the following:
It is the King

Over, over I say.
Every inch a King.

Up from the south. At this moment.

The King would speak. Armor on his back.

Eagle has seen it. State the State.

The Queen of Cities. On, ye brave.

Imperial theme.

5. Repeat the following with gradually increasing force: The war must go on! We must fight it through.

Independence now and Independence forever!
Now for the fight, now for the cannon peal.
The foe! they come! they come!

Ye guards of liberty, I'm with you once again. I call to you with all my voice.

PROPERTY OF
DEPARTMENT OF DRAMATIC ART

1

CHAPTER IV

MODULATION

Modulation has reference to the means of varying the voice so as to express thought with truth and effectiveness. The principal modulations are quality, pitch, time, inflection and force.

QUALITY Quality may be described as the character of the speaking voice, and for convenience is divided into two kinds : Pure and Impure. Pure quality is subdivided into Simple Pure and Orotund, while Impure quality is divided into Aspirated, Oral, Falsetto, Guttural and Pectoral.

Simple pure voice is the quality used in conversation. It can be readily cultivated by practising the exercises given under the head of purity in Chapter III. The pure qualities should be acquired before proceeding to the impure.

Orotund is marked by unusual roundness and fulness of tone. Daily practise on the vowel 0,with variety in pitch and force, will materially assist the student in securing this quality. It is used to express sublime and deeply earnest thought.

Aspirated quality is used to express fear, secrecy, surprise, caution and kindred emotions.

Oral quality is that of weakness.

Falsetto is employed in imitating the voices of children, women, old age, etc.

Guttural is used in language of revenge, anger, horror, aversion.

Pectoral quality is a deep hollow chest-tone, used in expressing awe, remorse, deep terror.

The whisper is sometimes used to express secrecy, fear, caution. Exercises in whisper will rapidly develop strength of voice.

SIMPLE PURE
1. Oh young Lochinvar is come out of the West.

Through all the wide border his steed was the best ;
And, save his good broadsword, he weapons had none;
He rode all unarmed and he rode all alone.
So faithful in love, and so dauntless in war,

There never was knight like the young Lochinvar. Lochinvar's Ride."

SIR WALTER SCOTT.

2. How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank;

Here will we sit, and let the sound of music
Creep in our ears; soft stillness and the night

Become the touches of sweet harmony. Merchant of Venice."

SHAKESPEARE.

3. The splendor falls on castle walls,

And snowy summits old in story;
The long light shakes across the lakes,

And the wild cataract leaps in glory. Bugle Song.

TENNYSON.

4. I should think myself a criminal, if I said anything to chill the enthusiasm of the young scholar, or to dash with any scepticism his longing and his hope. He has chosen the highest. His beautiful faith, and his aspiration, are the light of life. Without his fresh enthusiasm, and his gallant devotion to learning, to art, to culture, the world would be dreary enough.

CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER,

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