Page images



continued additions to the pension-roll. It is principal market. Economic reasons have a thing that men who have faith in the already provoked some agitation in the island honesty of the masses would be glad to for annexation to the United States. This forget. Pitiful, too, is General Sickles's echo agitation will go on and be repeated from time of the old threat that the mendicants will to time, there and here. But the Platt exert a controlling influence in politics. This Amendment leaves a way for us to avoid it, likewise is something that one wishes to as in wisdom we must. forget.

A NEW CHAPTER IN COLONIAL POLICY CUBA—THE COMING OF A NEW NATION F the Cuban Republic fares well, we shall HE coming of a new nation into in

have done more than set an oppressed dependent life, even if it be a small people free; for we shall have begun a new nation, is an event of historic importance; and

chapter in colonial history. Cuba was never we shall soon welcome the Republic of Cuba

a colony of ours; but the point is that we have

saved it from further colonial experience. In with even more than mere good wishes. It is born of our good will, and we are pledged to

other words we have shown that the proper

end of the colonial relation is freedom for the civilization and to ourselves to see that it fares well.

colony. Under our institutions, the colonial The Constitutional Convention by a vote of

relation is justified only as a training for freedom. sixteen to eleven on June 12 adopted the Platt

Herein consists the broad wisdom of the SuAmendment, without change, as a part of the

preme Court's decision in the Insular cases; Constitution. The United States is therefore,

our dependent territory is not irrevocably now pledged and will take sincere pleasure in

bound to us, as Mr. Justice White so clearly helping towards the starting of a working gov

pointed out in his opinion. We may, we must, ernment. As soon as the Cuban Republic regard Porto Rico and even the Philippines as can put its governmental machinery in running

our wards in training for ultimate free governorder, the United States troops will be with

ment. The example of our dealing with Cuba drawn and we shall exercise no authority there

may be far-reaching--may, in fact, open a except under the conditions laid down in the

wholly new chapter in colonial experiencePlatt Amendment. It will require some time

an experience that points not towards imto do the practical tasks of setting the new

perialism but toward the extension of regovernment going ; but the last serious obstacle publicanism. It is an extension of republi

canism such as could be made only by our to the plan of organization is now removed. There is hardly an example in history of the

Republic. No other government holds debirth of a new government without the rise of

pendencies in quite this fashion, England, of a man conspicuously fit to administer it. But course, coming nearest to it. in Cuba no such man stands out, doubtless WORK TOWARDS A PERMANENT DIPLOMATIC because the Cubans did not win their own in

SERVICE dependence. ,

WHERE are most welcome reasons for the very great advantage over their Central and South American kinspeople—they will have towards the building up of a stable diplomatic our Government to save them, if they should and consular service, including the civil serneed its help, from military revolutions as their vice in our outlying dependencies. The first experience toward self-government, and appointments to minor offices in the Philipfrom the dominating influence of foreign debts. pines and in Porto Rico have been made on At the best, for which there is good reason to the merit system.

That is one great point hope, they will prove equal to their great won for efficiency. opportunity. We shall welcome them most Secretary Hay has transferred Mr. Loomis heartily into the family of nations.

who represented our government at Caracas, to The first and perhaps the most serious diffi- Lisbon ; and this is a step, as far as it goes, in culty that the new Republic will encounter the direction of a permanent diplomatic serwill be economic. When the products of vice. Ministers have before been transferred Porto Rico are admitted into the United States from one country to another, for example, Mr. free of duty, Cuba will be at a grave dis Lowell from Spain to England. But every such advantage; for the United States must be its transfer means a step towards permanency;


, at the worst, they have this T hope that steady progress will be made

and this necessary policy is in keeping with will indulge in such talk, it was a measure of Secretary Hay's whole conduct of the entire self-defence that the President took when he Department of State. It is a necessary policy made this declaration. He cannot now be because by any other we shall continue to misunderstood, however many journeys he suffer from the low level of sheer political may take, or however many injudicious friends appointments in almost all places in the diplo- may presume to speak for him. matic service except the two or three highest

THE PRESTIGE OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE posts. Diplomacy offers a worthy career for a high order of men; but the best men cannot E are defending the King's territory afford to enter it unless it does offer a career.

against invasion by neighbors," Lord In keeping with the same hope is the Salisbury has declared, in discussing the establishment of the Washington Memorial crisis of the British Empire brought on by Institution in Washington. Young men who the war in South Africa. These neighbors, enter the Department of State as post-graduate he said, have no complaint against the English students will bring to the Department good in international law, and they are “actuated material for diplomatic training.

by the greed for territory and the desire of

enlarging their dominions.” There is naïveté THE THIRD-TERM SUPERSTITION

or desperation, perhaps both, mingled with the TRONGER than any law on the statute truth of this declaration ; for the fight has

books is the unwritten law forbidding a resolved itself, as fights usually do, into a third term of the Presidency to any man. fight for territory. But this was not the Washington settled this matter forever, and

cause put forward in the beginning by either the experience of the unwise political friends side. The desperate and long-drawn-out of General Grant proved how firmly the pub- struggle goes on to the enormous embarrasslic mind is made up on the subject. Yet

ment of England. And England must win there was talk of a third term for Mr. Cleve it for the reason that Lord Salisbury frankly land, and the injudicious friends of Mr, avowed : McKinley committed a similar silliness. There

“We must establish in the minds of the civilized was never the slightest evidence that Mr.

world, especially in South Africa, the conviction Cleveland ever for a moment thought of be that, if our frontiers are violated, it will be a coming a candidate for a third term; and bitter time for those who have undertaken to do what Mr. McKinley thinks of such a proposal It is only by inspiring such a conviction that was most admirably set forth in this declara

you can be safe. tion that he gave out in June.

If for “frontiers" we read “plans," the I regret that the suggestion of a third term ethical meaning may suffer a certain wrench, has been made. I doubt whether I am called but the British purpose and policy will be upon to give it notice. But there are now ques. equally well set forth—a purpose and a policy tions of the gravest importance before the Ad that the Boers seemed to make necessary and ministration and the country, and their just con which they are surely succeeding in making sideration should not be prejudiced in the public difficult.

difficult. Witness their feat in surprising a mind by even the suspicion of the thought of a

British camp twenty miles south of Middlethird term. In view, therefore, of thc reiteration of the suggestion, I will say now, once for all,

burg. They killed and wounded sixty out of expressing a long-settled conviction, that I not

two hundred and fifty mounted Australian only am not and will not be a candidate for a

riflemen, and captured all the rest except two third term, but would not accept a nomination

officers and fifty men. for it, if it were tendered me.

THE GROWTH AND MIGRATION OF THE ENGLISH My only ambition is to serve through my secterm

little whose generous confidence I so deeply appre

land continues to breed men at a rate ciate, and then with them do my duty in the beyond all other lands except our own, and to ranks of private citizenship.

send them forth to other English-speaking Any man in public life gives good reason countries with undiminished vigor. The utterly to discredit his judgment of public

of public population of the United Kingdom is 41,opinion when he speaks of a third term as 500,000, which is nearly twice as large as it possible; but so long as there are men who was when Victoria's reign began. The good

[ocr errors]

Queen saw her people double in number. the American Steel Hoop Company, which The increase during the decade just ended are parts of the recently formed United was 3,721,000,-nearly 1,000,000 more than States Steel Corporation, have run some of the increase during the preceding decade. In their mills under the rules of the Amal1821 the population of Ireland was nearly 33 gamated Association of Iron and Steel per cent. of the population of the United Workers and some of their mills without any Kingdom. Owing chiefly to the increase in labor-union rules, in other words, as “open England as well, of course, as to Irish or non-union mills. Now the strike of the emigration, it is now less than 11 per cent. Amalgamated Iron and Steel Workers, which The proportion of women in the population is perhaps the strongest labor organization in has been steadily increasing for half a cen the country, is to compel the Steel Corporatury. There are now nearly 107 females to tion to put all mills of the constituent comevery 100 males.

panies under the rules of the union—to make But far more interesting to us are the them all union mills. figures of British emigration. The recent A vast army of workmen ceased work on census has given occasion to review the mov- July 1st, about thirty-five thousand, to force ing of the English during the greater part of this concession, and the threat was made that the past century. They have never ceased to all the rest would strike. But many mills come to us in great numbers—in greater shut down on July 1st, according to their numbers than has generally been supposed. custom, for repairs and because of the warm English (in addition to Irish) emigration to weather. For a period, therefore, no work the United States ran in a pretty constant would be done in these mills in any event. stream through the whole century, after 1815; But, when this record closes, the Steel Trust and our country has continued to be the stands firmly opposed to making these mills chief destination of the home-leaving English union mills, and the Amalgamated Associaand Scotch as well as Irish. We received tion, which has been preparing for this con190,000 of them last year. Of the total test, threatens to call the union men out of emigration to the United States from the all the Steel Corporation's mills. It is United Kingdom since 1853, 10 per cent. struggle for “recognition

recognition ” of the union. was Scotch, 37 per cent. Irish, and 53 per

Local minor causes have come to play cent. English. The interesting fact, then, is subordinate parts, but the real cause of the that we continue to be English in blood by strike is the hope of the union to compel new immigration, and we are not such a motley recognition. crew as we are sometimes told that we are. The Steel Corporation is uncommonly pros

Great Britain is now, next to Belgium and perous, having paid a dividend on July ist on Holland, the most densely populated country both its preferred and its common stock; and in the world, the number of inhabitants per all its mills have many orders. The largest square mile being in several countries as industrial combination and the labor union follows:

that includes all its principal workmen will be Population

Population brought face to face with the crucial test of Country

Country per Square Mile Belgium

the union's strength, unless the controversy Holland..

Spain. United Kingdom..

China (the whole Kingdom).. 95 is amicably settled before the mills wish to Italy... Germany.

resume work. Compare France's stationary population of The May strike of the machinists for a 186 to the square mile, with the United shorter day-nine hours' work with ten hours' Kingdom's 339, ever growing and ever spread- pay—as a rule failed; but in several localities ing over the world, and see the room we yet the employers yielded the point. The mahave for them!

chinists, therefore, gained not a general vic

tory, but a victory in a few localities. Scientific THE STEEL WORKERS' AND THE MACHINISTS'

study of the product of different hours' work STRIKES

in this trade has shown that men do not turn THEN this record is closed, a serious out as much per hour in ten hours as in nine,

labor trouble is threatened in the nor do they do it better ; but there is a loss steel trade ; but the result cannot be foreseen. of product somewhat less than ten per cent.

The American Sheet Steel Company and The gain of the workmen, therefore, is an




per Square Mile

572 411 339 289 263

United States..



pean blood."


hour of leisure a day, and the loss to em

it will in the end solve the two grave problems ployers is somewhat less than a ten per cent.

which face the future of their citizens—the eternal increase in the wages they pay.

struggle between capital and labor—the gulf

between people of color and the people of EuroDOES DEMOCRACY CHEAPEN LITERATURE ? T is an instructive pleasure to read what so Such hopeful views of our large tendencies frank and sympathetic an observer of the

and great tasks are cheering. But Mr. larger tendencies of American life, as Mr.

Harrison plunges deep into a doubt that is Frederic Harrison, says about civilization in

often expressed among us when he says, in a the United States. As soon as he returned general summary of American intellectual from his recent visit to us, he published in activity, that “the wider the reading public The Nineteenth Century and After these becomes, the lower is the average of literary shrewd and interesting conclusions, among culture.” Our reading public is wide, and the many others:

average of literary culture is low; but is it The United States seemed to him more

lower because the reading public is large? homogeneous than the United Kingdom. When

Kingdom. When a country — modern England, for “From Long Island to San Francisco, from instance, or even ancient Greece if you choose Florida Bay to Vancouver's Island, there is

--contains a relatively small number of men one dominant race and civilization, one lan

who read good literature and a relatively large guage, one type of law, one sense of nationality number who read nothing, does such a country That race, that nationality is American to the

have a higher average of literary culture than core."

a country like the United States where also a "No competent observer can doubt that in relatively small number read the best literature wealth, manufactures, material progress of all but everybody reads something ? The Amerikinds, the United States, in a very few years, can theory is tnat by increasing the area of culmust hold the first place in the world without dis

ture you do not spoil its finer gardens—that by pute. The natural resources of their country teaching everybody to read you do not lessen exceed those of all Europe put together. Their energy exceeds that of the British; their intelli

the number who will read good books; but the gence is hardly second to that of Germany and

aristocratic theory has always been that, when France. And their social and political system is

you teach everybody to read, nobody will read more favorable to material development than any good books. Is there not a confusion of other society ever devised by man.”

thought in this conclusion ?

Because your He received a deep impression that in

maid and your butcher and your shop-girl and America the relations of the sexes are in a everybody else reads slap-dash fiction will you state far more sound and pure than they are

read fewer good novels than if they read none in the Old World.

at all? Or will you read less history or The educational activity and earnestness of poetry because they read more magazines than the people—the education of both sexes the peasants of Europe ? attracted his attention . “ The whole educa

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE AND TWO QUESTIONS tional machinery must be at least tenfold that of the United Kingdom.” “The numbers of SHE recent annual reunion of Christian the American people are so great that numeri

Scientists in Boston, which was atcally, if not proportionately, those who are

tended by 10,000 persons from all parts of devoted to science, art, and literature are at

the world, makes a thoughtful man pause. least as many as they are in England.” More than 3,000 of them went as pilgrims to

Although society is in the main honest and Concord, N. H., to get a glimpse of Mrs. wholesome, “the vast numbers and the passion Eddy, the founder of the sect. The original of equality tend to low averages in thought, church in Boston has a membership of in manners and in public opinion.

21,000, and the sect has 500 organized “ In casting off many of the bonds of European

churches. It has made inroads into all social tradition and feudal survivals, the American grades of life, and the membership includes democracy has cast off also something of the

men and women who have won practical sucæsthetic and moral inheritance left in the Old

cess and are among the intelligent masses. World. But the zeal for learning, justice and One of the dogmas of this faith is thus exhumanity lies so deep in the American heart that pressed in Mrs. Eddy's book :


“ Had God created drugs for medical use, a task that he had nearly but not quite comJesus and his disciples would have employed pleted when death suddenly overtook him on them and recommended them for the treatment July 4. No man has touched American hisof diseases."

tory who has illumined it with a style as clear Again, she has written:

and as strong as his; for Parkman is the only “ It was I that healed the deaf, the blind, the

other historian that we have produced who bedumb, the lame, the last stages of consumption, longs in the same class; and no other has pneumonia, paralysis, etc., and restored the pa

shown Mr. Fiske's philosophic grasp. His tients in from one to three interviews, that started " Discovery of America ” is epic in its sweep, the public inquiry : What is it?”

and there are few greater narratives in our Now if there is any subject about which language. definite knowledge has been gained during

Mr. Fiske himself set greater value on his the last few decades, it is the nature of human evolutionary religious book than on any others diseases. Many diseases are as clearly under

that he wrote—“ The Idea of God," “ The stood as anything is or can be understood, Destiny of Man,” and “The Mystery of and the best medical treatment has kept pace Evil,” wherein a reverent imagination touched with medical knowledge. So rapid has been

his evolutionary philosophy. the practical advance in medical, and especi

The death of our foremost historian is an ally surgical efficiency that this progress irreparable loss to our literature, and the loss shares with electrical progress the distinction

of such a rich personality cannot be replaced of making the greatest practical revolution of

to his friends. If he were not the most inrecent times.

teresting American living, it would be hard to Yet within the last ten years there has

say who was. Prodigal, as Nature itself is been in the populous and most intelligent prodigal—with his money, his time, his communities in the United States such an knowledge, his good-fellowship and his affecorganized revival of faith in miraculous heal- tion, the carelessness of his great nature ing, in healing by prayer, as has caused the

about many small things (perhaps about all growth of a religious sect that bids fair to

small things), would have wrecked the career outnumber some of the long-established of a small man. In him it was rather an churches of Protestantism. Such a sect

attractive evidence of an exhaustlessness of for the doctrine is as old as Christianity,

mind and spirit. We have no such man left, suggests two inquiries: Have any of even the

either in prose literature or in philosophy. most elementary facts of modern science

THE DEATH OF MANY NOTABLE MEN. found their way into general knowledge,

is one of the characteristics of a Demoother channel? Or are we yet in that stage

cracy that occasion turns up from its of development where the religious faith of masses men of unexpected utility and power. men is still wholly detached from their intel

Ex-Governor Hazen S. Pingree, of Michigan, ligence?

who recently died in London, was such a man.

As mayor of Detroit, he forced 3-cent streetTHE DEATH OF JOHN FISKE

railway fares; he secured municipal potatoOHN FISKE, philosopher, historian, and fields for the unemployed; and in general he

set about making the city government serve larger intellectual outlook than any other the masses of the people, with no regard to American of his time, and a firmer grasp on precedent and custom. As governor he pura wider range of essential knowledge. And sued the same plan. Among his purposes he was a man of imagination and of large was the purpose to compel railroads to pay constructive power.

taxes on the full market value of their securiAfter winning a secure place for himself in ties. He was an honest and successful busithe philosophical world by his lectures on ness man who came into political power with Cosmic Philosophy, and after intimate associa no respect for current political methods. He tion with all the great evolutionist thinkers, exerted a wide influence; he provoked the opespecially with Huxley, he gave his mature position of most of organized society, and he years to the writing of American history from pointed the way to many improvements in the discovery to the formation of the Union, the practical administration of municipal and

through the public schools or through any IT

Jo master of a poble prose "style, had a

« PreviousContinue »