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naturally mistook for another Spanish ruler; suffrage is restricted to males of twenty-three but to compare him with Washington is to years of age who are owners of $250 worth attribute to him qualities that he could not have of property, or payers of $15 in taxes, and developed nor even understood.

who read and write either English or Spanish. It is probable, as Admiral Dewey remarked Voters are required to take the oath of althe other day, that if our officers had better legiance to the United States. understood the Filipinos when we first went A general school system has been laid out to Manila, the war with them might possibly for the archipelago, and a thousand trained have been avoided—an opinion, however,

an opinion, however, American teachers are wanted, to whom which our military officers do not share. But salaries of from $75 to $100 a month will the difficulty was twofold—our possible misun be paid. The Commission has appropriated derstanding of the Filipinos, and Aguinaldo's $400,000 for school buildings, $220,000 for clear misunderstanding of the United States. text-books and supplies this year, $25,000 for That he misunderstood the United States and a normal school and $15,000 for a trade our purpose was natural. The only judgment school at Manila. of Western civilization that he could make he It is doubtful if at any recent time there was obliged to make from his knowledge of has been a nearer approach to peace in every the Spaniards and their methods. And he part of the archipelago than now exists Of was misled by those Americans who till the the local outbreaks and the activity of banlast encouraged him in the hope that we ditti during the Spanish rule we knew nothmight depart from the archipelago.

ing. Certainly the systematic oppression by His behavior when he was captured was the Spanish officers was as depressing in its dignified, and he showed great good sense effects on the country as the military occuwhen he recognized the situation that was re pancy by the United States can be. There vealed to him after his capture and took the is good reason to hope that the inhabitants oath of allegiance to the United States. By

By of the islands will very soon enjoy such stable no other course could he henceforth be of any conditions as they have never before known. service to his people or to civilization.

Hostilities once ended, the progress in gov

ernment and in the building up of the people A CLEAR WAY TO PEACE IN THE PHILIPPINES

and in the development of the country will be OR a month before Aguinaldo's capture, so rapid that a decade of American authority

greater progress had been made than will bring better results than a' cycle of during any preceding period in the pacifica- Spanish rule. Henceforth the task seems tion of the islands and in the establishment likely to be a comparatively easy one. of civil government. Organized hostility had The cheerfulness of this news of peace in practically ceased before this dramatic end the islands is made the greater because the came. Although 50,000 troops will for some whole energy of our government can now be time be required in the archipelago, their turned to constructive work—the building up chief duty will be police-duty; and, but for the of the people for ultimate self-government; great area to be policed, a very much smaller for this must be our aim. number would be sufficient. Geronimo, one

A PIECE OF CONSTRUCTIVE STATESMANSHIP of the strongest insurgent leaders in Luzon, surrendered when he heard of Aguinaldo's ENATOR O. H. PLATT, of Connecticapture, and there are few important organ cut, Chairman of the Senate Committee ized bands now in revolt. The insurrection on Relations with Cuba, has written for this in Mindanao, the next largest island to Luzon, number of The World's Work an auhas been completely stamped out.

thoritative review of our relations and of our It has been announced that civil government proposition to the people of the island. It is will supersede military government on May 15. a temperate and convincing statement of the A code of municipal government has been necessity and of the justice of our proposal ; framed by the Commission after a free dis but it is much more than this, for it is an incussion with the best class of Filipinos. terpretation of our action by the author of Town governments will be organized with an the proposition that we have made. elective president, a vice-president and a muni This proposition is a piece of constructive cipal council for a term of two years. The work of the highest kind. The gravest prob

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lems growing out of our responsibility for the sion to the Union. The debate on the subject old Spanish colonies are settled by it at one in the Territorial Senate became so violent that stroke. The bugaboo of Imperialism is put the President ordered the sergeant-at-arms to out of sight; our pledge to ourselves and to remove one senator from the chamber. A the world to give the Cubans freedom is well-timed motion to adjourn prevented a free kept; a precedent is set for dealing with our fight. This first legislature has had several other wards when the time is ripe, and the pos turbulent sessions. sibility of admitting any of them into the Union There has thus far appeared no openly exis scotched as firmly as it can be. Senator pressed wish by any section of American Platt's article is an explanation of this legis- opinion for the ultimate admission of any of lation by the author of it, and it is therefore the islands, and no serious proposal is likely an historical paper. It will be constantly re to be made at any early time. But it is in this ferred to as the official interpretation of the direction, if in any direction, that ultimate purpose of our government, and it will be- danger to our political life may possibly appear. come one of the fundamental documents of

THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONISTS AGAIN United States and Cuban history.

Evidence continues to accumulate that the Cubans will accept our proposal, and public

world. The revolutionists have another opinion in both countries is fast adjusting spasm of activity. An effort was made in itself to such a settlement. It is a settlement March to assassinate the head of the Church; that will be honorable and advantageous to a student shot and killed the Minister of Public both parties. Cuba will begin its career of Instruction; and it was reported on April 1, independence with advantages that no other that an officer of the Czar's household had part of America south of the United States shot at him, had missed him and had has had, and we shall have established a killed himself before he could be arrested ; principle for the settlement of our whole and the Czar was reported to be in “colonial" problem.

a panic because of the many evidenThis practical settlement of the relation of ces of danger to his person. The open Cuba to the United States has yet attracted beginning of the present era of violence was less notice in the world than it will attract a demonstration by students, for which many when Cuba formally becomes independent. were thrust into the army for severe duty. It will be one of the very few instances in The significant thing that followed was a history of a nation coming into existence by procession of workingmen, which was a mild the philanthropy of another nation. Such a demonstration against the government.

This result will not only justify our war with is a somewhat novel feature of Russian Spain, but it will give lasting lustre to Amer- agitation. ican honor. It is an event of which every Another significant fact is that the Czar's American citizen must be proud.

Ministers practically reprimanded an executive

officer who acted with severity against these THE HAWAIIAN TALK OF STATEHOOD

demonstrations an indication that the MinTHE grave danger, and the only grave istry may feel the necessity of restraining

executive severity. If this policy be carried might be involved in our expansion necessity far enough it may mean a rebuke to the Czar (for it was a necessity rather than a deliberate himself. But the meaning of most such events policy), is the question which is sure to arise in Russia is likely to be misunderstood and sooner or later of the admission of some of misinterpeted abroad, so rigid is the censorthe islands into the Union.

ship. The proposed settlement of our relations It is perfectly well known that the work of with Cuba disposes of this question as conclu the Social-Democratic party, which is directed sively as it now can be disposed of. But the by leaders outside of Russia, has in recent politicians of the Hawaiian Islands, which years been unceasing; and it may be that a are under a Territorial Government, are al- larger and better secret army of revolutionists ready discussing possible statehood. Bills has been trained than at any previous time. were recently introduced in both branches of Their “underground" press is active, and the Territorial Legislature asking for admis their publications are freely circulated out

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side of Russia and no doubt extensively cir The present trouble will probably pass withculated there.

out affecting any radical change. Even if the Hitherto the enemies of the Government, Czar should be killed, nothing of far-reaching active as they have at times been, have been importance would be likely to happen. The comparatively few—as few as they were des social and military and governmental system perate. But the organization of the Social- would remain the same, and the old problem Democrats, who have succeeded the Nihilists, would present as stubborn an aspect as ever, is larger and wider. A group of conspirators because the masses of the people are not is a dangerous thing to a monarch; but, if ready nor of the right temper for selfthe conspirators be few, the general system government. of government is not likely to be changed

THE RUSSIAN WORLD-GAME IN ASIA even by their utmost endeavor. But if the masses of the working population join the HILE this acute danger exists at home, army of active discontent, whenever the army

perhaps because of this acute danger,
becomes large enough civil war may follow. Russia is playing the most stupendous game
There is probably not the slightest danger at that is now in progress on the map of the
any early time of civil war in Russia, but the world.
new movement looks toward such a hope. She has had practical control of the great
The prime purpose of the old form of Nihilism Chinese province of Manchuria almost ever
was to remove the rulers by assassination, since the trouble in China began—as a "tem-
and the next step in the programme was un porary” occupation to make sure of protec-
certain. The prime purpose of the newer tion to Russian railways and other interests
Social-Democracy is to establish a radically there, and the treaty, which was at first secret,
different form of government, and the re- whereby China was practically to yield Man-
moval of rulers is a mere incident to that end. churia to Russia, was to be signed by March 26.

But on that date China, under pressure from
CAN RUSSIA BE LIBERALIZED ?

the other Powers, had declined to sign it. 'HUS the old stubborn problem of the Japan and Great Britain, in particular, let it

liberalization of Russia comes forward be known that the signing of such a treaty again. The profoundly interesting question would be regarded by them as a breach of the is whether liberalization can come through allies' agreement if not as a signal for the iviolence or whether the revolutionists must tion of the Chinese Empire. On March isi, content themselves with awaiting the slow the United States Government informed all the pressure of world-forces—the pressure that allies of the memorandum that it had sent to is gradually turning all kings into figureheads. China on February 19, that it would be un

The pathetic paradox is that the Czar is wise and dangerous for China to execute any perhaps the most helpless man in the treaty with any single Power. Empire to bring about a radical change. The impression prevails that the execution Encased as he is in a governmental and of the treaty giving Manchuria to Russia was social system that is stubborn because of the not defeated, but only delayed by China's rigidity of the privileged classes and of the declination to sign it within the required ignorance of masses, he is comparatively help- period; that Russia will not relinquish her less. No government has been liberalized hold on Manchuria, and that sooner or later it except by the pressure of an awakened people; will doubtless formally become Russian. and there is yet no satisfying evidence of an The tension was made greater for a period awakened people in Russia. Your real Russian by a temporary dispute between Russian and may doubt man, and he may doubt God, but British forces at Tientsin about a railroad he has never doubted the superiority of his side-track-a dispute that for a time threatown civilization and his own system over the ened open hostility. This friction was remore liberal systems of the western world. moved. In his own orbit the Slav has not yet reached But the discussion of the sum to be dethe angle of direct light. Whether the illu- manded from China as indemnity may mination of his long-entrenched aristocratic and cause serious disagreement at any stage. religious thought can be hastened by sporadic The United States Government has expressed revolutionary efforts—that is the question. its willingness to the payment of the indem

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