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remarked, afterward, that this was only one of manages them as no other can, for their blood Russia's manifold ways. It is thus, peacefully, is in him.
is in him. His hand is heavy on the recalciblandly, but relentlessly and with the Biblical trant, his largess and his trade are always in “ wisdom of the serpent,” by skilful utiliza the van of his progress, and his transportation of the native elements, as well as by the tion systems are crowded forward with a swiftintroduction of new forces, that a Russian ness that makes the rest of the world wonder. leaven is being distributed throughout the en He conciliates native agencies at every step tire Persian loaf. The murmuring of the
The murmuring of the of the way. There are Mohammedans and vanquished in the countries the Russian has Armenians serving in his border regiments. overcome is never wholly stilled; the prophecy He wants Geok Tepe to be forgotten. He is of revolt is continuous, but the Cossack is a mindful of the admonition of Paul I.; he sedative of wondrous efficacy. The Russian “remembers that he is only at war with the knows the peoples he holds sway over, and English, and is the friend of all who do not
RUSSIA'S ADVANCE ON INDIA The crescent-shaped cordon which Russia has so long been establishing around India has been materially extended, both on east and west. Within the past three years-since the Russians guaranteed the Persian loan-Muscovite control has advanced from the Caspian to the Arabian Sea. Persia is heavily mortgaged, and, by virtue of concessions made under these obligations, the Russian engineers have about completed surveys for a net-work of railways throughout the northern and western part of the Shah's kingdom, connecting all Russia, all Siberia and the Pacific coast with both the head and the foot of the Persian Gulf, and with the railroads soon to be constructed eastward out of Asia Minor. The Russian outpost in the Afghanistan direction is within a day's journey of Herat. Troops and munitions of war are there. “The key of India” may be seized by Russia when she will. On the eastern end of the crescent, in China and Corea, Russian demands for territory or special rights grow too rapidly to be kept track of.
give them help.” The Chinese episode is bound to come some day, the map shows. eloquent upon that score. He “assures men The Russian believes in his mission. He of the friendship of Russia.” He annihilates is unsparing, not always eloquent of the memories; he weans peoples from regrets. spirit of Peace Congresses, but his engines of He plays upon their vanity until it is trans war are bound to become the instruments of muted into loyalty; he grafts upon his already a cleaner and more progressive civilization, in conglomerate speech something of the lan Persia, at least, when the primary purpose of guage of the conquered, and the next genera- conquest shall have been served. That he tion speaks with the tongue of Moscow. In
In aspires to the possession of all Asia there brief, he finds a barbarian, and moving on in seems no longer any room for doubt. There the prosecution of his eternal purpose, leaves are great obstacles in his path; he removes a Russian. That is what he has been doing them. He has one way in Manchuria, anin Caucasia and Transcaucasia, as well as on other in Iran. But he is building warships as the far side of the Caspian, and that, reason fast as he is taking up land in Asia. He anably assuming that England will not interfere chors them now in Port Arthur; next in strongly to block his progress to the South, is Bushire and Bender Abbas. How soon will what he will ultimately do in all of Persia ; the searchlights of his cruisers sweep the what that will mean, in the struggle which is harbors of Calcutta and Bombay ?
ACTUAL RURAL INDEPENDENCE
A TYPICAL, WELL-ORGANIZED, SMALL FARM IN THE CEN.
WALTER E. ANDREWS
10 show the modern organization of The milk goes to a neat milk-room adjoin
agriculture under the best conditions ing the barn and is fed into a centrifugal
in a well-developed community in cream separator operated by electric power one of the central States, I take the actual derived from the trolley line. A touch on a instance of Mr. Russell. Mr. Russell is a lever and the little motor hums merrily. Alfarmer who owns eighty acres of land and most before you know it the separator has makes a specialty of dairying and fruit raising. whirled all the cream out of the fresh milk Of course he hires a man and his wife by the into the shipping cans; while the skim milk year; gives them a neat, separate tenant - still warm and appetizing - is ready for house, and pays them $300 a year in cash for feeding to calves and pigs. their services. · An electric car line runs past
The filled cream
are hooked to a the farm to a good market town, about four wire carrier, which spins them, by force of miles away:
A creamery and canning factory gravity, direct to the trolley platform on the is reached by this same trolley route.
road. In a few minutes a trolley car comes At five o'clock in the morning, whir-r, along, with a freight car attached, stops at the whir-r goes an automatic electric alarm in the platform, takes the cans on board, and then tenant house. The hired man gets up and whirls away with them to the creamery. The hurries to the big barn. He feeds and grooms freight charges are but a few cents (which are the cows and cleans out the stalls. Then the collected weekly) and the empty cans are reproprietor arrives in time to help at the milk- turned later in the day free of charge. Mr. ing. Both men wash their hands and put on Russell is credited by the creamery with so clean white duck suits used only when they much cream and on settlement day he receives milk.
a check in payment.
Thus the milking is done and the cream is diseases are thus combated rapidly and sucon its way to market before Mrs. Russell is out cessfully. of bed. She does not have to bother with When the fruit is ready to market it is “setting" the milk in pans, or with ripening taken to Mr. Russell's packing-house, and or churning the cream. She is no longer a there "sorted" by an ingenious machine slave to milk-pans and churns; and the old grader into three or four grades or sizes. unsatisfactory way of “trading out " the but- After being carefully packed, the various ter at a local grocery store is done away with grades are stenciled for shipment. Toward entirely. Butter or cream now means cash. night a trolley-car takes the day's gathering
The cows, instead of picking a poor living direct to its destination—canning factory, from uncertain pastures, are stabled in clean steamboat dock, or commission man. Checks stalls, cool in summer, warm in winter, and for sales come back promptly by mail. always well ventilated. Instead of "guess There is a telephone in the barn and in work feeding,” they are given a scientific both houses, connecting the farm with town ration exactly adapted to their needs.
and neighbors. Mr. Russell, like any other A windmill, a tubular well, and a tank sup- merchant, has an “office” of his own at his plies pure water for barn, house, lawn and place of business—the farm. He takes one milk-room. The windmill has an automatic or two daily newspapers, which reach him governor which stops or starts pumping ac- promptly by rural mail carrier, and he keeps cording to the needs of the big storage tank. constantly informed on market conditions. There is fresh water before each cow con- Every day he telephones to his commission stantly, regulated by an automatic watering man, or to private customers, or to the candevice. The stable floor is of cement, and is ning factory, and he makes definite arrangeflushed clean with the hose twice a day. The ments about shipments and sales. Each day's stable walls glisten with whitewash, and every business is regulated according to the prevailthing is as neat and clean as it once was dirtying conditions; not a single consignment is and untidy. Dairying is now a science. sent off blindly. You will find no suspicion
The cows are fed various grains and large of “pig in a poke" about Mr. Russell's quantities of ensilage—the latter from a big methods. round silo holding 200 or more tons of suc He keeps a simple set of books, and he culent, preserved corn-fodder. Corn is planted knows at the end of each year just how he and fertilized with the aid of special machinery, stands.
stands. He works hard, but not in the way worked with a “riding " cultivator, and cut his father worked. He directs the machinery, by horse-power. N
Not a single clip from an whereas his father was the machinery old-fashioned hoe is required, and the operator he farms with brains instead of hands; he rides comfortably at his work with a rides a good saddle-horse about his place, awning rigged up over his head. One man whereas his father was ridden by his work. and team can now do the work of many men,
Now take a look into the snug farm-house, and do it better. The man with the hoe has and what do
see? There are new books become the man with the horses.
and magazines, pictures, and dainty furnishAnd it is much the same with fruit or other ings. There is a piano in the parlor, and a farm products. The ground is plowed with a bicycle or two on the back porch. Everything sulky plow, or torn to pieces with a sharp disc looks comfortable, cosy and attractive, withharrow. Whether plowing or harrowing, the out attempt at style or show. The chairs are operator rides or walks as he chooses ;
walks as he chooses; intended to sit on, and the old hair-cloth sofa machine and team do the work.
is now a genuine lounging place. The trees are systematically sprayed by a In winter the house is heated by a hotsystem of compressed air operated by power water furnace in the cellar ; and ventilation is obtained from a wagon's moving wheels. insured by open fireplaces. In the kitchen One man drives the team, and two other men there is a modern range; and in the cellar hold the nozzles and send the fine spray ex you will find a refrigerator. Electric lights
where needed. The proportions and are everywhere—in the house, on the porch, ingredients of the various spraying mixtures in the barn. The trolley line furnishes the have been exactly determined by scientific current, of course. Thanks to windmill and experiment. Injurious insects and fungus tank, good water is on tap wherever needed
hot or cold. And, if you fancy a bath, you forecast.
forecast. He sells stamps, money orders, will find the Russell bathroom as convenient and takes letters and packages for mailing. as your own in the city.
Often, too, he does little errands for people The boys and girls of the family attend the who care to pay for the favor. high school in the town; the trolley line Do the boys and girls leave this sort of making a special school-rate of two cents for farm?
farm ? No! They compare their home comthe round trip. Church and entertainments forts, and their parents' successful, peaceful are liberally patronized, for modern farm life life, with what they see in the town, and are —thanks to the trolley—is no longer isolated. contented.
Once each day (Sundays excepted), Uncle To sum up, Mr. Russell is the most indeSam's rural carrier brings the mail to the pendent man in the world. He has really farm-house, and it is hoped he will soon bring achieved the independence that has so long in addition the latest government weather been talked about in connection with farming.
JAMES J. HILL
THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
MARY C. BLOSSOM
NORTY-FIVE years ago there went with the railroad to haul the better wood that into the great new country of Minne
and he thus founded the Northsota a young Scotch-Irish farmer western Fuel Company, which still exists. from Canada. He was the sixteenth of his After the civil war the railway crawled name in direct line of descent, hardy and northward and westward, and the trail of the alert. At the age of eighteen in the strag Red River carts became shortened more and gling village of St. Paul he became check more. Mr. Hill clearly discerned the great clerk and caretaker of freight at the steam resources and possibilities of the Red River boat landing
country- Western Minnesota and Eastern At that time there was not a mile of rail Dakota. The necessity of a steamboat line road in the state or to the west of it. There on the Red River of the North became apwas a traffic in fur carried on under the most parent—no sooner planned than executed. primitive conditions. The Hudson's Bay Mr. Hill came East, contracted for his boilers Trading Company had for many years been and machinery, and on the bank of the river the source of a large and important carrying built his flat-bottomed steamer called “The trade from the northwest territories of British Selkirk," which in the summer of 1870 began America. The year's catch of peltries was to run between Winnipeg and the head of collected at the company's trading post, Fort navigation. Soon the rival line operated by Garry, now Winnipeg, and was sent in carts the Hudson's Bay Company saw its advantage when the spring came to St. Paul.
in a consolidation. In 1862 the first ten miles of railroad in There is no record of an enterprise of Mr. the state were finished with great effort. It Hill's in which he has not succeeded. In his ran from the levee in St. Paul to the riverside enterprises, of course, he uses the same in St. Anthony, and was known as the St. agents that others use, but with a sense of Paul and Pacific Railroad, of which Mr. Hill proportion and with a concentration of utility later became the agent. It was then that he that makes his power reach twice as far and noticed that a poor quality of wood for fuel accomplish twice as much as most other men. was brought into town. He made a contract The “Selkirk," and a line of stages connected
with it, formed the first regular means of which soon gained possession of the road, and communication between Winnipeg and the in June, 1879, the system was consolidated outer world. The same year, 1872, Mr. Hill into a single ownership as the St. Paul, Minneconsolidated his transportation interests with sota & Manitoba Railroad Company. The those of the Hudson's Bay Company, forming task was not an easy one; the untiring industhe Red River Transportation Company. try and foresight of the moving spirit were The St. Paul and Pacific Railroad now reached taxed to the utmost. At a time when he was the western boundary of the state at Breck striving to complete a certain piece of road in enridge.
order not to lose the land grant, he worked While Mr. Hill was managing this Red night and day, personally supervising the conRiver Steamboat service, his frequent trips struction, laying the ties under most adverse between St. Paul and Winnipeg were not all conditions, and getting the water out of the taken by boat. Sometimes they were made way as best he could. The service of a friend in the dead of winter over the snow. He who labored with him unceasingly in this hour would take a sled, four or five dogs, food for of need has never been forgotten. To crown the dogs, and pemmican for himself, and their efforts the road was completed two days travel for days, sleeping like the Esquimaux before the appointed time. among his dogs at night. Once he journeyed Later it was extended to the Pacific coast, eighty miles in one day. Once, too, when traversing vast tracts of land without human traveling in another way, he had a burly habitation. The track was well laid but the Frenchman as companion, and by some means stations were often only freight cars, remote this man dislocated his shoulder and suffered from one another, and remote from other great pain. Mr. Hill tied him to the wheel of human settlements. Dismal predictions were the cart, and by an ingenious contrivance made, but not for a moment did the unflinchforced the shoulder into its place, and the ing courage and purpose of the leader waver. man pursued his journey in comparative com The Cascade Mountains were rich in lumber fort. In these years of hard work Mr. Hill of a growth so large as to be useful for purgrew rich in observation and experience and poses not previously possible for single trees. fertile in resource; he learned the Northwest Some of the trees had gained four to five huncountry to its heart, and dreamed of a great dred rings, proving them to have been large transportation line that should open its wealth when Columbus discovered America. Coal to the world.
fields were discovered, and a branch road carHe became possessed by this idea ; on the ried their product for the use of the main line. street, at the club, wherever he met men, he Settlements were formed for preparing the buttonholed them and talked of a great road lumber for shipment; and Mr. Hill was all and of the possibilities of the Northwest, along the line, giving words of practical aduntil even his friends were worn out with
vice to newcomers, telling them the kind of hearing. It is told of him at this period, that stock that they ought to keep, and how to get while watching for several nights by the sick it, and what to feed it, and giving them many bed of a friend, he would look into the fire, other bits of practical assistance. While the sing Scotch songs and tell Scotch stories, re work was going on through this region, Mr. verting ever and again to his beloved project, Hill rode over the rough mountain roads on and talking into the night oblivious of time, horseback, deciding problems of tunnels and until he was sent home leaving his friends the like. He knows the cost of a bridge as with doubts of his entire sanity.
well as his engineers, and more than once he For several years the St. Paul and Pacific has torn up specifications and saved money system of railroads, consisting of 437 miles by using his own plans. One reason why the of completed track, was in bad condition. road has held its own while others failed, is It was mortgaged, the roadbed was not good, that before putting it into operation he spent the time was one of great depression in the $5,000,000 in grading.
$5,000,000 in grading. It was Mr. Hill who financial world, the stockholders, mostly Hol- taught the workers in the lumber country to land capitalists, were weary with delay and alternate the thick and thin ends of the misfortune. Because of his faith in the shingle so as to make flat, square packages, future of the region that he knew so well, and thus economize space in the cars. He is Mr. Hill formed a syndicate of five persons sometimes called exacting with the employees