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not met with the virulent Southern criticism shell” types of men.
Industrial and intellecthat used to be showered on a “traitor” to tual activity are bound to change Southern the Democratic party. A great change in leadership. The best evidence that such a Southern public thought has taken place and change is taking place in politics is the comis taking place under the instruction of com ment by conservative Southern Democratic mercial events. The number of men increases papers on Senator McLaurin. every year who feel as Senator McLaurin “Senator McLaurin says,” the Louisville feels, that it is suicide to keep out of the Evening Post, declares, “just what thousands great currents of the world. For this reason of people are thinking and saying all over the the sincerely hearty reception given in South. We want to identify ourselves with Southern cities to President McKinley has a every forward movement of the nation, whether deeper meaning than mere courtesy to the it be industrial, commercial, or military." Chief Executive. The applause that every The Mobile Register protests against the where greeted his reference to the growth of South's exclusion from its proper place in the our foreign trade indicates the direction of a nation by “the obstinacy of political leaders strong current of new Southern sentiment. who live in a fog and are continually This is bound sooner or later to express itself butting their heads against the substantial in political terms. The inscription over
interests of the country.” The Richmond an arch under which he passed in Mississippi Times declares that many men in the South was “Expansion."
are “sick and tired of the party yoke," and In other words action—the taking of our that “if they were left free to vote their sentirightful place among the nations and com ments, they would undoubtedly act with the mercial expansion seem likely to bring an in- Republican party in national elections.” No dependent political era in the South; and, if Southern seceder from traditional political it do this, expansion will justify itself as he doctrines has before been received with such best influence in our political education that comments as these. we have felt for forty years.
THE PRESIDENT'S EXPANSION OF THOUGHT THE SECESSION OF SENATOR MCLAURIN
ND, if many Southern men who have ENATOR McLAURIN believes that ex
always been Democrats find pansion, the gold standard, a protective in agreement with the Republican party, on tariff and shipping subsidies are the policies sound money and on expansion, President that will make for Southern development. McKinley has very frankly put himself in line The merit or the demerit of this programme is with their traditional position as regards forof less importance than the fact that it is a
eign trade. In his speech at Memphis, Tenn., radical departure, by a man of character and in on April 30, he spoke almost if not quite as fluence, from the “solid” programme of these any Southern free-trader might speak. He “solid” forty years; for war, poverty, illiteracy, said nothing about free-trade or protection, epidemics and tornadoes have all done less hurt but he spoke of the necessity of foreign marto the South than (be it said with respect to kets in a way that would have been forbidden all men of breadth and tolerance) the poli- by the old protectionist doctrine; for open ticians and the preachers. For these have doors in other countries for our wares implies been the conservators of out-worn opinions a corresponding degree of hospitality on our and creeds, and they have suppressed in part to foreign wares. He said: tellectual independence. It is they who are to blame for the loss to the nation of the old “ It is your business as well as mine to see to time southern force and character since the it that an industrial policy shall be pursued in the war. They have suppressed thought and
United States that shall open up the widest prevented growth—these unscarred Colonels markets in every part of the world for the prod
ucts of American soil and American manufacwho wear long hair and white ties and frock coats, and these doctors of divinity who herd
ture. We can now supply our own markets. We
have reached that point in our industrial developgood women by the most stagnant waters of
ment, and in order to secure sale for our surplus theology
products we must open up new avenues for our Now the schoolmaster and the manufacturer surplus. I am sure that in that sentiment there are fast getting the better of these “hard will be no division, North or South.”
In other words, the President recognizes the men of influence—not against a restriction of new conditions and he has learned, as he de the suffrage, but against a restriction that clared that his hearers had learned, that does not apply alike to both races. But the "maxims are not as profitable as markets.” overwhelming white sentiment in all these The new economic era, the era of our trade States is opposed to restricting white suffrage. expansion, is bringing great wealth, but it is Under these amendments an incentive is given bringing other benefits even greater; and to the poor and ignorant Negro to learn to among them is an expansion of thought in read and to acquire property, but not to the every party and in every section of the coun poor and ignorant white man. try. The commercial men of the South will The Negro has not been permitted to have never again vote for an inflated currency; an active part in politics in any of these States and the author of the McKinley tariff act will in recent years.
in recent years. In the actual political result, never again have only the home market in therefore, these amendments make no change; his mind. If our unexpected expansion has and they would meet very nearly the unanimous brought us some difficult problems, it has also approval of both races and of opinion in every taught us all—men of all sections and all polit- section of the country if they did not put a ical creeds—some lessons of broader meaning premium on white ignorance and poverty. than we had before been willing to learn. The discrimination against the Negro is really We are not likely to return to the parochial a discrimination in a deeper sense against the and sectional view of our own problems or of lowest class of white men; and there is menace our own country.
for the future in this situation. The best The journey of the President and of most safeguard is educational activity. of his cabinet through the South and the Southwest and up the Pacific slope is more
A GREAT NEW MOVEMENT IN EDUCATION noteworthy than any preceding Presidential
F one were obliged to say what subject, jaunt, for several lighter reasons, as well as apart from our great industrial activity, is for the significance of his more serious now uppermost in the minds of thoughtful men, speeches. Hard breathing as the heavily- he would say Education. It is the season when scented atmosphere of compliment must a very large part of the population visits make, the President speaks with aptness, with schools and colleges, when gifts to them are sincerity, and, more wonderful still, with added up and announced, and when visible variety. He is doing admirable service evidence is given both of the earnestness in emphasizing the benefits of sound money and of the diffusion of interest in the and of thrift as the basis of our prosperity. subject. The journey was a happy idea happily It would be an impressive spectacle, if one carried out.
could see at a glance the whole prodigious
educational activity in the land. The colleges SUFFRAGE IN VIRGINIA AND ALABAMA
never before had so large an attendance; nor POLLOWING South Carolina, Mississippi, the professional schools, except the schools of
Louisiana, and North Carolina, Virginia theology; nor the technical schools; nor the and Alabama have taken steps to disfranchise public schools. But more impressive than the illiterate Negro without disfranchising the the mere magnitude of the work is the unilliterate white man. The amendment election doubted improvement in method and the very in Alabama resulted in a majority for the con great extension of special forms of work—the vention of more than 20,000 votes. Practically development of technical education for inno Negroes voted, and the white vote was stance, and the wonderfully rapid extension small. The last Democratic State Convention of manual and industrial training (as a matter pledged the party "not to deprive any white of mind-culture as well as hand-culture.) This man of the right to vote, except for conviction last indeed is the most striking single fact in of infamous crime."
present educational progress. It seems to In Virginia the Constitutional Convention have been clearly demonstrated that pupils who will meet on June 12 to construct a similar are taught to do things with their hands do amendment to restrict the suffrage.
better work also with their minds than those There has been heard both in Alabama and who do not have manual training. The most Virginia very vigorous protests from white noteworthy movement in educational work in
the near future seems likely to be based on until recently inadequate schoolhouses, or no this fact. It is a movement straight towards houses at all. Public-spirited men in the common sense and towards the strengthening towns took one school district after another, of democratic character.
made an educational campaign among the
country people, and in a spirit of neighborTHE SOUTHERN EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE liness offered their aid. In a school district
STRIKING evidence of the universal that needed a schoolhouse the townsmen
interest in education is the very wide would offer to contribute, say, $200, if the comment that was recently provoked by the residents of the school district would conSouthern Educational Conference which was tribute $300. The residents of the school held this year at Salem, N. C., instead of district needed just such inspiration and help Capon Springs, W. Va., as hitherto. It was
The result is that with the expendiattended by both Northern and Southern ture of a small sum of money and of some men, and its proceedings showed a general energetic encouragement, every school disawakening to the necessity of popular educa- trict in the county now has a well-built and tion in the South-alike for each race. The equipped schoolhouse, and of course the inmost interesting papers read were by Southern terest in popular education has been cormen who, with great frankness, made the respondingly aroused. situation plain, and who showed the greatest A similar principle has been followed by enthusiasm for the too-long neglected work. the management of the Peabody fund. CerIndeed it is doubtful if any men of any call tain towns in Southern states were selected as ing at any time or in any section of our coun beneficiaries. Out of the fund was given a try ever labored more wisely or more zealously certain sum of money on condition that the than the best educational leaders now work in towns raise a certain additional sum by local the upland South.
taxation or by private subscription. In the The spirit of the Conference was the spirit of course of two or three years the school earnest men and women who believe that the systems of these towns were completely development of free education in every section revolutionized. The Peabody agent then withof the land and for all the people is our first drew his aid from them and gave it in the duty to our country-far more important than same way to other towns. politics.
Enough of this sort of encouragement to The most important needs of Southern self-help would, in a few years, equip most public education are these: (1) to carry on a Southern communities for public school work campaign for the more liberal support of the almost as well as the rural communities of the schools by taxation, especially in the rural rest of the country. The discovery of this regions; and (2) properly to direct help that principle gives the key to the whole educamay come from any other source.
The earn tional situation, and opens a practical way for est educational workers there are fast arousing the best investment that perhaps could be made public sentiment. To build it up to a point in public education anywhere in the world. that will compel higher school taxation is the first task.
THE INCREASING CO-OPERATION OF THE RACES
S where (for the popular ignorance in the South Southern sentiment has interested is not a local burden but a national one) to itself in their “higher" education, but it shows give aid to the energetic and unselfish men approval and even enthusiasm for the common who have the practical task in hand.
school education, and especially for the indus
trial education of the blacks. The work done PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF SELF-HELP
by the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial InON
NE method of practical help has been stitute, for instance, meets the heartiest
successfully illustrated in the very county approval of Southern men of all shades of in North Carolina in which this Conference opinion. All the Southern states are conwas held. In the towns of Winston and Salem stantly increasing their school appropriations the public schools have for some time been for both races, and the recurring threats to efficiently organized and managed, but in the divide the school funds between the races in neighboring rural school districts there were proportion to the taxes paid by each has
always failed. The whites and blacks share A MOST HONORABLE PUBLIC SERVICE the school funds alike. But the public schools are in most regions ONE noteworthy fact about the growing
interest in good municipal government kept open for so short a period, and many of is the public-spirited work that groups of the them are taught by teachers so ill equipped, best men in many cities do as private citizens that the good they do is small. To the col without pay. It is now universally acknowlored schools for industrial training the white edged that in every large city the party people are giving their personal co-operation system of government has broken down. In more and more freely, as well as state aid. other words, partisan city officials—officials The Slater School for colored youth at elected as Republicans or as Democrats and Winston, N. C., for instance, has received therefore hampered by a party machinefinancial help from the foremost white resi- cannot, if they will, conduct the public service dents of the town, who serve also on its in a business-like fashion. Even men in office board of trustees. Mr. Booker T. Washing- who are not controlled by a political machine ton's invitations to address white audiences in find it difficult to keep pace in their administhe South increase in number and in impor- tration with all the needs of good city tance, as witness two great gatherings at government. In other words, no large city Spartanburg, S. C., and at New Orleans,
can hope for good government without the As years go by and experience accumulates, continuous and active help of a group of it becomes clearer that the work done by public-spirited unpaid men.
This is the only General Armstrong in creating Hampton safeguard against the evils that come from Institute was work of a revolutionary kind. the indifference of the masses. It has claims to the distinction of being the Examples of this sort of unpaid, private most original and the most useful institution activity can be found now in almost all our in the land. The impetus that it gives both important cities—certainly in all where municto public school education and to industrial ipal government is efficient or hopeful. One education is incalculable.
such example is the Committee of Fifteen in
New York, whose purpose is to cut off the THE OGDEN PARTY
revenue that Tammany receives from protectOST of the attendants on the Con- ing vice of all kinds. They are business men ference thith at teenda from the states
who work as quietly as possible without north of the Potomac were the guests on “crusades" or professional “reforms the journey of Mr. Robert C. Ogden, a other emotional methods, and they seem likely public-spirited citizen of New York, who is the to bring a revolution in municipal government Chairman of the Board of Hampton Institute, in New York. Mr. W. H. Baldwin, Jr., the and who has from the beginning been the chairman, and his associates, go about their President of these Conferences. The cause task in the same way in which they manage of public education owes him a large debt of other great business interests that are engratitude. The party included members of trusted to them. the Faculty of Harvard and Columbia Univer Another example of the same kind in the sities, and more than seventy earnest men and same city is the Tenement House Commiswomen from all the northern Atlantic states sion, an unpaid group of men whose investisouth of Massachusetts, many of them men gations have resulted in the best laws ever of great distinction. They visited representa- enacted in New York to promote decent tive educational institutions, some for whites, living in the crowded areas. The city, as a some for blacks, in Virginia, North Carolina, result of their work, will now have a paid and Georgia and Alabama. They were enter- responsible public officer whose business it tained with characteristic hospitality by the will be to see that the tenement laws are residents of Salem and Winston, in North enforced. Carolina, and were cordially received wherever Another such example is the Muncipal Asthey stopped. Personal association in this sociation of Cleveland, Ohio, a voluntary intimate fashion is the most effective means of organization controlled by a Committee of furthering a great cause; and for this reason Ten, of which Mr. H. A. Garfield is presithese Conferences have already become events dent. It has compelled the nomination of of national importance.
good candidates for city offices, although it
power that it must be reckoned with by both Naddressing ourselves to the establish
puts forward no candidates of its own ; it has returned to Manila on May 2 after a visit to
that the war is over and we are the inefficient and the corrupt.
Until the time come, if it ever come, when ment of civil government in the Philippines, we can depend on the public spirit of all the we are beginning to see what an opportunity voters in our cities to insure good govern- unexpectedly befell us and into what a valument, private work of this sort will be neces able experience we blundered. We had never sary. In doing it wisely men win enviable before had such a problem. It had not reputations—become, indeed, in a sense, our seriously occurred to us that we should ever non-office-holding rulers and servants, to undertake such a task, nor should we have whom we owe gratitude and honor.
sought it. But when we found ourselves
responsible to civilization for the future wellTHE TASKS OF PEACE IN THE PHILIPPINES
being of a long-suppressed people and an GUINALDO'S manifesto is characteris- undeveloped archipelago, we went forward, the point:
work the problem out. Indeed there was By acknowledging and accepting the sover never a time when we could have done anyeignty of the United States throughout the Phil. thing else but go forward with it. ippine Archipelago, as I now do, and without But by manfully taking it up we won the reservation whatsoever, I believe that I am sery respect of all the great Powers, many of whom ing thee, my beloved country. May happiness had regarded us with indifference, if not with be thine!”
contempt. We have already succeeded in It has been announced that for some time bringing peace, and we shall soon bring an he will be kept a prisoner, but under less re-orderly development for the first time in the straint than hitherto; and it is expected that history of the islands; and both the country he will give the help of such influence as he and the people will now make such progress has to furthering the work of the Commission. in decades as they had not made in centuries
A startling measure of the severity of the under Spanish rule. We hold them in trust war is given by General Bell's statement for civilization, and as fast as they show ca(which is, of course, an estimate) that one pacity for self-government we are bound to sixth of the inhabitants of Luzon have died of give it to them-bound by the very nature of fever or in war during the three years since our institutions and by our way of doing the battle of Manila. Our losses of troops things. from sickness and in battle and from ambush In the meantime our presence in the Philiphave been more than 3,500 men.
pines happened to give us an opportunity The surrender of insurgent leaders of small promptly to do another good deed for civilizabands has been reported almost every week till tion; and our conduct in China has given us they have become of little public interest in influence in the world's diplomacy that centhe United States, because the war is now turies of home-keeping shirking of our responended, and the even more difficult but far sibilities could not have given. This activity pleasanter task is ours to establish and to at the Antipodes has cost us men and treasure; develop civil government. The important unhappily, many men and much treasure. question of the banished friars and the lands But
But our willingness to give both in the that belonged to them, the building of roads, discharge of our natural duties as an important the establishment of courts of justice—these member of the family of nations has brought are the tasks that the Commission has in us respect and power. hand So far as the American public is in And these duties of a new kind in a distant formed, the Philippine Commission is doing part of the world have lifted our own horizon its difficult duties with a zeal and efficiency as no event in forty years had lifted it. Our that entitle the members of it to the lasting old-time wretched wrangles over a depreciated gratitude of the nation. The Commission currency, over old sectional quarrels, over