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same proportion, looking away from however, every dreadful symptom her Redeemer; whereas, He says, increased ; and towards night, the “ Look unto me, and be ye saved," means employed by her medical at&c. This, though it did not dispel tendant too plainly bespoke his foreher darkness, urged her to pray : bodings. By the Divine blessing on “Lord lift thou upon me the light of these means, she became, about midthy reconciled countenance. Mani- night, more calm; and while her fest thyself to me, as thou dost not,” husband was anxiously watching on &c. These, and similar requests, one side of the bed, and the nurse were seconded by the tearful cries of attending on the other, the expiring her agonized partner, who offered up believer broke out into the exclafor her a number of petitions, the mation, “ He was wounded for our substance of which was, that God transgressions,” &c. (repeating the would shine upon her mind, and sen
whole verse). This circumstance sibly “say unto her soul, 1 am thy was hailed with gratitude and delight salvation.” To his petitions, as he by her afflicted partner, who deemed closed sentence after sentence, she it an answer to his repeated suppliadded her hearty and repeated cations, that, “ If she must be taken “ Amen." About this time she was from him, she might be allowed an left a little to herself, and it was
interval of returning reason before hoped with a mind in some degree her departurc.
endeacomposed; and for this hope there voured to direct her thoughts to those appeared the more reason, as she sentiments which he had long known was shortly afterwards overheard, to be the solace of her soul; viz. when nobody was present, either to such as expressed and implied the see or be seen by her, praying that grand doctrine of salvation by Christ her offspring might be brought up alone. Keeping, therefore, in view in the nurture and admonition,” &c. her own quotation from the evanOnly four days previous, she had gelical prophet, he reminded her of become the mother of a son and
some of those hymns and Scripture daughter, now left to feel, though not passages which prominently exhibited yet to know, their loss. Soon after the doctrine of free grace. Here to what has been mentioned had passed, mention all the citations that were the physician attended her, when his then introduced is not necessary. visit and its consequences engaged Some, however, shall be stated, with for some time both her attention and the remark, that it was not requisite that of those about her. Towards to repeat more than a few words of the close of this day, and through any passage of Scripture, or stanza the following night, a high fever and of a hymn, in order to bring the delirium precluded any further dis- exact connexion, which she would covery of the exact state of her then continue to repeat at mind. On the following morning, length, fully before her mind. This Lord's-day, the 15th, her delirium may be accounted for from the fact, was unabated, although several things that she had a ready acquaintance escaped her lips which convinced with a great part of "the oracles of those about her that she was sensible God,” and with Watts's, Hart's, the that day was the Sabbath. Among Olney, and Rippon's Selection of other things she said, “This is the Hymns. One passage of Scripture day to worship God
now mentioned to her was, * By Our Lord invites us to his feast,
grace ye are saved;" on which she And calls it living bread.""
promptly added, “ through faith, and
that," &c._Ephes. i. 8, 9. Also, With the advance of this day, “ It is a faithful saying and worthy
of all acceptation;" she continued, is thine help.” But, to return to the " that Jesus Christ came into the closing scenes of her life. About world to save sinners.” Also, “ For the time when what has already been the Son of Man came not to be mentioned had passed, she said to her ministered unto;" she rejoined, “but husband and the nurse, who to minister and to give his life," 8c. with her, “Let me go—I'm going to Also, “ For I am come that ye might heaven, I want to go.” When she have life;" she added,
" and that ye
was reminded of that hymn that might have it more abundantly." so fervently breathes the feelings Also, “ Come unto me all ye that of the pious soul, “ At anchor laid
, labour and are heavy laden;" she remote from home,” she unfaltercontinued, and I will give you rest.” ingly went on adding, “Toiling | Then the first line of Watts’s Hymn cry, sweet spirits come,” &c.(throughon this passage was mentioned to out both the verses). Soon after her, “Come hither all ye weary this, however, she felt fatigued, and souls,” when she repeated it to the said, " That will do now; I am tired.” end of the second verse. In con- She was, therefore, urged no farther; nexion with this, she was reminded and she soon appeared to be dozing; of “ Come ye
and neither did she, from this time, seem wretched;" on which she continued to hold any intercourse with this to repeat, with scarce any assistance, world. Before long, laborious breaththe first, third, and fourth verses, ing, convulsive throes about the respiritedly concluding with, “Not the gions of the heart, and utter insenriyhteous, sinners, Jesus came to call.” sibility to surrounding objects, indiNow it was remarked to her, “ He cated the near approach of the last hath made him who knew no sin, to enemy.” Still, however, though the be sin for us ;" to which she promptly
of distinct utterance was lost, replied, “ that we might be made the there seemed something like an atrighteousness," &c. Here it is but tempt at articulation mingled with justice to her, and to the religion of her breathing. Her disconsolate Jesus, to remark, that this was her partner, anxious to catch, if possible
, darling theme,“ The Lord our right- her last accents upon earth, held his cousnes ;" a theme that she probably ear near her parched and quivering had learned the more clearly to under- lips, and distinguished, or thought he stand, and the more ardently to love, distinguished the words “ Jesus Christ, from the perusal of that admirable Christ Jesus, Jesus Christ,” succeswork, Hervey's “ Theron, and Aspa- sively repeated, escaping from them. sio,” a work which she had carefully Presently, however, a
convulsive read, and which she highly esteemed. struggle, and the gentle noise occaIn accordance with the prominent sioned by the escape of the last feature of that work, was a remark breath, terminated the painful scene, that she had made a few weeks before and her bodily eyes were now finally her death, on having heard a sermon closed on earthly shadows, that the from Ps. lxxi. 16_“I will
of her soul might at once open strength of the Lord God; I will
on the cloudless splendors of heamake mention," &c.
“ This,” she venly realities; thus blessing her with said, “ this is the preaching that I the fullest answer to her love! it is this that wins souls and long before presented, “Lord, maniglorifies God.” And she had re
fest thyself unto me, as thou dost not peatedly mentioned, as a text which unto," &c. “Blessed are the dead that she desired to hear treated on from die in the Lord; yea,” &c. the pulpit, Hosea xiii. 9"OIsrael, Wellington, Salop,
T. U. thou hast destroyed thyself, but in me Oct. 31, 1826.
ON MILTON'S TREATISE and push the results with an heroism of
conviction which men of lower moral
principle could not feel. Hence it is CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE.
that, throughout these pages, we are delightfully carried on by evangelical doctrines, sweet charity, and prescrip
tions, of virtue the most elevated, and ON VERACITY AND FALSEHOOD.
morality the most magnanimous: yet
ever and anon, in all these respects, A VALUABLE lesson which we may dark blots and defacements break upon learn from the perusal of this extra- Upon what we conceive to be the ordinary and interesting volume, is, principal of them, we have, according that inconsistency and paradox have to the best lights and convictions that some advantage for the intruding of we can attain, exercised that freedom themselves into those minds which are of examination which any liberal man gifted with the highest and most ex- would have employed upon himself, quisite genius. A soul less qualified to and which no man would have welsoar in its own splendid creations, less comed more than the illustrious author tuned to thrill to the finest notes of into whose sanctuary we have thus adbeauty and majesty, a mind of humbler ventured to look. A variety of minor and more plodding order than that points we have passed over.
In this, of England's immortal poet, would our last Essay, we shall principally have been more ready to perceive in. animadvert upon a sad obliquity of our coherencies and more careful to expur- author with respect to the Obligation gate them. We conceive, also, that of Veracity: other causes, in addition to this and 66 Not only the dissimulation," says those wbich have been mentioned in he, “ or concealment of truth, but even former papers, are reasonably to be direct untruth with the intention of de. assigned as having exercised a noxious ceiving, may, in many instances, be influence over the mind of this great beneficial to our neighbour. No man, and given an unconscious bias to rational person will deny that there his deductions; and they were such as are some individuals whom we could not fail to operate with peculiar fully justified in deceiving. Who would strength on a mind of such exquisite scruple to dissemble with a child, with sensibility and uncompromising frank- a madman, with a sick person [to in
One was the state of religious duce him to submit to medical treatparties during the whole period of his ment], with one in a state of intoxicaactive life. It scarcely required bis tion, with an enemy, with one who eagle eye to see the blemishes which, has himself a design of deceiving us, in one respect or other, deformed them with a'robber (unless, indeed, we disall. He could find none with whom pute the trite maxim, Cui nullum est he could unite, with the full satisfac- jus, ei nulla, fit injuria)? When, intion of his too susceptible mind. Ano- stead of injuring a person by a false ther very active cause of aberration statement, we either confer on him a from the fair dictates of evidence, we positive benefit, or.
' prevent him from conceive to have been that occasional inflicting or suffering injury, we are so weakness of extraordinary minds which far from being guilty of deceit towards prompts them to take pity, so to speak, him, however often the fiction may be upon a forlorn cause-to become ena repeated, that we ought rather to be moured of arguments possessing plau- considered as doing him a service sibility, indeed, but whose tried insuf- against bis will. [There are cases in ficiency had caused them to drop into which] by an honest and beneficial oblivion. Of this chivalrous logic, the kind of falsehood, we may be enabled literary world has seen other examples. to avert injury or danger from ourJohnson, Burke, Windham, and Byron, selves or our neighbour." On these are familiar and recent instances. But principles he vindicates the feints and the soul of Milton far transcended those fictions wbich were resorted to on men in tenderness and sincerity. While, some occasions, recorded in the Scriptherefore, it was likely to receive the tures, by Abraham, Rebecca and impulse of this unsuspected principle Jacob, Joseph, the Hebrew midwives with a greater effect, it would adopt in Egypt, Rahab, Ehud, Jael, Jona
than, David, and others. In reply to have made him insensible to the force all this, we offer the following re- of many other scripture passages, some marks;
of which he actually quotes, declaring, I. The thougkt seems not to bave or implying, the unchangeable obligaoccurred to Milton's mind, or at least tion of veracity, and that lying is monot with its proper strength and per. rally evil in itself, and of its own namanency, that there is an original and ture? Alas, how tremendous is the natural excellency in TRUTH, and pro- power of prejudice! What humility portionably an intrinsic baseness in and modesty-what self-distrust and falsehood, irrespectively of the conse- dependance on God should we learn quences of either the one or the other. from this lamented example! He, and others who have taken up a As a specimen of the principles in. similar opinion on this point, among culcated by revelation on this great whom we must place Leclerc and Paley, branch of moralily, let the reader pecontinually reason as if truth were a ruse the following passages :
:-Psalm species of private property, and that xv. 1, 2: cxix. 163. Prov. vi, 16, 17; those who are possessed of it are in- xii. 19. Matt. xv. 19. Eph. iv. 25. vested with an option either to give it Col. iii. 9. Rev. xxi. 8.; xxii. 15. In or withhold it, as they see occasion. these passages, lying is represented as Hence they often bottom their argu. emanating from the wickedness of the ments upon wbat they call the right heart, as a part of “ the old man of a person, in a given case, to have which is to be mortified, as in its own the truth told to him: and they are nature most odious in the sight of God; betrayed into the conclusion that, to and, with respect to its guilt and puany one whom we judge not to enjoy nishment, it is classed with the greatest that right, we are allowed, not only of crimes. On the other hand, veracity to refuse the declaration of the truth, is described as in itself lovely, holy, but to deceive bim by giving to him a and essential to the character of a true declaration that is false, but which we servant of God and member of the wish him to believe and accept as if it Church of Christ. were true. We conceive that all these These topics appear to us sufficient, arguings proceed from the original upon the highest ground, and most defallacy of not acknowledging the IN- cisively to annihilate whatever plan. TRINSIC EXCELLENCY of TRUTII. sibility might attach to our author's We refuse acquiescence in “ the trite argumentation; but we shall add some maxim" which Milton imagined to be brief hints to show the fallacy of bis indisputable. The Jus, the right, of reasonings from human conveniency, requiring truth, may or may not reside interest, and example. in a fellow-creature: but it has a seat, II. VERACITY is the bond of honour, aternal and immutable, in the Supreme peace, and bappiness in society. If it Moral Ruler, " the LORD GOD of were not held to be of paramount obtruth.” To Him we owe the duty of ligation; if a man were at liberty to speaking and acting the truth, and no dispense with it towards those whom circumstances can discharge us from he may consider as unfriendly to him. the obligation. That reason teaches self, or on any other account, not posthis, has been shown to a demonstra- sessed of a title to be told the truth; tion, by Mr. Wollaston in his Religion if it might be observed or laid aside of Nature Delineated : and that it is according to our apprehension of among the first principles of Revelation
present convenience, and selfish or is abundantly plain. It is remarkable even social interest, all mutual confithat Milton adduces the ninth com- dence would be destroyed. In no case mandment, and triumphs in the lite- could a man make himself sure that a rality of interpretation, “ against thy person, with whom he had intercourse, neighbour.” He pleads that it is evi. did not look upon bim as one who had dent that we are not forbidden to utter no right to be told the truth. In no what is false, if requisite, to such as case could it be certainly known that do not deserve that name.” Had hé our associate did not suppose that, by then forgotten the opinions which he any particular act of deception, he had so earnestly supported concerning would acquire to himself some desirthe Decalogue? [See our third Essay, able object, wbile, according to his p. 137, of this volume.] What could own estimation, he would be doing us
no injury. Moral obligation would pretence of doing him service. (See thus be made dependant on expected Job. xiii. 7. Rom. iii. 7, 8.) or presumed consequences ! The bound- 4. Beneficence is to be exercised less field of speculation would be only within the limits which other thrown open, and a man would have principles of moral goodness prescribe. to calculate contingencies and conse- (See 1 Cor. xiii. 6. Eph. iv. 15.) quences, before he could determine 5. If it were lawful to lie, in order whether he should speak the truth or to avoid a minor evil, or to obtain a tell a lie! Dreadful must be the state minor good, much more would it of that family, of that society, on any become proper in cases of the highest scale, into which such a principle gains importance : for instance, to save a admittance.
most eminent, holy, and useful servant III. In maintaining the indispensable of Christ from being tortured to death, obligation of veracity, we do not sup- which would deprive the church of his pose that, in every case, a person is invaluable services in the prime of his bound to tell all that he knows. The life, and when his services are most idea of a minor right to receive infor- greatly needed. Thousands of marmation, or the absence of such right, tyrs might have preserved their lives is a subject of just, though limited, by a word or two, or a very small consideration. Many things we may degree of accommodation, at the exreserve in our own breasts; many pense of veracity. Had they done so, things we ought so to reserve. what would have become of the honour prudent man concealeth knowledge:- of Christianity ? a fool uttereth all his mind, but a wise V. The arguments brought from the man keepeth it in till afterwards,” till examples of eminent persons and saints, the proper occasion. (Prov. xii. 23, recorded in the Old Testament, give xxix. 11.) But there is an immense us no difficulty. Under the obscure difference between declining to tell to and shadowy dispensations of the early any person what he has no right or ages, it is evident that not only the business to know, and pretending to doctrines of religion, but the rules of tell him, while we are really abusing piety, virtue, and morality, were very his confidence or credulity. See Matt. imperfectly understood. The Historical xxvi. 63.
Scriptures, with a noble impartiality, IV. With respect to the plea that record the sins of the most favourite falsehoods are lawful when they may characters. Not for our approval or be beneficial, to make infants or luna- imitation, but for our censure, warning, tics tractable, to prevent robbery, as- and avoidance. Our readers will be sassination, or some other great crime, well rewarded if they will consult or to elude the designs of an enemy, Henry, Scott, or the Cottage Bible, on or the like, or to compass some great the instances which Milton adduces so benefit to ourselves, our country, or very injudiciously, and with so dangerour religion; we remark :
ous a tendency. 1. That there is much fallacy in the VI. Cases may be imagined, or may assumptions. The best writers on edu- even have occurred, though very cation, even apart from religion (for rarely, of extreme difficulty and disinstance, Miss Edgeworth) have de- tressful hardship. But it is always our monstrated the folly and mischief of duty to adhere to the principles of RECdeceiving children; and those who
TITUDE, leaving consequences with exercise the most judicious and suc- God. He can never be taken by surcessful treatment of mental disorders, prise: he cannot err; he will do all make it a principle never to impose things, not only well, but in the best upon a patient.
manner, and to the best end. His 2. No good object is really and ulti- providential, equally with his moral, mately benefited by deception; but it government, stands in no need of our is deeply injured in the end. Witness officious lying, to serve him, or advance the whole history of what has been bis glory. In the most distressing cirpleaded for under the contradictory cumstances that can be conceived, if term of Pious Frauds; the basis of we adhered to the principles of holiJesuitical morality.
ness, if we acted in the trial from in: 3. God needs not, demands not, tegrity of heart towards Him, it admits accepts not our sinning, under the not of the smallest doubt, that either