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“ Voice Training. (1) Exercises as in Standard I., in keys C, D, and E flat.
(2) Soft singing and clear pronunciation of words should be insisted on."
NEEDLEWORK (STANDARD II.).
(Continuation of Instructions, p. 71.) (1) To fix for stitching, and work not less than half of
5 inches, and sew on a string. (2) To cast on 30 loops and knit with 4 pins 10 rounds,
breaking and joining the cotton or wool at least
once, and cast off. (3) To darn on canvas 10 rows 1; inches long, and to
mark one of the following letters :-E, H, I, L,
0, T, and to work 3 inches of herring-bone. Optional.—To herring-bone down the four sides of a piece of flannel 4 inches square.
tape 2 inches long.
Optional.—A piece of flannel 4 inches square. The fixing and working of a seam and fell as taught in Standard I., is again required in this Standard, with the addition that a "join” shall be shown in both seam and fell. Each child being supplied with two pieces of calico of equal size (5 inches by 2), the teacher should question the class on the method of procedure, as previously taught; and having seen that each step is well remembered, and competently performed, she should allow the class to commence seaming with coloured cotton. After a few stitches have been worked, the teacher should direct each child to break its cotton off. As in the case of joining when hemming, an end of about half an inch is required ; therefore, should the cotton break off close to the work, about three and a half stitches must be unpicked so as to obtain an end. The half stitch unpicked in seaming, as in hemming, enables the fresh cotton to be very neatly joined on. The teacher should now direct the class to watch her narrowly; and taking up her own specimen piece (no teacher should be without a demonstration piece when teaching needlework), she should place her needle between the two edges that she is sewing, but for the first stitch take her needle only through the edge nearest to herself, leaving an end of cotton about half an inch long. These two ends should be carefully sewn in, not tucked between the two pieces.
The teacher should direct the children to seam a few stitches more, and then make them repeat the process
of breaking and joining until the difficulty has been overcome, and neatness in joining secured. The joining of cotton in a fell should be performed exactly as in hemming.
KNITTING.—“Purling ”is introduced with the knitting of this Standard. After the children have cast on their stitches, and worked one row plain, they might be told to slip the first stitch, keeping the cotton in front of the right-hand needle, which should be placed through each stitch in turn of the left-hand needle, in exactly the opposite position of that of plain knitting. The cotton should be thrown over the top of the right-hand needle in working each stitch, not under it, as is frequently the case with beginners. After “purling” is well understood by the class, a piece of knitting-ribbed, purl, and plain-could be taught.
The " optional” work of Standard II. is pleating. This exercise should, of course, like fixing a hem and a seam
and fell, be first practised on paper.
The teacher and children should each be supplied with two pieces, one being about 7 inches by 3, the other 3 inches square.
The teacher might question the class as to what garments are pleated, and then draw from them the use of pleats. The teacher should take up the larger piece of the two and measure it exactly in half, marking the half by a few stitches, then take up the smaller piece, and mark it in the same way, and allow the children to do the same. The teacher should explain to the class the reason of this step. The teacher should then show the children how to fold each pleat quite evenly, and allow them to place a pin in each, until they have ascertained that the half pleated is the same length as half of the band. The band might then be turned down all round, and the ends of it tacked. The pleats should next be run across the top a little way from the edge, the pins removed, and the piece tacked into the band. The other half should be pleated in the same way. The children might then be allowed to have material, and directed to proceed step by step as when using paper. After the band has been hemmed on the right side, it should be tacked down, and hemmed on the wrong side, exactly on the line of stitches made when hemming on the right side.
After the children can perfectly perform this exercise, aprons and chemise bands could be nicely put on by them.
SCHEDULE I. (NEW CODE, 1883).
READING.—“To read a passage from a more advanced reading-book, or from stories from English History.”
WRITING.--"Six lines from one of the reading-books of the Standard, slowly read once and then dictated.
"Copy-books (capitals and figures, large and small hand) to be shown.'
“In Standard III., and those above it, the examination should always be on paper.
Greater readiness should be expected in writing, but two or three words only should be dictated at once. As a rule, more than four errors in Spelling should involve failure, but if the handwriting be very fair, and not more than four errors occur in the six lines, the child should pass. Correct spelling should not in any case obtain a pass if the writing is below fair.” (Instructions to Inspectors.)
ARITHMETIC.-" The former rules, with long division; addition and subtraction of money.”
“In Standard III. and upwards the Arithmetic must be on paper." (New Code, 1883.)
“In Mental Arithmetic practice should be given in Standard III. in easy reductions." (Instructions to Inspectors.)
READING (STANDARD III.). (See pp. 9 and 87.) Little will require to be specially added to the remarks on Reading in Standard II., except so far as History is concerned. The History Reader will form the third book required in the Standard.
This subject is now amply provided for in the many History Readers (see Griffith and Farran's “History Reader,” ls.) now published. Before this subject can be properly taught, however, even from a historical readingbook, the teacher must have a fuller knowledge of the subject for illustration, than is contained in the book used by the class. Moreover, as the subject demands more fixed attention from the child, than is the case in an ordinary reading-book, the lessons should be specially prepared and written out in the form of Notes for blackboard and oral practice. These collective lessons should be designed to illustrate and fill up the sketches in the history readingbook.
As an example of this we shall subsequently append some Notes of Lessons on history subjects in Standard IV.
SUMMARY AND SUGGESTIONS. In teaching History to young children of Standard III. the teacher should bear the following points in mind :
(1) No dates or strict chronology need be attempted ; but the events narrated should be in sequence.
(2) The History of England is not strictly the history of English kings, but of the English people.
(3) Manners and customs, dress, industries, the condition of the country and people, institution of laws, and biographies of great and good men, are of more importance than the birth and death, marriage and issue, wars and struggles, of kings.