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From North and South in dread array,

The sacred stream to spill ;
How many thrill with life to-day,

That never more shall thrill !
With battle-axe and javelin ;

With shaft, and sword, and spear ;
In morning sun, and deafening din,

The rival hosts draw near.
Behind the trench on yonder mound,

See Saxon Harold stand ;
His standard planted in the ground,

His battle-axe in hand.
And there, upon his warrior steed,

The Norman Duke appears ;
Before him sweep in phalanx deep,

The moving woods of spears.
The air grows dark, the foes beneath,

In struggle fierce and high,
Exchange the blows that deal out death,

In changeful victory.
One moment turns the battle's tide

Against the Norman foe;
The next one sees the Saxon pride

Upon the earth fall low.
"The duke is slain ; the day is lost,"

Breaks forth the startled cry.
See, I am here,” rings through the host,

To conquer or to die !”
Half mad, half blind, the Saxon king,

By deadly arrow struck,
The centre of a warrior ring,

Withstands the battle shock.
But faint with loss of blood, and spent

With changing blows, his gaze
To native earth and sky is bent,

Beneath the sun's last rays.


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The last that ever he will see,

For ere 'tis day again,
Old England is no longer free,

The victor holds the plain.
If ever wrong beat down the right,

'Twas in that strife of blood ;
But out of darkness cometh light,

The ill precedes the good.
Ages, since then, have mingled race,

And blended creed and tongue ;
To fearless strength have added grace,

And humanized the strong.
Saxon or Norman we may be,

But English one and all,
To keep our own old England free,

And with her rise or fall.

H. M.

How To TEACH HISTORY, AND ITS OBJECTS. The objects aimed at in teaching history are(1) To cultivate the spirit of patriotism.

(2) To train affections by stories of heroes famous for their deeds of generosity, bravery, self-denial, perseverance, faithfulness, and fortitude.

(3) In later stages children will learn from history the practical wisdom of daily life by studying the motives which determine action.

The history and geography of a country are so bound up together, that one cannot be well taught without teaching the other.

To teach history properly requires on the part of the teacher

(1) Careful preparation.

(2) A lively imagination.
(3) A quick eye to seize striking situations.

(4) A graphic style of expression to picture an event in simple language.

(5) Quick emotion to catch for one's self and impart to others, love of good and disgust for evil.

Tales of vulgar bloodshed and murder should be avoided, as injurious to sensitive organizations.

On the other hand, special attention should be paid to pictures of the state of the country, means of conveyance, character of trade and pursuits, maritime enterprise, changes of dress, food, houses, furniture, etc.




[For WRITING (STANDARD III.), see Standard II.] IN teaching long division, the first point to establish is, that the principle involved is the same as in short division. Thus, in


we have

• 763 + 7 nines in 68, 7 and carry 5; nines in 57, 6 and carry nines in 34, 3 and carry

7. This might be done by long division, thus: nines in 68, 7 and carry 5, and so on as before to the end.

Copious exercises should be given in 9)6874(763 long division with numbers under 13, until 63 the class becomes habituated to the form conventionally adopted.

57 The children will thus get to see that the

54 difference between long and short division

34 consists in the multiplying the divisor by

27 the individual figures of the quotient and setting the product beneath the remainders 7 brought down.

In short division this process is carried on mentally, in long division the result is set down in figures. venience of this arrangement is perceived, when divisors

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The con

larger than 12 are used ; as seen in the accompanying example.

The difficulty in these examples is to find 16)1876(117 a true trial quotient figure. It is this which 16 makes the learning of long division so tedious and uninteresting a process. Some

27 times the number hit on in the quotient is

16 too small; sometimes too great. In the

116 former case a remainder larger than the

112 divisor, and in the second no remainder at all, is left. The class must be taught that

4 in the former case a larger quotient figure must be chosen ; and in the latter, that a smaller one must be used.

For some time the children should be allowed to prove their working, by the reverse process of multiplying the quotient by the divisor, adding in the remainder to get the dividend.

Another quick way of proving a long division sum, and very useful in testing additional exercises given to the quicker children, is the following :

In the preceding exercise the following lines added together will give the original dividend. first, these lines may be singled out and added 16 together, as in the margin ; after a little practice, 16 the teacher will be able to add them together at 112 sight in the working without removing them from 4 the other lines. A little observation will show which are the lines selected for addition, viz. the 1876 several products with the final remainder.

It would be mere waste of space to lay out the work in further detail, as it is to be presumed that Pupil Teachers know the mechanical rales.

In Compound Addition, the plan referred to in Standard I. will be found of great use, in enabling the teacher to set

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