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From North and South in dread array,
The sacred stream to spill ;
That never more shall thrill !
With shaft, and sword, and spear ;
The rival hosts draw near.
See Saxon Harold stand ;
His battle-axe in hand.
The Norman Duke appears ;
The moving woods of spears.
In struggle fierce and high,
In changeful victory.
Against the Norman foe;
Upon the earth fall low.
Breaks forth the startled cry.
“To conquer or to die !”
By deadly arrow struck,
Withstands the battle shock.
With changing blows, his gaze
Beneath the sun's last rays.
The last that ever he will see,
For ere 'tis day again,
The victor holds the plain.
'Twas in that strife of blood ;
The ill precedes the good.
And blended creed and tongue ;
And humanized the strong.
But English one and all,
And with her rise or fall.
How To TEACH HISTORY, AND ITS OBJECTS. The objects aimed at in teaching history are(1) To cultivate the spirit of patriotism.
(2) To train affections by stories of heroes famous for their deeds of generosity, bravery, self-denial, perseverance, faithfulness, and fortitude.
(3) In later stages children will learn from history the practical wisdom of daily life by studying the motives which determine action.
The history and geography of a country are so bound up together, that one cannot be well taught without teaching the other.
To teach history properly requires on the part of the teacher
(1) Careful preparation.
(2) A lively imagination.
(4) A graphic style of expression to picture an event in simple language.
(5) Quick emotion to catch for one's self and impart to others, love of good and disgust for evil.
Tales of vulgar bloodshed and murder should be avoided, as injurious to sensitive organizations.
On the other hand, special attention should be paid to pictures of the state of the country, means of conveyance, character of trade and pursuits, maritime enterprise, changes of dress, food, houses, furniture, etc.
ARITHMETIC (STANDARD III.).
[For WRITING (STANDARD III.), see Standard II.] IN teaching long division, the first point to establish is, that the principle involved is the same as in short division. Thus, in
• 763 + 7 nines in 68, 7 and carry 5; nines in 57, 6 and carry nines in 34, 3 and carry
7. This might be done by long division, thus: nines in 68, 7 and carry 5, and so on as before to the end.
Copious exercises should be given in 9)6874(763 long division with numbers under 13, until 63 the class becomes habituated to the form conventionally adopted.
57 The children will thus get to see that the
54 difference between long and short division
34 consists in the multiplying the divisor by
27 the individual figures of the quotient and setting the product beneath the remainders 7 brought down.
In short division this process is carried on mentally, in long division the result is set down in figures. venience of this arrangement is perceived, when divisors
larger than 12 are used ; as seen in the accompanying example.
The difficulty in these examples is to find 16)1876(117 a true trial quotient figure. It is this which 16 makes the learning of long division so tedious and uninteresting a process. Some
27 times the number hit on in the quotient is
16 too small; sometimes too great. In the
116 former case a remainder larger than the
112 divisor, and in the second no remainder at all, is left. The class must be taught that
4 in the former case a larger quotient figure must be chosen ; and in the latter, that a smaller one must be used.
For some time the children should be allowed to prove their working, by the reverse process of multiplying the quotient by the divisor, adding in the remainder to get the dividend.
Another quick way of proving a long division sum, and very useful in testing additional exercises given to the quicker children, is the following :
In the preceding exercise the following lines added together will give the original dividend. first, these lines may be singled out and added 16 together, as in the margin ; after a little practice, 16 the teacher will be able to add them together at 112 sight in the working without removing them from 4 the other lines. A little observation will show which are the lines selected for addition, viz. the 1876 several products with the final remainder.
It would be mere waste of space to lay out the work in further detail, as it is to be presumed that Pupil Teachers know the mechanical rales.
In Compound Addition, the plan referred to in Standard I. will be found of great use, in enabling the teacher to set