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than one-half, and vice versa, of circle in daylight; so day longer than 12 hours.
This is one factor in summer (and conversely in winter.)
() Let boy stand for sun fixed, and another for earth rotating. Show,
that same lighting effect follows if first revolves round second,
or second on his own avis. (4) Inquire as to times of sun's rising and setting at different seasons
of the year.
THE SEASONS.—This subject is so complicated that it must be left to the elucidation of the Head Teacher, by means of diagrams, etc.
SCHEDULE I. (STANDARD VI.)
READING. “ To read a passage from one of Shakespeare's historical plays, or from some other standard author, or
from a History of England.” (New Code, 1883.) [Three sets of readers required, viz. : (1) Historical Reader; (2) Geographical or Scientific Reader; (3) Book of Extracts, or Historical Plays of Shakespeare, or Book of Milton, or Book of Travel, or Biographies.]
"In Standards VI. and VII. a single play of Shakespeare, or a single book of one of Milton's longer poems, or a selection of extracts from either poet equal in length to the foregoing may be accepted. As a rule, ordinary textbooks or manuals should not be accepted as readers.” (Instructions to Inspectors.)
WRITING.—“A short theme or letter on an easy subject, spelling, handwriting, and composition to be considered ; an exercise in dictation may, at the discretion of the Inspector, be substituted for composition. Copy-books to be shown." (New Code, 1883.)
"The writing exercise prescribed for Standard VI. is the earliest exercise in composition required in the Code as part of the writing exercise; and no child ought to pass who does not show the power to put together in grammatical language, correctly expressed, and, if required, in the form of a letter, a few simple observations on some easy subject of common and familiar experience.” (Instructions to Inspectors.)
ARITHMETIC.—“Fractions, vulgar and decimal ; proportion, simple and compound; and simple interest.” (New Code, 1883.)
The strictly "authentic historical plays” of Shakespeare - Richard II., " " Richard III.,
Henry IV.,” “ Henry V.,” “Henry VI.,” “Henry VIII.,” and “King John.” (Besides these are "" legendary historical” plays, viz. “Julius Cæsar,” “ Anthony and Cleopatra,” “Macbeth, ”
Hamlet,” “King Lear,” “ Coriolanus,” “Titus Andronicus," and "Cymbeline.")
In selecting one of these the following considerations should be borne in mind :
(1) Expurgated editions alone should be used. (2) English historical plays should be preferred. (3) Those with the least intricate plot should be selected.
(4) Those of the most dramatic interest should be chosen.
(5) Those consisting of more than one part (" Henry IV." and "Henry VI.") should be rejected.
(6) Do not choose those that deal too freely with bloodshed ("Macbeth"). (7) In reading these, illustrations should be given from
(a) The history of the time of the play.
(8) A good annotated text should be in the hands of the teacher, and this should be interleaved for his own manuscript notes. " Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare” should also be read for the special play.
(9) The difficult passages should be paraphrased. (10) The moral of the play should be pointed out.
(11) The development of character and situation should be elucidated as the study proceeds.
(12) The choicest descriptions, speeches, and soliloquies should be learned by the pupils and teachers.
(13) The class should "take parts” in reading.
(14) Words should be explained by means of their prefixes, suffixes, and root meanings.
(15) Changes in the meanings of words should be pointed out. (16) The figures of speech should be remarked on.
“The historical plays of Shakespeare are a kind of National Epic. Marlborough knew no English history but what he had learned from them. There are really few as memorable histories. The great salient points are admirably seized; all rounds itself off into rhythmic coherence. There are right beautiful things in them—they indeed together form one beautiful
throng."-T. CARLYLE. In order to give the teacher an insight into the character and spirit of Shakespeare and Milton, two short essays are here given, which will be useful to him in other directions.
TAE ENGLISH DRAMA.
The earliest English dramas were written and played by ecclesi. astics, often in religious houses, the subjects being sacred; this being the form in which religious truth was attempted to be taught, as may be seen in the titles of the Miracle Plays; such as “The Creation,
," "The Fall of Man,” “ Cain and Abel," "The Crucifixion,” “The Deluge," etc.
The first are known as Miracle Plays, dealing with Scripture
events, or incidents in the lives of the saints, as the “Chester Plays." The stage was divided into three divisions, representing heaven, earth, and hell, and the dresses were taken from the vestry of the church, where the plays were acted at festivals—the Devil being the comic element.
The next were Moralities, in which vices and virtues were personi. fied. These were moral rather than religious as the preceding were, the actors being “Repentance, Gluttony,” “ Pride," etc., with the Devil for the comic character again. The oldest extant is “ The Castle of Perseverance," written about 1450. Subsequent to these came “The Interludes,” generally farcical.
The first English comedy was written by Nicholas Udall, viz. Ralph Roister Doister," written about 1557. The next was mer Gurton's Needle,” written by J. Still, afterwards Bishop of Bath and Wells, a ridiculous farce on the loss and finding of this implement of the housewife in the inexpressibles of her man Hodge.
The first extant English tragedy is known as, “ Gorboduc, or Ferrex and Porrex,” probably written by Norton and Sackville, about 1567, and in blank verse, giving us an ancient British historical sketch, written for Queen Elizabeth.
There were yet no regular theatres or recognized actors, the latter being amateurs, and the former town halls, inn yards, dining-halls, etc. Later, actors appeared under the patronage of men of the court, and went about as strolling players.
The latter half of the reign of Elizabeth was the most brilliant period of English literature.
“ There never was, anywhere, anything like the 60 or 70 years that elapsed from the middle of Elizabeth's reign to the Restoration, for in that short period we shall find the names of almost all the very great men that this nation has ever produced; the names of Shakespeare, Bacon, Spenser, Sydney, Raleigh, Hooker, Milton, and others.”
The causes of this brilliance were the spirit of adventure of the time, as evidenced in the resistance to the Spanish Armada; the discovery of new lands; the opening up of classical learning; the increasing wealth of the nation; and the freedom of thought encouraged by the Reformation.
In the time of Henry VIII. the leaders of the people first began to recognize in the drama a means not only of popular education, but of political instruction. Henry soon saw occasion to repent the en. couragement he had given to the drama, as in a short time it became immersed in the strifes of Church or State. A statute was passed in 1543, prohibiting all “ballads, plays, rhymes, songs, and other phantasies,” as had not for their object the "rebuking and reproach. ing of vices, and the setting forth of virtue.” This statute falling into neglect, a severer measure was passed by Edward VI. for the entire suppression of every form of stage play. But by this time the drama had taken a firm hold on the public mind, and a compromise was found to be necessary. This was effected by licences granted