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notional, and which relational words, but the children will imitate the teacher's expression, and gradually catch the idea referred to.]
B. WRITING. This includes spelling, which really belongs rather to the reading, and ought to be taught and examined with it.
Occasional writing on paper, even in Standard I., will be found to conduce to neatness, and is always enjoyed by the scholars.
The writing should be of the same size as in the copybooks, namely, large and half-text; this gives freedom, fluency, and sweep; and the size can be reduced in Standard II. The writing of Standard I. is generally too small, and thus becomes cramped and ill-shaped.
Most of the writing should be from the blackboard, both the single words, and“ lines of print;” and “ transcribing should only be used towards the end of the school year. In this respect, as elsewhere, the motto should be “ Festina lente—make haste slowly.”
The “easy words " should be principally notional words (noun, verb, adjective), within the actual experience of the child; or selected out of the reading lessons. These will include the names of objects in the school, street, fields house, etc.; the simplest actions, jumping, flying, hunting, etc.; and the commonest attributes, good, bad, etc. (Quality); many, twelve, etc. (Number or Quantity); large, small, etc. (Size); round, square, etc. (Shape); black, white, etc. (Colour).
These selections will lead the way to the noun, adjective, and verb, subsequently required in the "English "exercise.
C. ARITHMETIC.—By Notation is meant the setting down on slates or paper of abstract numbers from dictation.
By Numeration is meant the reading off of abstract numbers thus set down.
It will be noted that the numbers in Addition and Subtraction, are limited to 999, or three figures. These should be understood as wholes, as page 47, etc., and should be analyzed into units, tens, and hundreds, the relative values of the places” of hundreds, tens, and units, being thoroughly well taught.
The Multiplication Table should not only be learnt as a table, up to 6 times 12, but also by means of concrete examples, as two rows with four desks in a row,
make eight desks, etc. The tables should also be taught backwards, as well as forwards, and so sung or said, as well as in halves, 2 times 1 are 2, up to 2 times 6 are 12, then backwards ; and similarly from 2 times 7 are 14, to 2 times 12 are 24, and then backwards.
Moreover, the 0 times table, and the 1 times table, though, unfortunately, not given in table books, should also be learnt, as these are as frequently required in multiplication as the other figures. These omitted tables are set down at length :-
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
X X X X X X X X X X X X X
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
x 10 x 11 X 12
= 10 = 11 = 12
Again, every "table" should include 0. Thus:
2 times 0 are 0 etc.
The tables should also be learnt in all the possible forms, thus :
3 X 3
= 9, and 3 times 3 are 9, and 3 x 3 = (blank, to be filled in by scholar).
INSTRUCTIONS TO H.M.'s INSPECTORS.
In addition to Schedule I. of the Code, it will be necessary to meet the requirements set forth in the “ Circular to H.M.’s Inspectors, 9th August, 1882,” as appended herewith.
READING.—“In Standard I. two ordinary reading-books may be used, unless the managers prefer that the second book should be a Geographical or Scientific reader, to suit the second Class Subject. In Standard I. intelligent reading will probably suffice to justify a pass without much examination into the matter of the book ; but it should be considered a grave fault if children have been allowed to read the same lesson so often as to learn it by heart, and to repeat it without any but occasional glimpses at the book. As a general rule, the examiner should be careful rather to ask for the meaning of short sentences, and phrases, than to require explanation of single words by definitions or synonyms."
WRITING.- " In Standard I. the writing exercises should, as a rule, be done on slates, and should be regarded chiefly as a test of hand-writing, i.e. of the child's power of making and combining script letters (small and capital), and accurately transcribing print. My Lords do not pledge themselves to any particular style of writing or method of teaching it, but it should at least be bold and legible, and the text adopted should be sufficiently large to show that the child is acquainted with the proper forms and proportions of letters. In dictation none but the easiest and most familiar words, and those chiefly monosyllables, should be given out, and a pass should not be withheld if six out of the prescribed ten are correctly spelt and written.
In all cases, where a dictation exercise is given, the teacher may be permitted, if he desires, to read the passage (words in Standard I.) over to the children before it is dictated by the Inspector. In Welsh-speaking Schools the teacher may be allowed to give out the whole of the dictation.
MENTAL ARITHMETIC.-“ Mental Arithmetic is a new requirement, but it is not intended to form an addition to the individual examination for the purpose of recording the “passes
" in the Schedule. It is a class exercise, and may often be satisfactorily tested by requiring the teacher of the class to give a few questions in your presence, and by adding at discretion some questions of your own. The object of this exercise is to encourage dexterity, quickness, and accuracy in dealing with figures, and to anticipate, by means of rapid and varied oral practice, with small numbers, the longer problems which have afterwards to be worked out in writing. Practice should be given in all the ordinary processes of Arithmetic, e.g. in Standard I. Addition, Subtraction, and Multiplication, with numbers up to 50, and money up to 2s.”
READING. (STANDARD I.) READING aloud means the translating of written or printed symbols (letters, words, and sentences) into spoken language or sound. Here, manifestly, two of the "senses," or avenues to knowledge, are made use of.
(1) Sight through the instrument, or organ of the eye; and
(2) Hearing, through the instrument of the ears.
In other words the visual sign is converted into the auditory.
In actual experience the latter is first made use of by the babe, and only at a later stage is the appeal made to the eye. The school method inverts this order, and first trains the sight; and afterwards links this experience to uttered speech.
In order to read well, therefore, the requirements will be
(1) A quick and accurate eye, to recognize the likenesses and differences of letters, and words.
(2) A quick and accurate ear, to recognize the likenesses and differences of sounds, uttered
(a) By the teacher, and
(6) By the scholar himself. So far accuracy only is secured; to secure (1) intelligence, (2) fluency, and (3) expression, the child must be made