Page images

the matter of the book ; but it should be considered a grave fault if children, etc.(see p. 7, Instructions to Inspectors.)

WRITING. -A passage of not more than six lines, from the same book(as used in the Standard), slowly read once, and then dictated word by word.

Copy-books (large and half-text hand) to be shown."

The writing (and Arithmetic) may be on slates or paper, at the discretion of the managers.(New Code, 1883.)

" In Standard II. the exercises should be on slates, security for writing on paper being provided by the exhibition of copy-books. The same qualities of writing should be required as in Standard I.(see p. 29), “but greater importance should be attached to evenness and uniformity, and the proper spaces between the words. Capitals should be required to be put without direction after full stops and at the beginning of proper names. The passage for dictation should be carefully selected as being of average difficulty, and free from puzzling words. As children may generally be expected to pass easily in the mechanical art of writing in this stage, five mistakes in spelling might, as a rule,-if the passage selected be sufficiently easy-suffice to involve failure.” (Instruc

tions to Inspectors.) [The teacher may first read the passage, see p. 8.]

ARITHMETIC.—[" The work of girls will be judged more leniently than that of boys.] “Notation and Numeration up to 100,000; the four simple rules to short division ; the multiplication table and the pence table to 12s."

Short exercises in Mental Arithmetic (see p. 8). The Inspector may examine scholars in the Arithmetic of the preceding Standard." (New Code, 1883.)

(For "Instructions to Inspectors," see p. 7.)
In Mental Arithmetic practice should be given in all

the four rules, with numbers up to 144, and with money to 10s."

It is often found a help in calculation if the dimensions of the schoolroom, the play-ground, and the desks, and the weight of a few familiar objects are accurately known and recorded, and occasionally referred to as standards of measurement.(Instructions to Inspectors.)


READING (STANDARD 11.). VERY little will be required to be said on this subject, more than has been inculcated on Reading in Standard I. ; but the teacher is referred to this part of the book for the general principles of teaching the “ 3 R's.”

The reading matter is more difficult than in the preceding Standard; but the children have also acquired more power over combinations. Accuracy will be secured by the methods already suggested; and the teacher should now devote more attention to intelligence and expression. The subject matter should be more thoroughly explained and illustrated; and Object Lessons should be given on those subjects in the lessons which are suitable for blackboard illustration. If a geographical or scientific reading-book be one of the two used, every one of the lessons in this should be preceded by a distinct Object or Collective Lesson

upon it.

The poetical extracts in this stage should also be better rendered than in Standard I.; and the meanings more copiously explained.

As before, the spelling should be taken, to a great extent, with the reading; but in addition the more difficult passages should be marked in the teacher's book, and given out for dictation; while formal lessons in spelling may be given by the teacher from some recognized Spelling Textbook.

The Grammar ("English") should also be closely associated with the reading lesson proper; the organic connections of the nouns and verbs with the rest of the sentence being thoroughly insisted on. Slate and paper practice should also be given in picking out these parts of speech. This may

be done(1) By arranging the nouns and verbs in two separate columns, headed nouns and verbs respectively.

(2) By marking these above with N. and V. in the dictation exercises.

(3) By underlining the nouns, and doubly underlining the verbs in the dictation.

Each new word should be carefully explained and written on the blackboard. Definitions are of less value than actual examples of the mode in which every word is employed.

We would strongly recommend the systematic learning and reciting of poetry as a valuable means of cultivating the imagination, rendering the ear sensitive to rhythmic constructions, improving the delivery, and extending the vocabulary. The poetry should be learnt from the book, and not by parrot-like vocal repetition.

Purity of pronunciation, and distinctiveness of articulation, should be carefully cultivated. Great pains should also be taken to prevent the blurring of the vowels in the unaccented syllables of words.

NOTES OF A LESSON ON READING (STANDARD II.). [Time—Thirty minutes. Apparatus-Reading-books and

blackboard.] (Preparation notes of the lesson to be prepared.) I. (1) Fifteen minutes.—The teacher should read aloud

the whole passage. Then do the same with a few words at a time, (1) the class repeating these simultaneously. (*) Lastly, the class should read the whole sentence simultaneously, first with, then without the teacher.(8) Fix straggling attention, by questioning the inattentive: and

let hands be held up for mistakes perceived. II. (2) Ten minutes. The children should individually

read the foregoing passage, the weakest readers being most called on. Occasionally parts of the class (a side of a hollow square, or a row in the desks), should be made to repeat a sentence in which mistakes have been corrected; (*) and a good reader may be allowed to read a sentence first instead of the teacher. To check looking off books, the children should occasionally be called on to take up instantly a sentence left incomplete by another reader; but

remember too much of this will mar expression. III. (3) Five minutes.—The mistakes in the words are

corrected on the blackboard, and the children are questioned on the passage read. The hard words should be used as a spelling exercise; or the lesson should be begun with this (this is still better, as then the attention will not be diverted from the subject matter).(5)


(1) The clauses should be logical and grammatical parts of the whole. (2) The expression of the teacher (emphasis, pause, pitch, rate, loud.

ness) should be closely imitated. (3) Mispronunciations, and thick blurred utterances of individuals,

should be corrected ; and most vigorous attention should be

given to detect these in individuals. (1) These mistakes should be written on the board, and provincialisms

should be corrected. (1) Remember that the main object of the lesson is reading (and

spelling), not explanation of subject matter, at least in the ordinary reading-book.

« PreviousContinue »