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16. Broadcasting to Cuba 1

a. Television Broadcasting to Cuba Act Partial text of Public Law 101-246 [H.R. 3793], 104 Stat. 15 at 58, approved Febru

ary 16, 1990; amended by Public Law 102-138 [Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993; H.R. 1415), 105 Stat. 647, approved October 28, 1991

AN ACT To authorize appropriations for fiscal years 1990 and 1991 for the

Department of State, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

PART D-TELEVISION BROADCASTING TO CUBA

SEC. 241.2 SHORT TITLE

This part may be cited as the "Television Broadcasting to Cuba Act”. SEC. 242.3 FINDINGS AND PURPOSES. The Congress finds and declares that

(1) it is the policy of the United States to support the right of the people of Cuba to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers, in accordance with article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

(2) consonant with this policy, television broadcasting to Cuba may be effective in furthering the open communication of accurate information and ideas to the people of Cuba and, in particular, information about Cuba;

(3) television broadcasting to Cuba, operated in a manner not inconsistent with the broad foreign policy of the United States and in accordance with high professional standards, would be in the national interest;

(4) facilities broadcasting television programming to Cuba must be operated in a manner consistent with applicable regulations of the Federal Communications Commission, and must not affect the quality of domestic broadcast transmission or reception; and

(5) that the Voice of America already broadcasts to Cuba information that represents America, not any single segment of American society, and includes a balanced and comprehensive projection of significant American thought and institutions, but that there is a need for television broadcasts to Cuba which provide news, commentary, and other information about events in Cuba and elsewhere to promote the cause of freedom

See also Board for International Broadcasting Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1982 and 1983, page 1160.

2 22 U.S.C. 1465aa note. 3 22 U.S.C. 1465aa.

in Cuba. SEC. 243.4 TELEVISION BROADCASTING TO CUBA.

(a) TELEVISION BROADCASTING TO CUBA.—In order to carry out the purposes set forth in section 242 and notwithstanding the limita

tion of section 501 of the United States Information and Educationi al Exchange Act of 1948 (22 U.S.C. 1461) with respect to the dis

semination in the United States of information prepared for dissemination abroad to the extent such dissemination is inadvertent, the United States Information Agency (hereafter in this part referred to as the “Agency'') shall provide for the open communication of information and ideas through the use of television broadcasting to Cuba. Television broadcasting to Cuba shall serve as a consistently reliable and authoritative source of accurate, objective, and comprehensive news.

(b) VOICE OF AMERICA STANDARDS.—Television broadcasting to Cuba under this part shall be in accordance with all Voice of America standards to ensure the broadcast of programs which are objective, accurate, balanced, and which present a variety of views.

(c) USIA TELEVISION MARTI.—Any program of United States Government television broadcasts to Cuba authorized by this section shall be designated "USIA Television Marti Program". (d) FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT.

(1) Subject to the Communications Act of 1934, the Federal Communications Commission shall assign by order a suitable frequency to further the national interests expressed in this part, except that no such assignment shall result in objectionable interference with the broadcasts of any domestic licensee.

(2) No Federal branch or agency shall compel an incumbent domestic licensee to change its frequency in order to eliminate objectionable interference caused by broadcasting of the Service.

(3) For purposes of section 305 of the Communications Act of 1934, a television broadcast station established for purposes of this part shall be treated as a government station, but the Federal Communications Commission shall exercise the authority of the President under such section to assign a frequency to

such station.
(e) INTERFERENCE WITH DOMESTIC BROADCASTING.-

(1) Broadcasting by the Television Marti Service shall be conducted in accordance with such parameters as shall be prescribed by the Federal Communications Commission to preclude objectionable interference with the broadcasts of any domestic licensee. The Television Marti Service shall be governed by the same standards regarding objectionable interference as any domestic licensee. The Federal Communications Commission shall monitor the operations of television broadcasting to Cuba pursuant to subsection (f). If, on the basis of such monitoring or a complaint from any person, the Federal Communications Commission determines, in its discretion, that broadcasting by the Television Marti Service is causing objectionable interference with the transmission or reception of the broadcasts of a domestic licensee, the Federal Communications Commission shall direct the Television Marti Service to cease broadcasting and to eliminate the objectionable interference. Broadcasts by the Service shall not be resumed until the Federal Communications Commission finds that the objectionable interference has been eliminated and should not recur.

* 22 U.S.C. 1465bb.

(2) The Federal Communications Commission shall take such actions as are necessary and appropriate to assist domestic licensees in overcoming the adverse effects of objectionable interference caused by broadcasting by the Television Marti Service. Such assistance may include the authorization of nondirectional increases in the effective radiated power of a domestic television station so that its coverage is equivalent to the maximum allowable for such facilities, to avoid any adverse effect on such stations of the broadcasts of the Television Marti Service.

(3) If the Federal Communications Commission directs the Television Marti Service to cease broadcasting pursuant to paragraph (1), the Commission shall, as soon as practicable, notify the appropriate committees of Congress of such action and the reasons therefor. The Federal Communications Commission shall continue to notify the appropriate committees of Congress of progress in eliminating the objectionable interference and shall assure that Congress is fully informed about the

operation of the Television Marti Service. (f) MONITORING OF INTERFERENCE.-The Federal Communications Commission shall continually monitor and periodically report to the appropriate committees of the Congress interference to domestic broadcast licensees

(1) from the operation of Cuban television and radio stations; and

(2) from the operations of the television broadcasting to Cuba. (g) TASK FORCE.—It is the sense of the Congress that the President should establish a task force to analyze the level of interference from the operation of Cuban television and radio stations experienced by broadcasters in the United States and to seek a practical political and technical solution to this problem. SEC. 244.5 TELEVISION MARTI SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES INFOR

MATION AGENCY (a) TELEVISION MARTI SERVICE.—The Director of the United States Information Agency shall establish within the Voice of America a Television Marti Service. The Service shall be responsible for all television broadcasts to Cuba authorized by this part. The Director of the United States Information Agency shall appoint a head of the Service who shall report directly to the Director of the Voice of America. The head of the Service shall employ such

5 22 U.S.C. 1465cc.

6 *

staff as the head of the Service may need to carry out the duties of the Service.

(b) USE OF EXISTING FACILITIES OF THE USIA.—To assure consistency of presentation and efficiency of operations in conducting the activities authorized under this part, the Television Marti Service shall make maximum feasible utilization of Agency facilities and management support, including Voice of America: Cuba Service, Voice of America, and the United States Information Agency Television Service.

(c) USIA AUTHORITY.—The Agency may carry out the purposes of this part by means of grants, leases, or contracts (subject to the availability of appropriations), or such other means as the Agency determines will be most effective. SEC. 245. AMENDMENTS TO THE RADIO BROADCASTING TO CUBA ACT.

(a)

(b)? REFERENCES.—A reference in any provision of law to the “Advisory Board for Radio Broadcasting to Cuba" shall be considered to be a reference to the "Advisory Board for Cuba Broadcasting”.

(c) 7 CONTINUED SERVICE OF MEMBERS OF BOARD.-Each member of the Advisory Board for Radio Broadcasting to Cuba as in existence on the day before the effective date of the amendment made by subsection (a) shall continue to serve for the remainder of the term to which such member was appointed as a member of the Advisory Board for Cuba Broadcasting.

(d) 7 STAFF DIRECTOR.—The Board shall have a staff director who shall be appointed by the Chairperson of the Advisory Board for Cuba Broadcasting. SEC. 246.8 ASSISTANCE FROM OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.

In order to assist the United States Information Agency in carrying out the provisions of this part, any agency or instrumentality of the United States may sell, loan, lease, or grant property (including interests therein) and may perform administrative and technical support and services at the request of the Agency. SEC. 247.9 AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.—In addition to amounts otherwise made available under section 201 for such pur

(a) 10

6 Sec. 245(a) amended sec. 5 of the Radio Broadcasting to Cuba Act (22 U.S.C. 1465c).
7 22 U.S.C. 1465c note.
8 22 U.S.C. 1465dd.
9 22 U.S.C. 1465ee.

10 Sec. 201(aX3) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (Public Law 103-236; 108 Stat. 420), provided the following:

"(3) BROADCASTING TO CUBA.–For 'Broadcasting to Cuba', $21,000,000 for the fiscal year 1994 and $27,609,000 for the fiscal year 1995.".

Previous years' authorizations include: fiscal year 1992—$38,988,000; fiscal year 1993— $34,525,000 (for radio and television).

Title V of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1994 (Public Law 103-121; 107 Stat. 1192), provided the following:

"TELEVISION BROADCASTING TO CUBA "For expenses necessary to enable the United States Information Agency to carry out the Tel. evision Broadcasting to Cuba Act (22 U.S.C. 1465aa et seq.), including the purchase, rent, construction, and improvement of facilities for television transmission and reception, and purchase and installation of necessary equipment for television transmission and reception, $7,000,000, to

Continued remain available until expended: Provided, That not later than July 1, 1994, the Director of the United States Information Agency shall submit to Congress, after consulting with the Board for International Broadcasting and after taking into account any relevant recommendations of the Advisory Panel on Radio Marti and TV Marti, his recommendations as to whether TV Marti broadcasting is technically sound and effective and is consistently being received by a sufficient Cuban audience to warrant its continuation and whether the interests of the United States are better served by maintaining television broadcasting to Cuba, by terminating television broadcasting to Cuba and strengthening radio broadcasting to Cuba, or by funding other activities related to promoting democracy in Cuba authorized by law: Provided further, That of the amount appropriated in this paragraph, $2,500,000 shall be withheld from obligation until after July 1, 1994, and, after that date, funds shall be available only for the orderly termination of television broadcasting to Cuba unless the Director of the United States Information Agency de termines, in the report to Congress called for in the Administrative Provision Establishing the Advisory Panel on Radio Marti and TV Marti, that maintaining television broadcasting to Cuba is technically sound and effective, is consistently being received by a sufficient Cuban audience to warrant its continuation, and is in the best interests of the United States.".

poses, 11 there are authorized to be appropriated to the United States Information Agency, $16,000,000 for the fiscal year 1990 and $16,000,000 for the fiscal year 1991 for television broadcasting to Cuba in accordance with the provisions of this part. (b) LIMITATION.

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), no funds authorized to be appropriated under subsection (a) may be obligated or expended unless the President determines and notifies the appropriate committees of Congress that the test of television broadcasting to Cuba (as authorized by title V of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1989 (Public Law 100-459)) 12 has demonstrated television broadcasting to Cuba is feasible and will not cause objectionable interference with the broadcasts of incumbent domestic licensees. 13 The Federal Communications Commission shall furnish to the appropriate committees of Congress all interim and final reports and other appropriate docu

See also “Administrative Provision Establishing the Advisory Panel on Radio Marti and TV Marti" in Public Law 103-121, page 1175.

Recent previous years' appropriations include: fiscal year 1990—$85,000,000 for radio construction, "of which not to exceed $16,000,000 may be available for the completion of testing and first-year operations of television broadcasting to Cuba”; fiscal year 1991-$31,069,000; fiscal year 1992—$36,888,000; fiscal year 1993—28,531,000 (for radio and television).

11 For sec. 201, Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991, see page 962

12 Title V of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1989 (Public Law 100-459; 102 Stat. 2220) provided the following

"RADIO CONSTRUCTION “For an additional amount for the purchase, rent, construction, and improvement of facilities for radio transmission and reception and purchase and installation of necessary equipment for radio transmission and reception as authorized by 22 U.S.C. 1471, $65,000,000, to remain avail. able until expended as authorized by 22 U.S.C. 1477b(a): Provided, That not to exceed $7,500,000 of these funds may be available for the purchase, rent, construction, improvement and equip ping of facilities for and startup operations including a test of television broadcasting to Cuba: Provided further, That in conducting such startup operations the United States Information Agency shall use a tethered aerostat operated and located at Cudjoe Key Air Force Base in Key West, Florida, if feasible and subject to reimbursement, for both the United States Customs Service's drug interdiction efforts and the United States Information Agency's test of television broadcasting to Cuba: Provided further, That the Department of Defense shall provide the neces. sary military support required to support this effort to the maximum extent possible: Provided further, That all such television broadcasting activities shall be conducted for the same purposes and, to the extent feasible, under the same conditions, direction and controls as the radio broadcasting activities authorized by the Radio Broadcasting to Cuba Act: Provided further, That notwithstanding the preceding proviso, section 7 of the Radio Broadcasting to Cuba Act shall not apply to television broadcasting station licenses."

13 The President determined in a memorandum to the Secretary of State that the test of tele vision broadcasting to Cuba as authorized by Public Law 100-459 demonstrated that such broad. casting was feasible and would not cause objectionable interference with the broadcasts of incumbent domestic licenses (Presidential Determination No. 90-35 of August 26, 1990 (55 F.R 38659).

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