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and importance are utterly lost. We have not a single one remaining that signifies land, sea, sky, the sun, the moon, rivers, or the principal parts of the human body; the words used for which might have been expected to be transmitted down from the beginning through every succeeding age. Perhaps we must attribute the cause of this to the Visigoths, the Burgundians, and the Franks; to the horrible barbarism of all those nations which laid waste the Roman empire, a barbarism of which so many traces yet remain.

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GUARANTEE. A GUARANTEE is a person who renders himself responsible to another for something, and who is bound to secure him in the enjoyment of it. The word (garant) is derived from the Celtic and Teutonic" rant.” In all the words which we have retained from those ancient languages we have changed the w into g. Among the greater number of the nations of the north, warrant still signifies assurance, guarantee ; and in this sense it means, in English, an order of the king, as signifying the pledge of the king. When in the middle ages kings concluded treaties, they were guaranteed on both sides by a considerable number of knights, who bound themselves by oath to see that the treaty was observed, and even when a superior education qualified them to do so, which sometimes happened, signed their names to it. When the emperor Frederic Barbarossa ceded so many rights to pope Alexander III. at the celebrated congress of Venice, in 1117, the emperor put his seal to the instrument which the

pope and cardinals signed. Twelve princes of the empire guaranteed the treaty by an oath upon the gospel; but none of them signed it. It is not said that the doge of Venice guaranteed that peace which was concluded in his palace.

When Philip Augustus made peace in 1200 with king John of England, the principal barons of France and Normandy swore to the due observance of it, as cautionary or guaranteeing parties. The French swore


that they would take arms against their king if he violated his word, and the Normans, in like manner, to oppose their sovereign if he did not adhere to his.

One of the constables of the Montmorenci family, after a negotiation with one of the earls of March, in 1227, swore to the observance of the treaty, upon the soul of the king.

The practice of guaranteeing the states of a third party was of great antiquity, although under a different

The Romans in this manner guaranteed the possessions of many of the princes of Asia and Africa, by taking them under their protection until they secured to themselves the possession of the territories thus protected.

We must regard as a mutual guarantee the ancient alliance between France and Castile, of king to king, kingdom to kingdom, and man to man.

We do not find any treaty in which the guarantee of the states of a third party is expressly stipulated for before that which was concluded between Spain and the States General in 1609, by the mediation of Henry IV. He procured from Philip III. king of Spain, the recognition of the United Provinces as free and sovereign states. He signed the guarantee of this sovereignty of the seven provinces,

and obtained the signature of the same instrument from the king of Spain; and the republic acknowledged that it owed its freedom to the interference of the French monarch. It is principally within our own times that treaties of guarantee have become comparatively frequent. Unfortunately these engagements have occasionally produced ruptures and war; and it is clearly ascertained that the best of all possible guarantees is power.

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LONDON: PRINTED BY C, H. REYNELL, BROAD-STREET, GOLDEN-SQUARE. ERRATA. Page 19 Line 7 from the foot, for “the idea of the money from the word,”

read “ to the word,” &c. 27 Line 16, for“ de l'Hospital,” read “ de l'Hôpital.”. 43 Line 9 from the foot, for “ Fletcher,” read “Flechier.” 55 In the Latin note, line 1, for “genitaliam," read “ genitalium;" in

line 3, dele the comma after “coalendos ;” in line 7, for“ pecu

aum,” read “pecuum.” 76 Line 2 from the foot, for “ ædificavissti,” read “ ædificaristi." 77 Line 17, for “fornications,” read fornicationes.” 77 Line 25, insert “ quorum" after “ eorum." 85 In the Latin passage, for “exira," read “ exire.” 86 In the second Latin quotation, for “ amoris,” read “ ameris.” 95 The author of the French verses should be printed “ Rousseau,” not

“ Rousesau.” 95 In the French verses, last line, for “ du peuples," read “ un peu


ple.” 102 Line 2, for “ rare," read “ rure." 125 Line 4 from the foot, dele “ with” before "whom.” 128 Insert “a," at the beginning of the 17th line. 134 The third paragraph should be thus pointed, “Jason, having killed

Absyrtes his mother-in-law, went,” &c. 149 Line Il from the foot, for “Heaven," read “ Heavens." 230 In the second quotation of French, for “ ám oi,” read “ á moi.” 249 Line 20, dele "it" after “govern." 260 In the note, for “ was" read “were." 264 Line 22, for “ galant," read “ gallant.” 313 Line 9, for “ Atilla," read “ Attila."


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