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American Colonization Society.



It finds a cruel prejudice, as dark and false as sin can make it, reigning with a most tyrannous sway against both. It finds this prejublush, 'We are too wicked ever to love them dice respecting the free, declaring without a as God commands us to do-we are so reso

to do so-and we are so proud in our iniquity that we will hate and revile whoever disturbs us in it-We want, like the devils of old, to be let alone in our sin-We are unalterably determined, and neither God nor man shall move

fellow subjects never shall be happy in their native land.' The American Colonization Society, I say, finds this most base and cruel prejudice, and lets it alone; nay more, it di

Our reasons for vigorously opposing this mighty combination will be stated, from time to time, in the pages of the Abolitionist. Some of them are forcibly expressed in the following extracts from a Circular, put forth in Eng-lute in our wickedness as not even to desire land by CHARLES STUART, Esq. a gentleman who, by his zeal and activity, now occupies a high rank among the philanthropists of that country. 'The American Colonization Society direct-us from this resolution, that our free colored ly supports the false and cruel idea that the native country of the colored people of the United States is not their native country, and that they never can be happy until they either exile themselves, or are exiled; and thus pow-rectly and powerfully supports it. erfully conduces to extinguish in them all 'The American Colonization Society finds those delightful hopes, and to prevent all that 2,000,000 of its fellow subjects most iniquiglorious exertion, which would make them a tously enslaved-and it finds a resolution as blessing to their country. In this particular, proud and wicked as the very spirit of the pit the American Colonization Society takes up a can make it against obeying God and letting falsehood, as cruel to the colored people, as it them go free in their native land. It lets this is disgraceful to themselves; dwells upon it, perfectly infernal resolution alone, nay more, it as if it were an irrefragable truth; urges it, as powerfully supports it; for it in fact says, as such, upon others; and thus endeavors with a fond and feeble father might say to some all its force, to make that practically true, overgrown baby before whose obstinate wickwhich is one of the greatest stains in the edness he quailed, 'Never mind, my dear, I American character; which is one of the don't want to prevent your beating and abugreatest scourges that could possibly afflict sing your brothers and sisters-let that bethe free colored people; and which, in itself, but here is a box of sugar plums-do pray is essentially and unalterably false. For be give them one or two now and then.' The the pertinacity of prejudice what it may, in American Colonization Society says practicalasserting that the blacks of America never ly to the slaveholders and the slave party in can be amalgamated, in all respects, in equal the United States, 'We don't want to prevent brotherhood with the whites, it will not the your plundering 2,000,000 of our fellow subless remain an everlasting truth, that the wick-jects of their liberty and of the fruits of their edness which produced and perpetuates the assertion, is the only ground of the difficulty, and that all that is requisite to remove the whole evil, is the relenting in love of the proud and cruel spirit which produced it. Could the American Colonization Society succeed in establishing their views on this subject, as being really true of the people of the United States, it would only prove that the people of the United States were past repentance; that they were given over, through their obstinacy in sin, finally to believe a lie; to harden themselves, and to perish in their iniquity. But they have not succeeded in establishing this fearful fact against themselves; and as long as they continue capable of repentance, it never can be true, that the proud and baneful prejudices which now so cruelly alienate them from their colored brethren, may not, will not, must not, yield to the sword of the Spirit, to the Word of God, to the blessed weapons of truth and love.'

"The American Colonization Society looks abroad over its own country, and it finds a mass of its brethren, whom God has been pleased to clothe with a darker skin. It finds one portion of these free; another enslaved!

toil; although we know that by every principle of law which does not utterly disgrace us by assimilating us to pirates, that they have as good and as true a right to the equal protection of the law as we have; and although we ourselves stand prepared to die, rather than submit even to a fragment of the intolerable load of oppression to which we are subjecting them—yet never mind-let that be-they have grown old in suffering, and we in iniquity— and we have nothing to do now but to speak peace, peace, to one another in our sins. But if any of their masters, whether from benevolence, an awakened conscience, or political or personal fear, should emancipate any, let us send them to Liberia-that is, in fact, let us give a sugar plum here and there to a few, while the many are living and dying unredressed-and while we are thus countenancing the atrocious iniquity beneath which they are perishing.' In this aspect I find the American Colonization Society declaring itself a substitute for emancipation, and it is in this aspect that I contend with it, and that I proclaim it, as far as it has this character, no farther, a bane to the colored people, whether enslaved or free, and a snare and a disgrace to its country.'


Prayer for Deliverance.-Eloquent Extract.

sive sermon on 'The guilt of forbearing to deliver British Colonial Slaves,' by Daniel Wilson, M. A. Vicar of Islington.


'Do Thou be pleased, O God of mercy, look upon us as a nation! Do Thou move the heart of the people as the heart of one man! Do Thou touch us with compunction! Thou permit us to repair this mighty injustice, before Thou smitest us for our refusal to do so! Do Thou permit and enable us to break the chains of bondage, ere Thou burst them in thine indignation! Do Thou assist us to rise above all difficulties and to resist all temptations to delay, and to set a pattern of justice at length to that world, which we have been injuring by our example of selfishness and cruelty! Do Thou enable us to make what compensation we can to the oppressed negro race, for the wrongs we have done them!

PRAYER FOR DELIVERANCE. ers, and by various other means, a certain deThe heart of every good man, whose eye gree of melioration may be secured. But I meets this petition, will unite in its spirit and say, in the first place, that, with all that you desires. We find it at the close of an impres-gation, you cannot alter the nature of slavery can accomplish, or reasonably expect of mitiitself. With every improvement you have superinduced upon it, you have not made it less debasing, less cruel, less destructive in its essential character. The black man is still the And that one cirproperty of the white man. cumstance not only implies in it the transDogression of inalienable right and everlasting Justice, but is the fruitful and necessary source which harrows up the soul, and the infliction of numberless mischiefs, the very thought of of which no superintendence of any governand keep down the evil as much as you can, ment can either prevent or control. Mitigate still it is there in all its native virulence, and still it will do its malignant work in spite of you. The improvements you have made are merely superficial. You have not reached the have only concealed in some measure, and seat and vital spring of the mischief. You for a time, its inherent enormity. Its essence remains unchanged and untouched, and is ready to unfold itself whenever a convenient caution, and all your vigilance, in those maniseason arrives, notwithstanding all your prefold acts of injustice and inhumanity, which are its genuine and its invariable fruits. You may white-wash the sepulchre-you may put upon it every adornment that fancy can suggest, you may cover it over with all the fields can furnish, so that it will appear beauflowers and evergreens that the garden or the chre still,-full of dead men's bones and of all tiful outwardly unto men. But it is a sepuluncleanness. (Great cheering.) Disguise sla

Suffer us not to go on in our provocations of thy divine Majesty! Give us not over, as thou justly mightest, to hardness of heart. LET US NOT REFUSE, LIKE PHARAOH OF OLD, TO LET THE PEOPLE GO, till thy vengeance is uplifted against us, till thou sendest confusion into our councils, a blight upon all our perity, war in our borders, ruin in our national concerns, despair and death in our land!


'Let us yet,-O let us, by thy mercy, be still the people of Thy pasture! Let truth and righteousness abound among us! Let us set the captives free, and nobly trust to Thee in following the path of duty! Let Thy gospel yet flourish among us! 'Let our nation be still the glory of the re-very as you will, put into the cup all the formed countries, the herald of liberty and pleasing and palatable ingredients which you peace and social order and religion, to the can discover in the wide range of nature and neighboring states; the messenger of grace from which the understanding and the heart of art, still it is a bitter, bitter, bitter draught, to the Jew and Gentile; the dispenser of hap- of every man, in whom nature works unsopiness and salvation to mankind! And then to thy name, thy mercy, thy long-suffering, thy terable aversion and abhorrence. (Immense phisticated and unbiassed, recoils with unutpower, thy grace, shall be the praise for ever and ever, through Jesus Christ our Lord.' cheering.) Why, Sir, slavery is the very Upas tree of the moral world, beneath whose pestiferous shade all intellect languishes, and all virtue dies. (Reiterated cheering.) And if you would get quit of the evil, you must go more thoroughly and effectually to work than you can ever do by any or by all of those palliatives, which are included under the term "mitigation." The foul sepulchre must be taken ed to pieces on the ground. The pestiferaway. The cup of oppression must be dashous tree must be cut down and eradicated; it must be, root and branch of it, cast into the 'I do not deny, Sir, notwithstanding what I consuming fire, and its ashes scattered to the have now said, that the evils of practical sla- four winds of heaven. (Loud and long continvery may be lessened. By parliamentary en- ued cheering.) It is thus that you must deal actments, by colonial arrangements, by ap- with slavery. You must annihilate it,―annipeals to the judgment and feelings of plant-hilate it now,—and annihilate it for ever.'


As a specimen of the doctrines which are advocated by the English abolitionists, and the manner in which they are received by the people, we present the following extract from a powerful speech delivered at Edinburgh, Oct. 19, 1830, by Andrew Thomson, D. D. Of a truth, it contains thoughts that breathe and words that burn.'

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white men were left to direct them, they betook themselves to the planting of provisions; but upon all the plantations where the whites

IMMEDIATE EMANCIPATION. No. I. The idea of the immediate emancipation of the slaves is invariably associated, in the minds of many individuals, with rapine and slaughter. To a diseased imag-resided, the blacks continued to labor as quiination, it appears a monster, huge and infuriate, who, on breaking the chains that bind him, would rush through the land, crushing beneath his feet the bodies of men, women and children, and drinking their blood like water. Nothing can be more ridiculous. "Were the proposition to liberate all the slaves, deprive them of all employment and instruction, persecute them with new rigor, and let them roam lawlessly about the country, surely these effects might naturally be supposed to follow its adoption. But it neither means nor implies any such thing; but simply that the slaves who are without the protection of law shall have that protection -that all property of man in man shalll instantly cease -and that a fair recompense shall be given to the slaves as free laborers.

We propose to show, in a series of numbers, taken from a pamphlet recently published in England, facts proving the good conduct and prosperity of emancipated slaves, and the entire safety of immediately abolishing slavery in the United States.

Of the many persons who declare themselves averse to slavery and yet afraid to join in measures for its abolition, some perhaps have not paid much attention to the instances of emancipation that have already taken place. If any such will take the trouble to read the following account of the effects of emancipation as far as it has hitherto been tried, they will perhaps see that their fears on the subject are not justified by experience.

"The History of Hayti when separated from the accidental circumstances attending it, furnishes irrefragable evidence of the safety and advantage of immediate emancipation. It is true that much blood was shed there during the French revolution; but this was not owing to the emancipation of the slaves, but was the consequence either of the civil war which preceded the act of emancipation; or of the atrocious attempt to restore slavery.

'In September, 1793, Polvirel, one of the Commissioners sent to St. Domingo by the National Convention, issued a proclamation declaring the whole of the slaves in the island free. Colonel Malenfant, a slave proprietor, resident at the time in the island, thus describes the effects of this sudden measure.t "After this public act of emancipation, the Negroes remained quiet both in the south and in the west, and they continued to work upon all the plantations. There were estates which had neither owners nor managers resident upon them, yet upon these estates, though abandoned, the negroes continued their labors where there were any even inferior agents to guide them, and on those estates where no

* See this point fully proved in Clarkson's Thoughts on the necessity of improving the Condition of the Slaves, &c. pp. 19 to 29.-HATCHARD.

+ Memoire Historique et Politique des Colonies, &c. p. 62.

etly as before." Colonel Malenfant says,*
that when many of his neighbors, proprietors
or managers, were in prison, the negroes of
their plantations came to him to beg him to di-
rect them in their work. "Ift you will take
care not to talk to them of the restoration of
slavery, but talk to them of freedom, you may
with this word chain them down to their la-
bor. How did Toussaint succeed?-How did
I succeed before his time in the plain of the
Culde-Sae on the plantation Gouraud, during
more than eight months after liberty had been
granted to the slaves? Let those who knew
me at that time, let the blacks themselves, be
asked: they will all reply that not a single
negro upon that plantation, consisting of more
than four hundred and fifty laborers, refused
to work: and yet this plantation was thought
to be under the worst discipline and the slaves
the most idle of any in the plain. I inspired
the same activity into three other plantations
of which I had the management. If all the
negroes had come from Africa within six
months, if they had the love of independence
that the Indians have, I should own that force
must be employed; but ninety-nine out of a
hundred of the blacks are aware that without
labor they cannot procure the things that are
necessary for them; that there is no other
method of satisfying their wants and their
tastes. They know that they must work, they
wish to do so, and they will do so."

'Such was the conduct of the negroes for
the first nine months after their liberation, or
up to the middle of 1794. In the latter part
of 1796, Malenfant says, "The colony was
flourishing under Toussaint, the whites lived
happily and in peace upon their estates, and
the negroes continued to work for them."
General Lecroix who published his "Memoirs
for a History of St. Domingo" in 1819, says
that in 1797 the most wonderful progress had
"The Colony,"
been made in agriculture.
says he, "marched as by enchantment to-
wards its ancient splendor: cultivation pros-
pered; every day produced perceptible proof
of its progress." General Vincent, who was
a general of brigade of artillery in St. Do-
mingo and a proprietor of estates in the island,
was sent by Toussaint to Paris in 1801 to lay
before the Directory the new constitution
which had been agreed upon in St. Domingo.
He arrived in France just at the moment of
the peace of Amiens, and found that Bona-
parte was preparing an armament for the pur-
pose of restoring slavery in St. Domingo.
He remonstrated against the expedition; he
stated that it was totally unnecessary and
* Memoire p. 307.

Memoire p. 125.

Clarkson's Thoughts p. 2.


Safety of Immediate Abolition.

therefore criminal, for that every thing was going on well in St. Domingo. The proprietors were in peaceable possession of their estates; cultivation was making rapid progress; the blacks were industrious and beyond example happy. He conjured him, therefore, not to reverse this beautiful state of things; but his efforts were ineffectual, and the expedition arrived upon the shores of St. Domin-residents, I am persuaded of one general fact go. At length, however, the French were driven from the island. Till that time the planters had retained their property, and then it was, and not till then, that they lost their all. In 1804 Dessalines was proclaimed Emperor; in process of time a great part of the black troops were disbanded, and returned to cultivation again. From that time to this, there has been no want of subordination or industry among them.

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of industry and activity such as slaves are seldom known to exhibit. As they would not suffer, so they do not require, the attendance of one acting in the capacity of a driver with the instrument of punishment in his hand. As far as I had an opportunity of ascertaining from what fell under my own observation, and from what I gathered from other European which on account of its importance I shall state in the most explicit terms, viz.: that the Haytians employed in cultivating the plantations, as well as the rest of the population, perform as much work in a given time as they were accustomed to do during their subjection to the French. And if we may judge of their future improvement by the change which has been already effected, it may be reasonably anticipated that Hayti will ere long contain a population not inferior in their industry to that of any civilized nation in the world.

The following account of the character and condition of the negroes of Hayti, at a later period, is taken from "Sketches of Hay- 'While the interior of the island was in ti" by Mr. Harvey, who during the latter part this improving state, and its inhabitants were of the reign of Christophe spent a considera- peaceful and industrious, Cape Francois and ble time at Cape Francois, the capital of his other towns presented scenes of the utmost dominions. "The cultivators who formed the order and activity: the_great majority of the great mass of the population, resided on or inhabitants of Cape Francois consisted of near the plantations on which they were ap- trades-people and mechanics, the former of pointed to labor. A great proportion of them whom were supplied by the resident merwere engaged in cultivating the estates of chants with cloths, linens, silks and other manthe king; if soldiers, they were fed and clothed ufactures, which they sold to the natives in at his expense; if regular cultivators, they re- small quantities. Their business was seldom ceived such a share of the produce as was so great as to enable them to amass fortunes, fully adequate to yield them a competent but it afforded them ample means of support. maintenance. Others were in the employ of Towards strangers who entered their shops, the nobles and officers, who received either whether for the purpose of making purchases stated wages or such a portion of the article or not, they were invariably and remarkably they cultivated as was deemed a sufficient re- civil; a trait in the character of Christophe's ward for their industry, were equally supplied subjects which I believe to have been uniwith whatever could contribute to their com-versal. The mechanics, though many of them fort. And those who by their exertions and were deficient in skill from having been imeconomy were enabled to procure small spots perfectly instructed, were all enabled by their of land of their own or to hold the smaller industry to gain a competent maintenance. plantations at an annual rent, were diligently On the whole, the scene which Cape Francois engaged in cultivating coffee, sugar, and other presented was as interesting as it was in articles, which they disposed of to the inhab- many respects surprising. In few places of itants of the adjacent towns and villages. It commerce could there be seen greater reguwas an interesting sight to behold this class larity in the despatch of business, greater of the Haytians, now in possession of their diligence displayed by those engaged in it, or freedom, coming in groups to the market near- more evident marks of a prosperous state of est which they resided, bringing the produce things. Every man had some calling to occuof their industry for sale; and afterwards re- py his attention; instances of idleness or inturning, carrying back the necessary articles temperance were of rare occurrence, the most of living which the disposal of their commo- perfect subordination prevailed, and all apdities had enabled them to purchase; all evi-peared contented and happy. A foreigner dently cheerful and happy. Nor could it fail to occur to the mind that their present condition furnished the most satisfactory answer to that objection to the general emancipation of slaves, founded on their alleged unfitness to value and improve the benefits of liberty.

"Though of the same race and possessing the same general traits of character as the negroes of the other West India islands, they are already distinguished from them by habits

would have found it difficult to persuade himself on his first entering the place, that the people he now beheld so submissive, industrious and contented, were the same people who a few years before had escaped from the shackles of slavery."

'A gentleman who had been for upwards of twenty years past a general merchant in Hayti, frequently crossing to Europe and America, gave the following account of the

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condition of the Haytians to Captain Stuart In the fiftieth number of the Liberator, for at Belfast last winter. The present popula- December 15th, 1832, the following interesttion he supposes consists of at least seven hundred thousand. He said that there was James Cropper, of Liverpool, one of the most ing and important Letters are published, from very universal happiness amongst them,and that though their conduct was not unex-distinguished Friends and Philanthropists in ceptionable, yet there was a less proportion of Great Britain. His opinions are entitled to such crimes as disturb the public peace in great consideration, as expressed below. Hayti, and less distress, than in any other country of his knowledge. That they obtained abundance by their own labor. There were no paupers except the decrepid and aged: that the people were very charitable, hospitable and kind, very respectful to Europeans, temperate, grateful, faithful, orderly and submissive, easily governable, lively and contented, good mechanics, and that no corporal punishments are allowed.


BUXTON, 8 mo. 31, 1832.

William Lloyd Garrison:

Esteemed Friend-I have thy letter of the 7th May, which was highly acceptable. The state of my health, which required that I should abstain as much as possible from writing or thinking on deeply interesting subjects, has induced me to be chiefly from home for several months past, not only for the benefit of the Waters, but also a change of air, and also quiet, which I could not have had at home; and this thou wilt accept as my apology for not writing sooner.

agree in sentiment; and I trust the time is fast approaching, when the real friends of the Negro race will be undeceived, and see, in its naked

LETTERS FROM JAMES CROPPER. In 1831, the American Colonization Society deputed an Agent to England, to secure the charities of her philanthropists for the I have been aware of thy unwearied efforts tion of its Utopian scheme. As the Friends to promote the best interests of the African race, and feel much obliged by the proofs afin that country are numerous, affluent and in-forded in the writings sent to me, with which I fluential, it was an artful stroke of policy, on the part of the Society, in selecting an individual for this agency belonging to this respectable body, named Elliott Cresson. For deformity, that most abominable attempt to perpetuate slavery, under the title of the American nearly two years he has been actively engag- Colonization Society. The real good done by ed in England, and has succeeded in obtain- an establishment of free civilized men on the ing a large amount of money. To those who coast of Africa, has deceived many real friends are familiar with the sentiments of our trans- of humanity-whilst the real intention of the atlantic brethren on the subject of emancipa- plan was concealed. But men must be shaltjon, it is well known that the Colonization by such a scheme as the sending of your low indeed, who can much longer be deceived Society deprecates the prevalence of those whole black population to the coast of Africa. sentiments in this country as subversive of the It is quite plain to every man of discernment, public peace and safety; and that the princi- that to whatever extent the slave population ples of the Society, as promulgated among might be reduced, it would render those who us, are held in abhorrence by the British abo- remained more valuable. Slave owners know that slavery can only exist where men are litionists. How, then, shall we account for scarce; for it would be impossible, where they the success of Mr. Cresson? The reason is are as plentiful as in Ireland, to establish slaobvious he has triumphed, it pains us to state, very, even if allowed by law. In our Coloby a bold deception! Many of the state- nies, this scarcity is kept up, by destroying ments which he has put forth in England, are their lives by cruelty and oppression. In yours, it is proposed to transport them. I trust thy not true. Take, for example, his monstrous writings will contribute to arouse, more and fabrication, that the colony at Liberia conmore, the energies of your free black populasisted of twenty-five thousand SETTLERS, of tion to a due sense of their interests and duwhom twenty-five hundred were EMANCIPATED ties; for, assuredly, slavery cannot last in the SLAVES! and that, for every £7,10, contributed United States, when their civilization and imto the Society, one slave would lose his fet-provement are farther advanced. They feel an attachment to their native land, and I trust ters! He has represented the Colonization they will remain in it, in spite of the efforts of Society as aiming directly at the overthrow these enemies of the human race, and prove of slavery! Thus it is that he has found fa- the best means of breaking asunder the chains vor in the eyes of the noble-hearted aboli- of their brethren in slavery. But on this subtionists of England. Relying on his decep-ject, I enclose an extract of a letter I have just written to Arnold Buffum. tive assurances, they have manifested a spirit of liberality worthy of those who hold no compromise with oppression.

All are coming round here to the simple and plain ground of IMMEDIATE ABOLITION. Go on, then, with your unwearied efforts, and you

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