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ounces; carbonate of soda, one drachm; kept for use in a wide-mouthed bottle, and compound tincture of cardamoms, į and be in readiness for any emergency. half an ounce: take a tablespoonful The druggist may be directed to treble three times a day, succeeding the pills. or quadruple the quantities, as conve

61. Carbonate of iron, three ounces; nient. syrup of ginger, sufficient to make an 627. APERIENT PILLS.—To some electuary: a teaspoonful three times a adults all liquid medicines produce day.

such nausea that pills are the only 62. Take of Castile soap, compound form in which aperients can be exhiextract of colocynth, compound rhubarb bited; the following is a useful formula: pill, and the extract of jalap, of each -iii. Take of compound rhubarb pill a one scruple ; oil of carraway, ten drops : drachm and one scruple, of powdered make into twenty pills, and take one ipecacuanha ten grains, and of extract after dinner every day whilst necessary. of hyoscyamus one scruple; mix, and

63. Spirit of rosemary, five parts; beat into a mass, and divide into twentyspirit of wine, or spirit of turpentine, four pills: take one or two, or if of a one part.

very costive habit, three at bedtime.64. Take of thick mucilage, one iv. For persons requiring a more powerounce; castor oil, twelve drachms; ful aperient, the same formula, with make into an emulsion: add mint water, twenty grains of compound extract of four ounces; spirit of nitre, three colocynth, will form a good purgative drachms; laudanum, one drachm; mix- pill. The mass receiving this addition ture of squills, one drachm; and syrup, must be divided into thirty, instead of seven drachms: mix; two tablespoon- twenty-four pills. fuls every six hours.

628. BLACK DRAUGHT. - V. The 625. Medicines (Aperient).- common aperient medicine known as In the spring time of the year, the judi- black draught is made in the followin cious use of aperient medicines is much manner :- Take of senna leaves six to be commended.

drachms, bruised ginger half a drachm, 626. SPRING APERIENTS. For sliced liquorice root four drachms, children, an excellent medicine is—i. Epsom saltstwoand a half ounces, boiling Brimstone and treacle, prepared by mix- water half an imperial pint. Keep this ing an ounce and a half of sulphur, and standing on the hob or near the fire half an ounce of cream of tartar, with for three hours, then strain, and after eight ounces of treacle; and, according allowing it to grow cool, add of sal to the age of the child, giving from a volatile one drachm and a half, of tincsmall teaspoonful to a dessertspoonful, ture of senna, and of tincture of vardaearly in the morniog, two or three times moms, each half an ounce. (This mixa week. As this sometimes produces ture will keep a long time in a cool sickness, the following may be used :

-place.) Dose, a wineglassful for an ü. Take of powdered Rochelle salts one adult; and two tablespoonfuls for drachm and a half, powdered jalap and young persons about fifteen years of powdered rhubarb each fifteen grains, age. It is not a suitable medicine for ginger two grains; mix. Dose for a child children. above five years, one small teaspoonful; 629. TONIC APERIENT.—vi. Take above ten years, a large teaspoonful ; of Epsom salts one ounce, diluted culabove fifteen, half the whole, or two phuric acid one drachm, infusion of ieaspoonfuls; and for a person above quassia chips half an imperial pint, twenty, three teaspoonfuls, or the compound tincture of rhubarb two whole, as may be required by the drachms. Half a wineglassful for a habit of the person.

This medicine dose twice a day. may be dissolved in warm water, mint, 630. INFANTS' APERIENT.

vii. or common tea. The powdər can be Take oî rhubarb five grains, magnesia




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three grains, white sugar a scruple,

635. MEDICINES ARE MADE up by grey powder five grains; mix. Dose, troy weight, although drugs are bought for an infant from twelve to eighteen by avoirdupois weight, and of course months of age, from one-third to one-half you know that there are only twelve of the whole.—viii. A useful laxative ounces to the pound troy, which is for children is composed of calomelmarked lb. ; then each ounce, which five grains, and sugar a scruple, made contains eight drachms, is marked Zi. ; into five powders; half of one of these each drachm, containing three scruples, for a child from birth to one year, and is marked zi.; and each scruple of a whole one from that age to three twenty grains is marked Zi.

The grain years.

weights are marked by little circles, 631. FLOUR OF BRIMSTONE is a 5 Grains each circle signifying a grain. mild aperient in doses of about a quarter

Each of the grain weights, in of an ounce; it is best taken in milk.

addition to the circles denoting Flour of brimstone, which is also called their several weights, bears also the stamp sublimed sulphur, is generally put up of a crown. Care must be taken not to in ounce packets at ld. ; its wholesale mistake this for one of the numerals. price is 4d. per pound.

Besides these weights you will find others 632. Medicines.-PREPARATIONS marked Iss, which means half a scruple; OF THEM.— The following directions 3ss, meaning half a drachm; and 3ss, are of the utmost value in connection meaning half an ounce. When there with the DOMESTIC PHARMACOPEIA, are ounces, drachms, or scruples, the DISEASES, PRESCRIPTIONS, and Poison's. number them is shown by Roman They will be found most important to figures, thus :-i. ii. ii. iv. V., &c., and emigrants, attendants upon the sick, and prescriptions are written in this style. persons who reside out of the reach of 636. MEASURES. -Liquid medicines medical aid, sailors, 8c., gc. They con- are measured by the following table :tain instructions not only for the com

60 minims... pounding of medicines, but most useful hints and cautions upon the application

8 fluid drachms.

1 fluid Ounce. 16 fluid ounces...

1 pint. of lecches, blisters, poultices, fc.

8 pints

1 gallon. 633. ARTICLES REQUIRED FOR MixING MEDICINES.— Three glass measures, And the signs which distinguish each one to measure ounces, another to are as follows:-c. means a gallon ; 0, measure drachms, and a measure for a pint; f 3, a fluid ounce; À 3, a fluid minims, drops, or small doses. A pestle drachm ; and m, a minim, or drop. Forand mortar, both of glass and Wedgwood- merly drops used to be ordered, but as ware, a glass funnel, and glass stirring the size of a drop must necessarily rods. A spatula, or flexible knife, for vary, minims are always directed to be spreading ointments, making pills, &c. employed now for any particular mediA set of scales and weights. A small cine, although for such medicines as oil slab of marble, slate, or porcelain, for of cloves, essence of ginger, &c., drops making pills upon, mixing ointments, are frequently ordered. &c.


Weights. When you open are graduated glass vessels for measuryour box containing the scales and ing ounces, achm and minims. weights, you will observe that there are 638. WHEN PROPER MEASURES ARE several square pieces of brass, of dif- NOT AT HAND, it is necessary to adopt ferent sizes and thicknesses, and stamped some other method of determining the with a variety of characters. These quantities required, and therefore we are the weights, which we will now have drawn up the following table for explain.

i that purpose :

1 fluid drachm.

are con







10 ounces.
4 drachms.


A tumbler.........

641. BE CAREFUL NOT TO POUND A teacup usually

TOO HARD in a glass, porcelain, or WedgeA wineglass

wood-ware mortar; they are intended A tablespoon about

only for substances that pulverize easily, A dessertspoon.

and for the purpose of mixing or incorA teaspoon ....

porating medicines. Never use acids These quantities refer to ordinary sized in a marble mortar, and be sure that spoons and vessels. Some cups hold you do not powder galls or any other

i half as much more, and some table- astringent substances in any but a brass spoons contain six drachms. Many mortar. persons keep a medicine-glass, which is 642. SIFTING is frequently required graduated so as to show the number of for powdered substances, and this is spoonfuls it contains.

usually done by employing a fine sieve, 639. Process of Making Me- or tying the powder up in a piece of dicines.-To Powder SUBSTANCES.- muslin, and striking it against the left Place the substance in the mortar, and hand over a piece of paper. strike it gently with direct perpendi- 643. FILTERING is frequently recular blows of the pestle, until it sepa- quired for the purpose of obtaining rates into several pieces, then remove clear fluids, such as infusions, eyeall but a small portion, which bruise washes, and other medicines ; and it is, gently at first, and rub the pestle round therefore, highly important to know and round the mortar, observing that how to perform this simple operation. the circles described by the pestle We must first of all make the filtershould gradually decrease in diameter, paper; this is done by taking a square and then increase again, because by sheet of white blotting paper, and this means every part of the powder is doubling it over, so as to form an angusubjected to the process of pulveriza-' lar cup. We next procure a piece of tion. In powdering substances, making wire, and twist it into a form to place emulsions, and whenever using a mortar, the funnel in, to prevent it passing too the pestle should always travel from ; far into the neck of the bottle. Open the right to the left.

out the filter-paper very carefully, and 640. SOME SUBSTANCES require to be having placed it in the funnel, inoisten it prepared in a particular manner before with a little water. Then place the wire they can be powdered, or to be assisted in the ce between the funnel and by adding some other body. For ex- the bottle, and pour the liquid gently ample, camphor powders more easily down the side of the paper, otherwise when a few drops of spirits of wine are the fluid is apt to burst the paper. added to it; mace, nutmegs, and such 644. MACERATION is another prooily aromatic substances are better for cess that is frequently required to be the addition of a little white sugar; | performed in making up medicines, resins and gum-resins should be pow- and consists simply in immersing the dered in a cold place, and if they are medicines in cold water or spirits for a intended to be dissolved, a little fine certain time. well-washed white sand mixed with 645. DIGESTION resembles macerathem assists the process of powdering. tion, except that the process is assisted Tough roots, like gentian and calumba, by a gentle heat. The ingredients are should be cut into thin slices; and placed in a flask, such salad oil is sold fibrous roots, like ginger, cut slanting, in, which should be fitted with a plug otherwise the powder will be full of of tow or wood, and have a piece of small fibres. Vegetable matters require wire twisted round the neck. The flask to be dried before they are powdered, is held by means of the wire over the such as peppermint, loosestrife, senna, flame of a spirit lamp, or else placed in &c.

some sand warned in an old iron




saucepan over the fire, care being taken shall give recipes for those most genenot to place more of the flask below the rally useful, and the method of making sand than the portion occupied by the them. ingredients.

649. Precautions to be ob646. INFUSION is one of the most served in Giving Medicines.frequent operations required in making Sex.--Medicines for females should up medicines, its object being to ex- not be so strong as those for males, tract the aromatic and volatile prin- therefore it is advisable to reduce the ciples of substances, that would be lost | doses about one-third. by decoction or digestion; and to extract 650. TEMPERAMENT.—Persons of a the soluble from the insoluble parts phlegmatic temperament bear stimuof bodies. Infusions may be made with lants and purgatives better than those cold water, in which case they are of a sanguine temperament, therefore weaker, but more pleasant. The ge- the latter require smaller doses. neral method employed consists in 651. HABITS.—Purgatives never act slicing, bruising, or rasping the in- so well upon persons accustomed to gredients first, then placing them in a take them as upon those who are not, common jug (which should be as glo- therefore it is better to change the form bular as possible), and pouring boiling of purgative from pill to potion, powder water over them; cover the jug with too draught, or aromatic to saline. a cloth folded six or eight times, but Purgatives should never be given when if there be a lid to the jug so much the there is an irritable state of the bowels. better; when the infusion has stood 652. STIMULANTS AND NARCOTICS the time directed, hold a piece of very never act so quickly upon persons accoarse linen over the spout, and pour customed to use spirits freely as upon the liquid through it into another jug. those who live abstemiously. 647. DECOction, or boiling, is em

653. CLIMATE.— The action of meployed to extract the mucilaginous or dicines is modified by climate and seagummy parts of substances, their bitter, sons. In summer, certain medicines astringent, or other qualities, and is act more powerfully than in winter, nothing more than boiling the in- and the same person cannot bear the gredients in a saucepan with the lid dose in July that he could in Deslightly raised. Be sure never to use cember. an iron saucepan for astringent decoc- 654. GENERAL HEALTH. — Persons tions, such as oak-bark, galls, &c., as whose general health is good, bear they will turn the saucepan black, and stronger doses than the debilitated and spoil the decoction. The enamelled those who have suffered for a long time. saucepans are very useful for decoc- 655. IDIOSYNCRASY. Walker's tions, but an excellent plan is to put the Dictionary will inform you that “idioingredients into a jar and boil the jar, syncrasy means a peculiar temperathus preparing it by a water bath, as it ment or disposition not common to as technically termed; or by using a people generally. For example, some common pipkin, which answers still persons cannot take calomel in the better. No decoction should be allowed smallest dose without being salivated, to boil for more than ten minutes. or rhubarb without having convul

648. Extracts are made by evapo- sions; others cannot take squills, opium, rating the liquors obtained by infusion senna, &c., and this peculiarity is or decoction, but these can be bought called the patient's idiosyncrasy, theremuch cheaper and better of chemists fore it is wrong to insist upon their and druggists, and so can tinctures, taking these medicines. confections, cerates and plasters, and

656. FORMS BEST SUITED FOR ADsyrups; but as every one is not always MINISTRATION.-Fluids act quicker than in the neighbourhood of druggists, we solids, and powders sooner than pills.

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