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By the aid of the above Table, persons having the separate numbers or
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1. Choice of Articles of Food. was caught; for no method can come -Nothing is more important in the af- pletely preserve the delicate flavour it fairs of housekeeping than the choice of has when just taken out of the water. wholesome food. "We have been amused A great deal of what is brought to Lonby a conundrum which is as follows:- don has been packed in and comes A man went to market and bought two from the Scotch and Irish rivers, and, fish. When he reached home he found though perfectly fresh, is not quite equal they were the same as when he had to Thames salmon. bought them; yet there were three ! 6. HERRINGS should be eaten when How was this ?” The answer is—“He very fresh ; and, like mackarel, will not bought two mackarel, and one smelt !” remain good many hours after they are Those who envy him his bargain need caught. But they are very excellent, not care about the following rules ; but especially for breakfast relishes, either to others they will be valuable :- salted, split, dried, and peppered, or

2. MACKAREL must be perfectly fresh, pickled. or it is a very indifferent fish ; it will 17. FRESH-WATER Fish. - The reneither bear carriage, nor being kept marks as to firmness and clear fresh eyes many hours out of the water. The firm- apply to this variety of fish, of which ness of the flesh, and the clearness of there are carp, tench, pike, perch, &c. the eyes, must be the criterion of fresh 8. LOBSTERS, recently caught, have mackarel, as they are of all other fish. always some remains of muscular action

3. TURBOT, and all flat white fish, in the claws, which may be excited by are rigid and firm when fresh ; the un- pressing the eyes with the finger; when der side should be of a rich cream this cannot be produced, the lobster colour. When out of season, or too long must have been too long kept. When kept, this becomes a bluish white, and boiled, the tail preserves its elasticity if the flesh soft and flaccid. A clear bright fresh, but loses it as soon as it becomes eye in fish is also a mark of being fresh stale. The heaviest lobsters are the and good.

when light they are watery and 4. Cod is known to be fresh by the poor. Hen lobsters may generaliy be rigidity of the muscles (or flesh); the known by the spawn, or by the breadth redness of the gills, and clearness of the of the “flap.” eyes. Crimping much improves this 9. CRAB AND CRAYFISH must be fish.

chosen by observations similar to those 5. SALMON.-—The flavour and excel- given above in the choice of lobsters. lence of this fish depends upon its fresh- Crabs have an agreeable smell when ness, and the shortness of time since it fresh,







10. PrawNS AND SHRIMPS, when firm and close in grain, and red in fresh, are firm and crisp.

colour, the fat white and firm. Mutton 11. Oysters.If fresh, the shell is is in its prime when the sheep is about firmly closed; when the shells of oysters five years old, though it is often killed are open, they are dead, and unfit for much younger. If too young, the flesh food. The small-shelled oysters, the feels tender when pinched ; if too old, Byfleet, Colchester, and Milford, are the on being pinched it wrinkles up, and so finest in flavour. Larger kinds, called remains. In young mutton, the fat rock oysters, are generally considered readily separates ; in old, it is held only fit for stewing and sauces, though together by strings of skin. In sheep some persons prefer them.

diseased of the rot, the flesh is very 12. Beer.—The grain of ox beef, pale-coloured, the fat inclining to yelwhen good, is loose, the meat red, and low; the meat appears loose from the the fat inclining to yellow. Cow beef, bone, and, if squeezed, drops of water on the contrary, has a closer grain, a ooze out from the grains; after cooking, whiter fat, but meat scarcely as red as the meat

drops clean away from the that of ox beef. Inferior beef, which bones. Wether mutton is preferred is meat obtained from ill-fed animals, to that of the ewe; it may be known or from those which had become too by the lump of fat on the inside of the old for food, may be known by a hard, thigh. skinny fat, a dark red lean, and, in old 15. LAMB. This meat will not keep animals, a line of horny texture running long after it is killed. The large vein through the meat of the ribs. When in the neck is bluish in colour when the meat pressed by the finger rises up fore quarter is fresh, green when bequickly, it may be considered as that coming stale. In the hind quarter, if of an animal which was in its prime; not recently killed, the fat of the kidney when the dent made by pressure returns will have a slight smell

, and the knuckle slowly, or remains visible, the animal will have lost its firmness. had probably passed its prime, and the 16. PORK.-When good, the rind is meat consequently must be of inferior thin, smooth, and cool to the touch ; quality.

when changing, from being too long 13. VEAL should be delicately white, killed, it becomes flaccid and clammy. though it is often juicy and well-fla- Enlarged glands, called kernels, in the voured when rather dark in colour. fat, are marks of an ill-fed or diseased Butchers, it is said, bleed calves pur- pig. posely before killing them, with a view 17. BACON should have a thin rind, to make the flesh white, but this also and the fat should be firm, and tinged makes it dry and flavourless. On exa- red by the curing; the flesh should be mining the loin, if the fat enveloping of a clear red, without intermixture of the kidney be white and firm-looking, yellow, and it should firmly adhere to the meat will probably be prime and the bone. To judge the state of a ham, recently killed. Veal will not keep, so plunge a knife into it to the bone; on long as an older meat, especially in hot drawing it back, if particles of meat or damp weather: when going, the fat adhere to it, or if the smell is disagreebecomes soft and moist, the meat flabby able, the curing has not been effectual, and spotted, and somewhat porous like and the ham is not good; it should, in sponge. Large, overgrown veal is in such a state, be immediately cooked. ferior to small, delicate, yet fat veal. In buying a ham, a short thick one is The fillet of a cow-calf is known by the to be preferred to one long and thin. udder attached to it, and by the soft Of English hams, Yorkshire, Westness of the skin ; it is preferable to the moreland, and Hampshire are most Veal of a bull-calf.

esteemed; of foreign, the Westphalian. 14. MUTTON.-The meat should be 18. VENISON.-When good, the fat



is clear, bright, and of considerable young and fresh killed. When their thickness. To know when it is neces- bills become moist, and their throats sary to cook it, a knife must be plunged muddy, they have been too long killed. into the haunch; and from the smell (See Food in Season.) the cook must determine on dressing or keeping it.

Names and Situations of the 19. TURKEY.—In choosing poultry,

Various Joints. the age of the bird is the chief point 27. Meats.- In different parts of to be attended to. An old turkey has the kingdom the method of cutting up rough and reddish legs; a young one carcases varies. That which we desmooth and black. Fresh killed, the scribe below is the most general, and eyes are full and clear, and the feet is known as the English method. moist. When it has been kept too i. BEEF- Fore Quarter. - Fore rib long, the parts about the vent have a (five ribs); middle rib (four ribs); chuck greenish appearance.

(three ribs).. Shoulder piece (top of 20. Common Domestic Fowls, when fore leg); brisket (lower or belly part young, have the legs and combs smooth; of the ribs); clod (fore shoulder blade); when old they are rough, and on the neck; shin (below the shoulder); cheek. breast long hairs are found instead of Hind quarter.—Sirloin; rump; aitchfeathers. Fowls and chickens should bone- these are the three divisions of be plump on the breast, fat on the back, the upper part of the quarter; buttock and white-legged.

and mouse-buttock, which divide the 21. GEESE.—The bills and feet are thigh ; veiny piece, joining the buttoc).; red when old, yellow when young: thick flank and thin flank (belly pieces) Fresh killed, the feet are pliable, stiff and leg: The sirloin and rump of when too long kept. Geese are called both sides form a baron. Beef is in green while they are only two or three season all the year ; best in the winter. months old.

ii. MUTTON.-Shoulder ; breast (the 22. Ducks. · Choose them with belly); over which are the loin (chump, supple feet and hard plump breasts. or tail end); loin (best end); and Tame ducks have yellow feet, wild ones neck (best end); neck (scrag end). A

chine is two necks; a saddle two loins ; 23. PIGEONS are very indifferent food then there are the leg and head. Mut. when they are too long kept. Supple-ton is the best in winter, spring, and ness of the feet shows them to be young; autumn. the state of the flesh is flaccid when iü. LAMB is cut into fore quarter and they are getting bad from keeping. hind quarter ; a saddle, or loin; neck, Tame pigeons are larger than the wild. breast, leg, and shoulder. Grass lamb

24. HARES AND RABBITS, when old, is in season from Easter to Michaelmas; have the haunches thick, the ears dry house lamb from Christmas to Lady-day. and tough, and the claws blunt and iv. Pork is cut into leg, hand, or ragged. A young hare has claws smooth shoulder ; hind-loin ; fore-loin; bellyand sharp, ears that easily tear, and a part; spare-rib (or neck); and head. narrow cleft in the lip. A leveret is Pork is in season nearly all the year. distinguished from a hare by a knob or v. Veal is cut into neck (scrag end); small bone near the foot.

neck (best end); loin (best end); loin 25. PARTRIDGES, when young, have (chump, or tail end); dillet (upper part yellowish legs and dark-coloured bills. of hind leg); hind knuckle, which old partridges are very indifferent joins the fillet; knuckle of fore leg ; eating.

blade (bone of shoulder) ; breast (best 26. WOODCOCKS AND SNIPEs, when end; breast (brisket end), and hand. old, have the feet thick and hard; when Veal is always in season, but dear in these are soft and tender, they are both the winter and spring.




vi. VENISON is cut into haunch (or than that which is sufficient for other back); neck; shoulder; and breast. Doe joints and meats. When stewed it is venison is best in January, October, No- excellent; and when cooked fresh (i.e., vember, and December, and buck venison unsalted), an excellent stock for soup in June, July, August, and September. may be extracted from it, and yet the

vii. SCOTTISH MODE OF DIVISION.- meat will serve as well for dinner. According to the English method the iii. The EDGEBONE, OR AITCHBONE, carcase of beef is disposed of more eco- is not considered to be a very econonomically than upon the Scotch plan. mical joint, the bone being large in The English plan affords better steaks, proportion to the meat; but the greater and better joints for roasting; but the part of it, at least, is as good as that of Scotch plan gives a greater variety of any prime part. It sells at a penny a pieces for boiling. The names of pieces pound less than roasting joints. in the Scotch plan, not found in the iv. The RUMP is the part of which English, are the hough, or hind leg; the London butcher makes great profit, the nineholes, or English buttock; the by selling it in the form of steaks. In large and small runner, taken from the the country, as there is not an equal rib and chuck pieces of the English demand for steaks, the whole of it may plan; the shoulder-lyer, the English be purchased as a joint, and at the shoulder, but cut differently; the spare- price of other prime parts. It may be rib or fore-sye, the sticking piece, &c. turned to good account in producing The Scotch also cut mutton differ many excellent dishes. If salted, it is ently:

simply boiled; if used unsalted, it is viii. Ox-TAIL is much esteemed for generally stewed. purposes of soup; so also is the CHEEK. V. THE VEINY PIECE is sold at a The TONGUE is highly esteemed. low price per pound; but, if hung for

ix. Calves' HEADS are very useful a day or two, it is very good and very for various dishes; so also are their profitable. Where there are a number KNUCKLES, FEET, HEART, &c.

of servants and children to have an

early dinner, this part of beef will be 28. Relative Economy of the found desirable. Joints.

vi. THE LEG AND SHIN afford exi. THE ROUND is, in large families, cellent stock for soup; and, if not one of the most profitable parts : it is reduced too much, the meat taken from usually boiled, and, like most of the the bones may be served as a stew with boiling parts of beef, is generally sold vegetables; or it may be seasoned, in London at a penny per pound less pounded with butter, and potted; or, than roasting joints.

chopped very fine, and seasoned with ii. The Brisket is also a penny a herbs, and bound together by egg and pound less in price than the roasting bread crumbs, it may be fried in t alls, parts. It is not so economical a part or in the form of large eggs, and served as the round, having more bone to be with a gravy made with a few spoonfuls weighed with it, and more fat. Where of the soup. there are children, very fat joints are vii. Ox CHEEK makes excellent soup. not desirable, being often disagreeable The meat, when taken from the bones, to them, and sometimes prejudicial, may be served as a stew. especially if they have a dislike to fat. viii. THE SIRLOIN AND

THE RIBS This joint also requires more cooking are the roasting parts of beef, and than many others; that is to say, it these bear in all places the highest requires a double allowance of time to price. The most profitable of these .be given for boiling it; it will, when two joints at a family table is the ribs. served, be hard and scarcely digestible The bones, if removed from the beef if no more time be allowed to boil it before it is roasted, will assist in form

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