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of hops, two potatoes sliced, a table- may be obtained at any ironmonger's. spoonful of malt or sugar (this may be The saving in the cost of bread amounts omitted, but the yeast is better with it); to nearly one-third, which would soon boil for twenty minutes, strain through cover the cost of the mill, and effect a a sieve, let the liquor stand till new-milk most important saving, besides prowarm, then add the quickening; let it moting health, by avoiding the evil stand in a large jar or jug till sufficiently effects of adulterated flour. risen; first put into an earthen bottle 938. Home-made Bread.-To containing a pint or two quarts, accord- one quartern of flour (three pounds and ing to the size of the baking, part of a half), add a dessertspoonful of salt, the yeast for a future quickening; let it and mix them well; mix about two stand uncorked an hour or two, and put tablespoonfuls of good fresh yeast with into a cool place till wanted for a fresh half a pint of water a little warm, but making. For a first quickening a little not hot; make a hole with your hand German yeast will do. Any plain cook in the middle of the flour, but not quite or housewife will readily make the yeast touching the bottom of the pan; pour and use it. Put the remainder of it to the water and yeast into this hole, and half or more of the flour, and two quarts stir it with a spoon till you have made of warm water; stir well, let it stand a thin batter; sprinkle this over with to rise, knead up with the rest of the flour, cover the pan over with a dry flour, put it into or upon tins, let it stand cloth, and let it stand in a warm room to rise, bake, and you will have good for an hour; not near the fire, except in bread.

cold weather, and then not too close; 936. Domestic Yeast.-Ladies then add a pint of water a little warm, who are in the habit (and a most laudable and knead the whole well together, till and comfortable habit it is) of making the dough comes clean through the hand domestic bread, cake, &c., are informed (some Hour will require a little more that theycan easily manufacture their own water; but in this, experience must be yeast by attending to the following direc- your guide); let it stand again for about tions:-Boil one pound good flour, a a quarter of an hour, and then bake at quarter of a pound of brown sugar, and pleasure. a little salt, in two gallons of water, for 939. Indian Corn Flour and one hour. When milk-warm, bottle it, Wheaten Bread.-The peculiarity and cork it close. It will be fit for use of this bread consists in its being comin twenty-four hours: One pint of this posed in part of Indian corn flour, which yeast will make eighteen pounds of will be seen by the following analysis by bread.

the late Professor Johnston, to be much 937. Pure and Cheap Bread.- richer in gluten and fatty matter than A friend informs us that for more than the flour of wheat, to which circumtwelve months he has ground his own stance it owes its highly nutritive flour by a small hand-mill, which pro- character :luces seventeen pounds of good meal

English Fine Indian Corn bread for twenty pounds of wheat (quite good enough for any one to eat), and that since himself and family have used Gluten this bread they have never had occasion for medical advice. They also use the Starcb, &c.. same meal for puddings, &c. The price of a mill is £4 10s. There are mills which grind and dress the wheat at one Take of Indian corn flour half a stone operation. To grind twenty pounds of|(71b.), pour upon it four quarts of boilwheat would take a boy or a servant ing water, stirring it all the time; let it about forty or fifty minutes. Such mills stand till about new-milk warm, then



Wheaten Flour,



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mix it with a stone of fine wheaten four, a good side oven you may make a to which a quarter of a pound of salt double use of your fire, by baking at has been previously added. Make a de- the side and in front at the same time; pression on the surface of this mixture, and where there is no side oven, or and pour into it two quarts of yeast, only a bad one, these ovens are invawhich should be thickened to the con- luable. You may bake five pounds and sistence of cream with some of the a half of bread, or eight pounds of meat, flour; let it stand all night; on the in one hour and a half, without deprivfollowing morning the whole should be ing the room of the heat or comfort of well kneaded, and allowed to stand for the fire: and two ovens may be used three hours; then divide it into loaves, at the same time in front of an ordinary which are better baked in tins, in which fire, side by side. they should stand for half an hour, 941. Únfermented Bread.then bake. Thirty-two pounds of Three pounds wheat meal; half an wholesome, nutritive, and very agree- ounce, avoirdupois, muriatic acid; half able bread will be the result. It is of an ounce, avoirdupois, carbonate soda; importance that the flour of Indian water enough to make it of a proper corn should be procured, as Indian consistence. For white flour, four corn meal is that which is commonly pounds of flour; half an ounce, avoirmet with at the shops, and the coarse- dupois, muriatic acid; half an ounce, ness of the husk in the meal might to avoirdupois, carbonate soda; water, some persons be prejudicial.

about a quart. The way of making is 940. To make Bread with as follows:- First mix the soda and German Yeast.—To one quartern of flour well together by rubbing in a pan; flour add a dessertspoonful of salt as then pour the acid into the water, and before;

dissolve one ounce of dried Ger- mix well by stirring. Mix all together to man yeast in about three tablespoonfuls the required consistence, and bake in a of cold water, add to this one pint and hot oven immediately. TŁe gain from a half of water a little warm, and pour this method of baking is as follows: the whole into the flour; knead it well four pounds of wheat meal made seven immediately, and let it stand as before pounds nine ounces of excellent light directed for one hour : then bake at bread; and four pounds of seconds pleasure. It will not hurt if you flour made six pounds of excellent light make up a peck of flour at once, and bread. It keeps moist longer than bake three or four loaves in succes- bread made with yeast, and is far more sion, provided you do not keep the sweet and digestible. This is especially dough too warm. German yeast may recommended to persons who suffer be obtained at almost any corn-chand- from indigestion, who will find the ler's in the metropolis and suburbs. brown bread invaluable. In winter it will keep good for a week 942. Bread (Cheap and Exin a dry place, and in summer it should cellent Kind).—Simmer slowly, over be kept in cold water, and the water a gentle fire, a pound of rice in three changed every day. Wheat meal re-quarts of water, till the rice has become quires a little more yeast than fine perfectly soft, and the water is either flour, or a longer time to stand in the evaporated or imbibed by the rice: let dough for rising. For domestic baking, it become cool, but not cold, and mix it in the absence of a large oven, Ball's completely with four pounds of flour; Portable Revolving Ovens can be used, add to it some salt, and about four in front of any fire; they bake equally, tablespoonfuls of yeast. Knead it very perfectly, and produce five pounds of thoroughly, for on this depends whether bread from three pounds and a half of or not your good materials produce a flour, without the addition of potatoes superior article. Next let it rise well or rice. With one of these ovens and before the fire, make it up into loaves



with a little of the flour—which, for of flour near the fire to warm ; take that purpose, you must reserve from five pounds of good potatoes, those of your four pounds—and bake it rather a mealy kind being preferable, peel long. This is an exceedingly good and and boil them as if for the table, mash cheap bread.

them fine, and then mix with them as 943. Economical and Nou- much cold water as will allow all except rishing Bread.-Suffer the miller to small lumps to pass through a coarse remove from the flour only the coarse sieve into the flour, which will now be flake bran. Of this bran, boil five or ready to receive them; add yeast, &c., six pounds in four and a half gallons of and mix for bread in the usual way. water ; when the goodness is extracted This plan has been followed for some from the bran,-during which time the years, finding that bread mąde according liquor will waste half or three quarters to it is much superior to that made of of a gallon,-strain it and let it cool. flour only, and on this ground alone we When it has cooled down to the tem- recommend its adoption; but in addition perature of new milk, mix it with fifty- to that, taking the high price of flour, six pounds of flour, and as much salt and moderately low price of potatoes, and yeast as would be used for other here is a saving of over twenty per cent., bread; knead it exceedingly well; iet which is surely an object worth attendit rise before the fire, and bake it in ing to by those of limited means. small loaves : small loaves are prefer- 947. Use of Lime Water in able to large ones, because they take the making Bread.-It has lately been heat more equally. There are two found that water saturated with lime advantages in making bread with bran produces in bread the same whiteness, water instead of plain water; the one softness, and capacity of retaining moisbeing that there is considerable nourish- ture, as results from the use of alum; ment in bran, which is thus extracted while the former removes all acidity and added to the bread; the other, from the dough, and supplies an ingrethat flour imbibes much more of bran dient needed in the structure of the water than it does of plain water; so bones, but which is deficient in the ceremuch more, as to give in the bread pro- alia. The best proportion to use is, five duced almost a fifth in weight more pounds of water saturated with lime, to than the quantity of flour made up every nineteen pounds of flour. No with plain water would have done. change is required in the process of These are important considerations to baking. The lime most effectually the poor. Fifty-six pounds of flour, coagulates the gluten, and the bread made with plain water, would produce weighs well;. bakers must therefore sixty-nine and a half pounds of bread; approve of its introduction, which is not made with bran water, it will produce injurious to the system, like alum, &c. eighty-three and a half pounds. A large quantity of this kind of bread

944. A great increase on Home- is now made in Munich, and is highly made Bread, even equal to one-fifth, esteemed. may be produced by using bran water 948. Rice Bread. - Take one for kneading the dough. The proportion pound and a half of rice, and boil it is three pounds of bran for every twenty- gently over a slow fire in three quarts of eight pounds of flour, to be boiled for water about five hours, stirring it, and an hour, and then strained through a afterwards beating it up into a smooth bair sieve.

paste. Mix this, while warm, into two 945. Rye and Wheat Flour, in gallons or four pounds of flour, adding equal quantities, make an excellent and at the same time the usual quantity of economical bread.

yeast. Allow the dough to work a cer. 946. Potatoes in Bread. tain time near the fire, after which Place in a large dish fifteen pounds ! divide it into loaves, and it will be found,

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when baked, to produce twenty-eight or pour it into the hole in the flour. Stir thirty pounds of excellent white bread. it with a spoon just enough to make a

949. Apple Bread.—A very light, thin batter, and sprinkle some flour pleasant bread is made in France by a over the top. Cover the pan, and set mixture of apples and flour, in the pro- it in a warm place for several hours. portion of one of the former to two of When it is light, add half a pint more the latter. The usual quantity of yeast of lukewarm water, and make it, with is employed, as in making common a little more flour, into a dough. Knead bread, and is beaten with flour and it very well for ten minutes. Then warm pulp of the apples after they divide it into small pieces, and knead have boiled, and the dough is then each separately. Make them into round considered as set; it is then put in a cakes or rolls. Cover them, and set proper vessel, and allowed to rise for them to rise about an hour and a half. eight or twelve hours, and then baked Bake them, and, when done, let them in long loaves. Very little water is remain in the oven, without the lid, for requisite: none, generally, if the apples about ten minutes. are very fresh.

953. Sally Lunn Tea Cakes. 950. Pulled Bread.-Take from —Take one pint of milk quite warm, a the oven an ordinary loaf when it is quarter of a pint of thick small-beer about half baked, and with the fingers, yeast; put them into a pan with flour while the bread is yet hot, dexterously sufficient to make it as thick as batter, pull the half-set dough into pieces of --cover it over, and let it stand till it irregular shape, about the size of an egg. has risen as high as it will, i. e., about Don't attempt to smooth or flatten them two hours : add two ounces of lump -the rougher their shapes the better. sugar, dissolved in a quarter of a pint Set upon tins, place in a very slow oven, of warm milk, a quarter of a pound of and bake to a rich brown. This forms a butter rubbed into the flour very deliciously crisp crust for cheese. If you fine,—then make the dough the same do not bake at home, your baker will as for French rolls, &c.; let it stand prepare it for you, if ordered. Pulled half an hour: then make up the cakes, bread may be made in the revolving and put them on tins:—when they have

It is very nice with wine in- stood to rise, bake them in a quick oven. stead of biscuits.

Care should be taken never to mix the 951. French Bread and Rolls. yeast with water or milk too hot or too -Take a pint and a half of milk; make cold, as either extreme will destroy the it quite warm; half a pint of small- fermentation. In summer it should be beer yeast; add sufficient flour to make lukewarm,-in winter a little warmer, it as thick as batter; put it into a pan; -and in very cold weather, warmer cover it over, and keep it warm: when still. When it has first risen, if you it has risen as high as it will, add a are not prepared, it will not harm if quarter of a pint of warm water, and it stand an hour. half an ounce of salt,-mix them well 954. Baking, Boiling, Broiltogether,---rub into a little flour two ing, Frying, Roasting, Stewing, ounces of butter; then make your and Spoiling. — A DIALOGUE bedough, not quite so stiff as for your tween the Dutch OVEN, the SAUCEbread; let it stand for three quarters PAN, the Spit, the GRIDIRON, and the of an hour, and it will be ready to FRYING-PAN, with reflections theremake into rolls, &c. :let them stand upon, in which all housekeepers and till they have risen, and bake them in a cooks are invited to take an interest. quick oven.

955. We were once standing by our 952. Rolls.—Mix the salt with the scullery, when all of a sudden we flour. Make a deep hole in the middle. heard a tremendous clash and jingleStir the warm water into the yeast, and the Saucepan had tumbled into the




Frying-pan; the Frying-pan had shot make an unsightly gash in a joint which its handle through the ribs of the Grid- otherwise might be an ornament to the iron; the Gridiron had bestowed a ter- table. rible thump upon the hollow head of 960. SPIT.—What, Dutch Oven, is the Dutch Oven; and the Spit had dealt that you ? venerable old sobersides, with a very skilful stroke, which shook the a hood like a monk! Why, you are a sides of all the combatants, and made mere dummy-as you are placed so you them ring out the noises by which we remain; there you stand in one place, were startled. Mụsing upon this inci- gaping wide and catching the coals as dent, we fancied that we overheard the they fall ; if you were not well watched, following dialogue :

you would burn the one half, and sod956. FRYING-PAN.— Hollo, Sauce- den the other, of whatever you were pan! what are you doing here, with required to prepare. Bad luck to your your dropsical corporation ? Quite impertinence ! time that you were superannuated ; 961. GRIDIRON. Peace! peace! you are a mere meat-spoiler. You We all have our merits and our deadulterate the juices of the best joint, merits.—At this remark of the Gridand give to the stomach of our master iron, there was a general shout of little else than watery compounds to laughter. digest.

962. SAUCEPAN.—Well, I declare ! 957. SAUCEPAN.—Well! I like your I never thought that I should have my conceit! You—who harden the fibre of merits classed with those of the miserflesh so much, that there is no telling able skeleton called a Gridiron. That whether a steak came from a bullock, a is a joke! A thing with six ribs and a horse, or a bear !—who can't fry a slice tail to compare with so useful a memof potato, or a miserable smelt, but you ber of the cuisine community as mymust be fooded with oil or fat, to keep self! Why you, Gridiron, waste one your spiteful nature from burning or half of the goodness of the meat in the biting the morsel our master should fire, and the other half you send to the enjoy. Not only that-you open your table tainted with smoke, and burnt to mouth so wide, that the soot of the cinders !-A loud rattle of approbation chimney drops in, and frequently spoils went round, as the poor Gridiron fell our master's dinner; or you throw the under this torrent of derision from the fat over your sides, and set the chimney Saucepan. in a blaze!

963. Coming away from the scene 958. Spit.—Go on! go on! six of confusion, I ordered the scullerymaid one, and half-a-dozen the other! to go instantly and place each of the 959. DUTCH OVEN.–Well, Mr. Spit, utensils that lay in disorder upon

the you needn't try to foment the quarrel. ground, into its proper place, charging You require more attention than any her to cleanse each carefully, until it of us; for if you are not continually should be required for use. watched, and helped by that useful 964. Returning to my library, I little attendant of yours they call a thought it would form no mean ocJack, your lazy, lanky figure would cupation were I to spend a few hours stand still, and you would expose the in reflection upon the relative claims of most delicious joint to the ravages of the disputants. I did so, and the folthe fire. In fact, you need not only a lowing is the result:Jack to keep you going, but a cook to 965. THE GRIDIRON.—The Gridiron, constantly baste the joint confided to though the simplest of cooking instruyour care, without which our master ments, is by no means to be despised. would have but a dry bone to pick. The Gridiron, and indeed all cooking Not only so, but you thrust your spear- utensils, should be kept scrupulously like length through the besť meat, and clean; and when it is used, the bars

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