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should be allowed to get warm before cake-a treat which the Gridiron would the meat is placed upon it, otherwise be unable to afford us,—to say nothing the parts crossed by the bars will be of eggs and bacon, and various kinds of ins: fficiently dressed. The fire should fish, to which both the Saucepan and be sharp, clear, and free from smoke. the Gridiron are quite unsuited, beThe heat soon forms a film upon the cause they require that which is the surface of the meat, by which the essence of frying, boiling and browning juices are retained. Chops and steaks in fat. should not be too thick nor too thin. 967. The Spit is a very noble and From a half to three quarters of an inch very useful implement of cookery; as is the proper thickness. Avoid thrust- ancient, we presume, as he is straighting the fork into the meat, by which forward at his work. Perhaps the proyou release the juice. There is a de- cess of roasting stands only second in scription of gridiron in which the bars the rank of excellence in cookery. The are grooved to catch the juice of the process is perfectly sound in its chemimeat; but a much better invention is cal effects upon the food, while the the upright gridiron, which is attached joint is kept so immediately under the to the front of the grate, and has a pan eye of the cook, that it must be the at the bottom to catch the gravy. Kid- fault of that functionary if it does not neys, rashers, &c., dressed in this man- go to the table in the highest state of cer will be found delicious. There are perfection. The process of roasting some, however, who think that the may be commenced very slowly, by the dressing of meat over the fire secures a meat being kept a good distance from flavour which cannot otherwise be ob- the fire, and gradually brought forward, tained. Remember that the Gridiron is until it is thoroughly soaked within devoted to the cooking of small dishes, and browned without. The Spit has or snacks, for breakfast, supper, and this advantage over the Oven, and espeluncheon, and is therefore a most useful cially over the common oven, that the servant, ready at a moment’s notice. meat retains its own flavour, not having Remember, also, that every moment to encounter the evaporation from fifty which is lost, after the Gridiron has different dishes, and that the steam delivered up his charge, is a delay to from its own substance passes entirely the prejudice of the Gridiron. From away, leaving the essence of the meat the Gridiron to the table without loss in its primest condition. of time should be the rule.

968. THE DUTCH OVEN, though not 966. THE FRYING-PAN is less a so royal an instrument as the Spit, is, favourite, in our estimation, than the nevertheless, of great utility for small Gridiron; but not to be despised, never dishes of various kinds, which the Spit theless. He is a noisy and a greasy would spoil by the magnitude of its servant, requiring much watchfulness. operations, or the Oven destroy by the Like the Gridiron, the Frying-pan re- severity of its heat. It combines, in quires a clear but not a large fire, and fact, the advantages of roasting and the pan should be allowed to get baking, and may be adopted for comthoroughly hot, and be well covered with pound dishes, and for warming cold fat, before meat is put into it. The ex- scraps: it is easily heated, and causes no cellence of frying very much depends material expenditure of fuel. upon the sweetness of the oil, butter, 969. THE SAUCEPAN.

When we lard, or fat that may be employed. The come to speak of the Saucepan, we have Frying-pan is very useful in the warm- to consider the claims of a very large, ing of cold vegetables and other kinds ancient, and useful family; and perhaps, of food, and in this respect may be looking at the generic orders of the considered a real friend of economy. Saucepan, all other cooking implements All know the relish afforded by a pan- must yield to its claims. There are



large saucepans, which we dignify with quarter of an hour, after it is taken the name of Boilers, and small sauce- from the fire, may impair or spoil all pans, which come under the denomina- their labours. The serving up of a tion of Stewpans. There are few kinds dinner may be likened to the assault of meat or fish which it will not re-upon Sebastopol. Looking upon the ceive, and dispose of in a satisfactory joint as the Malakoff, and the surmanner; and few vegetables for which rounding dishes as the redans, the basit is not adapted. The Saucepan, tions, and the forts, they should all be rightly used, is a very economical ser- seized simultaneously, and made the vant, allowing nothing to be lost; that prize of the commander-in-chief and which escapes from the meat while his staff around the dinner-table. Such in its charge forms broth, or may a victory will always do the cook the be made the basis of soups. Fat rises highest honour, and entitle him to the upon the surface of the water, and may gratitude of the household. be skimmed off; while in various stews it combines, in an eminent degree, what 972. Various Processes of we may term the fragrance of cookery,

Cooking and the piquancy of taste. The French i. “In the hands of an expert are perfect masters of the use of the cook,” says Majendie,

“ alimentary Stewpan. And we shall find that, as substances are made almost entirely all cookery is but an aid to digestion, to change their nature, their form, conthe operations of the Stewpan resemble sistence, odour, savour, colour, chemical the action of the stomach very closely: composition, &c.; everything is so modiThe stomach is a close sac, in which fied, that it is often impossible for the solids and fluids are mixed together, most exquisite sense of taste to recognize macerated in the gastric juice, and dis- the substance which makes up the basis solved by the aid of heat and motion, of certain dishes. The greatest utility occasioned by the continual contractions of the kitchen consists in making the and relaxations of the coats of the food agreeable to the senses, and renstomach during the action of digestion. dering it easy of digestion.” This is more closely resembled by the ü. To some extent the claims of either process of stewing than by any other of process of cooking depend upon the our culinary methods.

taste of the individual. Some persons 970. In this rapid review of the may esteem the peculiar flavour of fried claims of various cooking utensils, we meats, while others will prefer broils think that we have done justice to each. or stews. It is important, however, to They all have their respective advan- understand the theory of each method tages; besides which, they contribute of cooking, so that whichever may to the variety presented by our tables, be adopted, may be done well. Bad without which the routine of eating cooking, though by a good method, is would be very monotonous and unsatis- far inferior to good cooking by a bad factory.

method. 971. There is one process to which 973. Roasting. BEEF. — The we must yet allude--the process of noble sirloin of about fifteen pounds Spoiling. Many cooks know how to (if much thicker the outside will be produce a good dish, but too many of done too much before the inner side is them know how to spoil it. They leave sufficiently roasted), will require to be fifty things to be done just at the criti- before the fire about three and a half or cal moment when the chief dish should four hours. Take care to spit it evenly, be watched with an eye of keenness, and that it may not be heavier on one side attended by a hand thoroughly expert. than the other; put a little clean dripHaving spent three hours in making a ping into the dripping pan (tie a sheet joint hot and rich, they forget that a of paper over it to preserve the fat),




baste it well as soon as it is put down, a week; in cold weather, ten days. A and every quarter of an hour all the leg of eight pounds will take about time it is roasting, till the last half- two hours; let it be well basted. hour; then take off the paper and make 979. A CHINE OR SADDLE—i. e., the some gravy for it, stir the fire and make two loins, of ten or eleven pounds—two it clear; to brown and froth it, sprinkle hours and a half. It is the business of a little salt over it, baste it with butter, the butcher to take off the skin and and dredge it with flour; let it go a few skewer it on aga to defend the meat minutes longer, till the froth rises, take from extreme heat, and preserve its suc. it up, put it on the dish, &c. Garnish culence. If this is neglected, tie a sheet it with hillocks of horseradish, scraped of paper over it; baste the strings you as fine as possible with a very sharp tie it on with directly, or they will burn. knife.

About a quarter of an hour before you 974. A YORKSHIRE PUDDING is an think it will be done, take off the skin or excellent accompaniment.

paper, that it may get a pale brown 975. RIBS OF BEEF. - The three colour, and then baste it, and flour it first ribs, of fifteen or twenty pounds, lightly to froth it. will take three hours, or three and a half; 980. A SHOULDER, of seven pounds, the fourth and fifth ribs will take as long, an hour and a half. Put the spit in managed in the same way as the sirloin. close to the shank-bone, and run it along Paper the fat and the thin part, or it will the blade-bone. be done too much, before the thick part 981. A LOIN OF MUTTON, from an is done enough.

hour and a half to an hour and three 976. RIBS OP BEEF BONED AND quarters. The most elegant way of ROLLED.—When you have kept two or carving this is to cut it lengthwise, as three ribs of beef till quite tender, take you do a saddle. A neck, about the same out the bones, and skewer it as round as time as a loin. It must be carefully possible (like a fillet of veal): before jointed, or it is very difficult to carve. they roll it, some cooks egg it, and 982. THE NECK AND BREAST are, sprinkle it with veal stuffing. As in small families, commonly roasted tothe meat is in a solid mass, it will gether. The cook will then crack the require more time at the fire than in bones across the middle before they are the preceding receipt: a piece of ten put down to roast. If this is not done or twelve pounds weight will not be carefully, they are very troublesome to well and thoroughly roasted in less carve. A breast, an hour and a quarter. than four and a half or five hours. For 983. A HAUNCH—i.e., the leg and the first half-hour it should not be less part of the loin of mutton. Send up than twelve inches from the fire, that it two sauce-boats with it; one of richmay get gradually warm to the centre; drawn mutton gravy, made without the last half-hour before it is finished, spice or herbs, and the other of sweet sprinkle a little salt over it, and if you sauce. It generally weighs about fifteen so wish, froth it, flour it, &c.

pounds, and requires about three hours 977. MUTTON.-As beef requires a and a half to roast it. large sound fire, mutton must have a 984. MUTTON (Venison fashion).brisk and sharp one: if you wish to have Take a neck of good four or five-yearmutton tender it should be hung as long old Southdown wether mutton, cut long as it will keep, and then good eight-tooth, in the bones; let it hang, in temperate i. e., four years old mutton, is as good weather, at least a week. Two days beeating as venison.

fore you dress it, take allspice and black 978. THE LEG, HAUNCH, AND pepper, ground and pounded fine, a SADDLE, will be the better for being quarter of an ounce each, rub them hung up in a cool airy place for four or together, and then rub your mutfive days at least; in temperate weather, ton well with this mixture twice a day.




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When you dress it, wash off the spice fine sweetbread-it cannot be too fresh; with warm water, and roast it in paste. parboil it for five minutes, and throw it

985. VEAL requires particular care into a basin of cold water; roast it plain, to roast it a nice brown. Let the fire be or beat up the yolk of an egg, and prethe same as for beef; a sound large fire pare some fine bread-crumbs. When for a large joint, and a brisker for a the sweetbread is cold, dry it thoroughly smaller: put it at some distance from in a cloth, run a lark spit or a skewer the fire to soak thoroughly, and then through it, and tie it on the ordinary draw it nearer to finish it brown. When spit; egg it with a paste brush, powder first laid down it is to be basted; baste it it well with bread-crumbs, and roast it. again occasionally. When the veal is For sauce, fried bread-crumbs round it, on the dish, pour over it half a pint of and melted butter with a little mushmelted butter: if you have a little brown room ketchup and lemon juice, or serve gravy by you, add that to the butter. on buttered toast, garnished with egg With those joints which are not stuffed, sauce, or with gravy, send up forcemeat in balls, or rolled into 991. LAMB is a delicate, and comsausages, as garnish to the dish, or fried monly considered tender meat; but pork sausages : bacon and greens are those who talk of tender lamb, while always expected with veal.

they are thinking of the age of the 986. Fillet of Veal, of from twelve animal, forget that even a chicken must to sixteen pounds, will require from four be kept a proper time after it has been to five hours at a good fire; make some killed, or it will be tough picking. stuffing or forcemeat, and put it under Woeful experience has warned us to the flap, that there may be some left to beware of accepting an invitation to eat cold, or to season a hash : brown it, dinner on Easter Sunday; and unless and pour good melted butter over it

. commanded by a thorough-bred gourGarnish with thin slices of lemon, and mand, our incisors, molars, and princakes or balls of stuffing, or duck stuff- cipal viscera, have protested against ing, or fried pork sausages, curry sauce, the imprudence of encountering young, bacon and greens, &c.

tough stringy mutton under the mis987. A Loin is the best part of the nomer of grass-lamb. To the usual calf, and will take about three hours accompaniments of roasted meat, green roasting. Paper the kidney fat, and the mint sauce or a salad is commonly back: some cooks send it up on a toast, added: and some cooks, about five which is eaten with the kidney and the minutes before it is doné, sprinkle it fat of this part, which is more delicate with a little minced parsley. than any marrow, &c. If there is more 992. GRASS-LAMB is in season from of it than you think will be eaten with Easter to Michaelmas. the veal, before you roast it cut it out, 993. HOUSE-LAMB from Christmas it will make an excellent suet pudding: to Lady-day. take care to have your fire long enough 994. WHEN GREEN Mint cannot to brown the ends.

be got, mint vinegar is an acceptable 988. A SHOULDER OF VEAL, from substitute for it. three hours to three hours and a half : 995. HIND-QUARTER of eight pounds stuff it with the forcemeat ordered for will take from an hour and three quarthe fillet of veal, in the under side. ters to two hours; baste and froth it.

989. NECK, best end, will take two 996. FORE-QUARTER of ten pounds, hours. The scrag part is best made into about two hours. a pie or broth. Breast, from an hour and 997. IT IS A PRETTY GENERAL Cusa half to two hours. Let the caul remain Tom, when you take off the shoulder till it is almost done, then take it off, to from the ribs, to squeeze a Seville brown it; baste, flour, and froth it. orange over them, and sprinkle them

990. VEAL SWEETBREAD.— Trim al with a little pepper and salt.



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998. LEG of five pounds, from an ribs together, is 19fth; on mutton, viz., hour to an hour and a half.

legs and shoulders together, 243ths ; on 999. SHOULDER, with a quick fire, fore-quarters of lamb, 22ļrd ; on ducks, an hour.

27th; on turkeys, 201; on geese, 19); 1000. Ribs, about an hour to an on chickens, 143ths. So that it will be hour and a quarter; joint it nicely; seen by comparison with the per-centage crack the ribs across, and bend them up given of the loss by boiling, that roastto make it easy to carve.

ing is not so economical; especially 1001. Loin, an hour and a quarter. when we take into account that the Neck, an hour. Breast, three quarters loss of weight by boiling is not actual of an hour.

loss of economic materials, for we then 1002. Poultry, Game, &c.

possess the principal ingredients for

soups; whereas, after roasting, the fat A small capon, fowl, or chicken,

only remains. The average loss in boilrequires

0 20

ing and roasting together is 18 per cent. A large fowl

0 45 according to Donovan, and 28 per cent. A capon, full size

according to Wallace—a difference that goose

1 0 may be accounted for by supposing a Wild ducks, and grouse

0 15 difference in the fatness of the meat, Pheasants, and Turkey poults

duration and degree of heat, &c., emA moderate sized turkey, stuffed . 1 15 ployed. Partridges

1006. Boiling:- This most simple Quail ,

0 10

of culinary processes is not often perA hare, or rabbit

about 1 0

formed in perfection; it does not require Leg of pork, 1 hour for each

quite so much nicety and attendance as pound, and above that al- 0 20

roasting; to skim your pot well, and lowance A chine of pork

0 20

keep it really boiling (the slower the

1 30 A peck of mutton

better) all the while_to know how long is A haunch of venison

about 3 30

required for doing the joint, &c., and to

take it up at the critical moment when 1003. ROASTING, BY CAUSING THE it is done enough—comprehends almost CONTRACTION of the cellular substance the whole art and mystery. This, howwhich contains the fat, expels more fat ever, demands a patient and perpetual than boiling. The free escape of watery vigilance, of which few persons are, particles in the form of vapour, so neces- unhappily, capable. The cook must sary to produce flavour, must be regu- take especial care that the water really lated by frequent basting with the fat boils all the while she is cooking, or she which has exuded from the meat, com- will be deceived in the time; and make bined with a little salt and water- up a sufficient fire (a frugal cook will otherwise the meat would burn, and manage with much less fire for boiling become hard and tasteless. A brisk fire than she uses for roasting) at first, to at first will, by charring the outside, last all the time, without much mending prevent the heat from penetrating, and or stirring, and thereby save much Therefore should only be employed when trouble. When the pot is coming to a the meat is half roasted.

boil, there will always, from the cleanest 1004. THE Loss BY ROASTING meat and clearest water, rise a scum to varies, according to Professor Donovan, the top of it; proceeding partly from from 143ths to nearly double that the foulness of the meat, and partly rate per cent. The average loss on from the water : this must be carefully roasting butcher's meat is 22 per cent.; taken off, as soon as it rises. On this deand on domestic poultry is 20%.

pends the good appearance of all boiled 1005. THE Loss PER CENT. ON things an essential matter. When ROASTING BEEF, viz., on sirloins and you have scummed well, put in some



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