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cold water, which will throw up the of boiling; after which, the regular rest of the scum. The oftener it is accessions of heat are wholly spent in scummed, and the clearer the surface of converting it into steam: the water the water is kept, the cleaner will be the remains at the same pitch of temperature, meat. If let alone, it soon boils down however fiercely it boils.

The only and sticks to the meat, which, instead difference is, that with a strong fire it of looking delicately white and nice, sooner comes to boil, and more quickly will have that coarse appearance we boils away, and is converted into steam." have too often to complain of, and the Such are the opinions stated by butcher and poulterer will be blamed Buchanan in his “Economy of Fuel.'' for the carelessness of the cook, in not There was placed a thermometer in scumming her pot with due diligence. water in that state which cooks call gentle Many put in milk, to make what they simmering—the heat was 212°, i.e., the boil look white, but this does more harm same degree as the strongest boiling. than good: others wrap it up in a eloth; Two mutton chops were covered with but these are needless precautions; if cold water, and one boiled fiercely, and the scum be attentively removed, meat the other simmered gently, for threewill have a much more delicate colour quarters of an hour; the flavour of the and finer flavour that it has when chop which was simmered was decidedly muffled up. This may give rather more superior to that which was boiled; the trouble—but those who wish to excel in liquor which boiled fast was in like their art must only consider how the proportion more savoury, and, when processes of it can be most perfectly cold, had much more fat on its surface; performed: a cook who has a proper this explains why quick boiling renders pride and pleasure in her business will meat hard, &c.—because its juices are make this her maxim and rule on all extracted in a greater degree. occasions. Put your meat into cold 1007. RECKON THE TIME from the water, in the proportion of about a meat first coming to a boil. The old rule, quart of water to a pound of meat; it of fifteen minutes to a pound of meat, we should be covered with water during the think rather too little; the slower it whole of the process of boiling, but not boils, the tenderer, the plumper, and drowned in it; the less water, provided whiter it will be. For those who choose the meat be covered with it, the more their food thoroughly cooked (which all savoury will be the meat, and the better will who have any egard for their will be the broth in every respect. The stomachs), twenty minutes to a pound water should be heated gradually, ac- will not be found too much for gentle cording to the thickness, &c., of the simmering by the side of the fire ; article boiled; for instance, a leg of allowing more or less time, according mutton of ten pounds weight should be to the thickness of the joint and the placed over a moderate fire, which will coldness of the weather; always rememgradually make the water hot, without bering, the slower it boils the better. causing it to boil for about forty Without some practice it is difficult to mirutes; if the water boils much sooner, teach any art; and cooks seem to supthe meat will be hardened, and shrink pose they must be right, if they put up as if it was scorched-by keeping the meat into a pot, and set it over the fire water a certain time heating without for a certain time--making no allowboiling, its fibres are dilated, and it ance, whether it simmers without a yields a quantity of scum, which must bubble, or boils at a gallop. be taken off as soon as it rises, for 1008. FRESH KILLED MEAT will the reasons already mentioned. "If a take much longer time boiling than that vessel containing water be placed over a which has been kept till it is what the steady fire, the water will grow con- butchers call ripe, and longer in cold tinually hotter, till it reaches the limit than in warm weather; if it be frozen,



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it must be thawed before boiling as bottom, will prevent that side of the before roasting; if it be fresh killed, it meat which comes next the bottom will be tough and hard, if you stew it being done too much, and the lower ever so long, and ever so gently. In part will be as delicately done as cold weather, the night before you the upper ; and this will enable you dress it, bring it into a place of which to take out the meat without 'inthe temperature is not less than forty- serting a fork, &c., into it. If you five degrees of Fahrenheit's thermo- have not a trivet, use four skewers, meter. The size of the boiling-pots or a soup-plate laid the wrong side should be adapted to what they are to upwards. contain; the larger the saucepan the

1012. TAKE CARE OF THE LIQUOR more room it takes upon the fire; and you have boiled poultry or meat in; a larger quantity of water requires a in five minutes you may make it into proportionate increase of fire to boil it. soup. În small families, we recommend block 1013. THE GOOD HOUSEWIFE never tin saucepans, &c., as lightest and boils a joint without converting the safest: if proper care is taken of them, broth into some sort of soup. and they are well dried after they are 1014. IF THE LIQUOR BE TOO SALT, cleansed, they are by far the cheapest ; use only half the quantity, and the rest the purchase of a new tin saucepan water; wash salted meat well with being little more than the expense of cold water before you put it into the tinning a copper one. Take care that boiler. the covers of your boiling-pots fit close, 1015. BOILING EXTRACTS A PORTION not only to prevent unnecessary eva- OF THE JUICE of meat, which mixes with poration of the water, but that the the water, and also dissolves some of its smoke may not insinuate itself under solids; the more fusible parts of the fat the edge of the lid, and give the meat a melt out, combine with the water, and bad taste.

form soup or broth. The meat loses its 1009. THE FOLLOWING TABLE will red colour, becomes more savoury in be useful as an average of the time taste and smell, and more firm and required to boil the various articles:- digestible. If the process is continued

too long, the meat becomes indigestible, A ham, 20 lbs. weight, requires

less succulent, and tough. A tongue (if dry), after soaking

1016. The Loss BY BOILING varies, A tongue out of pickle. . 2 to 3 0

according to Professor Donovan, from A neck of mutton

1 30

61 to 16 per cent. The average loss on A chicken

boiling butcher's meat, pork, hams, and A large fowl

0 45

bacon, is 12; and on domestic poultry, A capon.

is 141. A pigeon

1017. THE LOSS PER CENT. on boil1010. IF YOU LET MEAT OR POULTRY | ing salt beef is 15; on legs of mutton, REMAIN IN THE WATER after it is done 10; hams, 12}; salt pork, 13}; knuckles enough, it will become sodden and lose of veal, 8}; bacon, 61; turkeys, 16; its flavour.

chickens, 13.1. 1011. BEEF AND MUTTON a little 1018. Economy of Fat. — In underdone (especially very large joints, most families many members are not which will make the better hash or broil) fond of fat—servants seldom like it: is preferred by some people. Lamb, pork, consequently there is frequently much and veal are uneatable if not thoroughly wasted; to avoid which, take off bits of boiled—but do not overdo them. Å suet fat from beefsteaks, &c., previous trivet, or fish-drainer, put on the bottom to cooking; they can be used for of the boiling-pot, raising the contents puddings. With good management there about an inch and a half from the need be no waste in any shape or form.

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1019. Broiling requires a brisk, things look well, they should be done rapid heat, which, by producing a greater over twice with egg and stale breaddegree of change in the affinities of the crumbs. raw meat than roasting, generates a 1022. Bastings.-i. Fresh butter; higher flavour, so that broiled meat is ii. clarified suet; iii. minced sweet herbs, more savoury than roast. The sur- butter, and claret, especially for mutton face becoming charred, a dark-coloured and lamb; iv. water and salt; v. cream crust is formed, which retards the and melted butter, especially for a flayed evaporation of the juices; and, there- pig; vi. yolks of eggs, grated biscuit, fore, if properly done, broiled may be and juice of oranges. as tender and juicy as roasted meat. 1023. Dredgings.-i. Flour mixed

1020. Baking does not admit of the with grated bread; ü. sweet herbs dried evaporation of the vapours so rapidly and powdered, and mixed with grated as by the processes of broiling and bread; ü. lemon-peel dried and poundroasting; the fat is also retained more, ed, or orange-peel, mixed with flour; and becomes converted, by the agency iv. sugar finely powdered, and mixed of the heat, into an empyreumatic oil, with pounded cinnamon, and flour or so as to render the meat loss fitted for grated bread; V. fennel seeds, coridelicate stomachs, and more difficult to anders, cinnamon, and sugar, finely digest. The meat is, in fact, partly beaten, and mixed with grated bread or boiled in its own confined water, and flour; vi. for young pigs, grated bread partly roasted by the dry, hot air of the or flour, mixed with beaten nutmeg,

The loss by baking has not been ginger, pepper, sugar, and yolks of estimated; and, as the time required to eggs; vii. sugar, bread, and salt mixed. cook many articles must vary with their 1024. The Housewife who is size, nature, &c., we have considered it anxious to dress no more meat than will better to leave that until giving the suffice for the meal, should know that receipts for them.

beef loses about one pound in four in 1021. Frying is of all methods the boiling, but in roasting, loses in the most objectionable, from the foods being proportion of one pound five ounces, less digestible when thus prepared, as and in baking about two ounces less, or the fat employed undergoes chemical one pound three ounces; mutton loses changes. Olive oil in this respect is pre- in boiling about fourteen ounces in ferable to lard or butter. The crackling four pounds; in roasting, one pound noise which accompanies the process of six ounces. frying meat in a pan is occcasioned by 1025. Cooks should be cautioned the explosions of steam formed in fat, against the use of charcoal in any quanthe temperature of which is much above tity, except where there is a free current 212 degrees. If the meat is very juicy of air; for charcoal is highly prejudicial it will not fry well, because it becomes in a state of ignition, although it may be sodden before the water is evaporated; rendered even actively beneficial when and it will not brown, because the tem- boiled, as a small quantity of it, if perature is too low to scorch it. To boiled with meat on the turn, will fry fish well the fat should be boiling effectually cure the unpleasant taint. hot (600 degrees), and the fish well dried 1026. Preparation of Vegein a cloth; otherwise, owing to the tables.-There is nothing in which generation of steam, the temperature the difference between an elegant and will fall so low that it will be boiled in an ordinary table is more seen, then in its own steam, and not be browned. the dressing of vegetables, more especiMeat, or indeed any article, should be ally of greens; they may be equally as frequently turned and agitated during fine at first, at one place as at another, frying, to promote the evaporation of but their look and taste are afterwards the watery particles. To make fried very different, entirely from the careless





way in which they have been cooked. vegetables being more or less succulent, They are in greatest perfection when in their full proportion of fluids is necesgreatest plenty, i. e., when in full sea- sary for their retaining that state of

By season, we do not mean those crispness and plumpness which they early days, when luxury in the buyers, have when growing. and avarice in the sellers about London, 1033. ON BEING CUT OR GATHERED, force the various vegetables, but the the exhalation from their surface contime of the year in which, by nature tinues, while from the open vessels of and common culture, and the mere the cut surface there is often great operation of the sun and climate, they exudation or evaporation, and thus are most plenteous and in perfection. their natural moisture is diminished;

1027. Potatoes and peas are seldom the tender leaves become flaccid, and worth eating before Midsummer. the thicker masses or roots lose their

1028. UNRIPE VEGETABLES are as plumpness. This is not only less insipid and unwholesome as unripe pleasant to the eye, but is a serious infruits.

jury to the nutritious powers of the 1029. AS TO THE QUALITY OF VEGE- vegetable; for in this flaccid and shriTABLES, the middle size are preferred to velled state its fibres are less easily the largest or the smallest ; they are divided in chewing, and the water more tender, juicy, and full of flavour, which exists in the form of their respecjust before they are quite full-grown: tive natural juices, is less directly freshness their chief val and excel-nutritious. lence, and I should as soon think of 1034. THE FIRST CARE IN THE roasting an animal alive, as of boiling PRESERVATION OF SUCCULENT VEGEvegetables after they are dead. The eye TABLES, therefore, is to prevent them easily discovers if they have been kept from losing their natural moisture, too long; they soon lose their beauty They should always be boiled in a in all respects.

saucepan by themselves, and have 1030. Roots, GREENS, SALADS, &c., plenty of water: if meat is boiled with and the various productions of the them in the same pot, they will spoil garden, when first gathered, are plump the look and taste of each other. and firm, and have a fragrant freshness 1035. TO HAVE VEGETABLES DELI. no art can give them again; though it CATELY CLEAN, put on your pot, make will refresh them a little to put them it boil, put a little salt in, and skim it into cold spring water for some time perfectly clean before you put in the before they are dressed.

greens, &c., which should not be put in 1031. To Boil Vegetables.- till the water boils briskly; the quicker Soft water will preserve the colour best they boil the greener they will be. of such as are green; if you have only 1036. WHEN THE VEGETABLES SINK, hard water, put to it a teaspoonful of they are generally done enough, if the carbonate of potash.

water has been kept constantly boiling, 1032. TAKE CARE TO WASH AND Take them up immediately, or they CLEANSE THEM thoroughly from dust, will lose their colour and goodness. dirt, and insects,--this requires great Drain the water from them thoroughly attention. Pick off all the outside leaves, before you send them to table. This trim the vegetables nicely, and if they branch of cookery requires the most are not quite fresh-gathered and have vigilant attention. become flaccid, it is absolutely necessary 1037. IF VEGETABLES are a minute to restore their crispness before cooking or two too long over the fire, they lose them, or they will be tough and un- all their beauty and flavour. pleasant; lay them in a pan of clean 1038. IF NOT THOROUGHLY BOILED water, with a handful of salt in it, for TENDER, they are tremendously indian hour before you dress them. Most Igestible, and much more troublesome




during their residence in the stomach Onions.—Prepare some boiled onions, than underdone meats.

by putting them through a sieve, and 1039. Take CARE YOUR VEGETABLES mix them with potatoes. Regulate the ARE FRESH.—To preserve or give colour portions according to taste. in cookery many good dishes are 1045. POTATO CHEESECAKES.-One spoiled; but the rational epicure, who pound of mashed potatoes, quarter of a makes nourishment the main end of pound of currants, quarter of a pound eating, will be content to sacrifice the of sugar and butter, and four eggs, to shadow to enjoy the substance. As be well mixed together; bake them in the fishmonger often suffers for the patty-pans, having first lined them with sins of the cook, so the cook often puff paste. gets undeservedly blamed instead of 1046. POTATO COLCANON. · Boil the greengrocer:

potatoes and greens and spinach, sepa1040. TO CLEANSE VEGETABLES or rately; mash the potatoes; squeeze the INSECTS.—Make a strong brine of one greens dry; chop them quite fine, and pound and a half of salt to one gallon mix them with the potatoes with a little of water; into this, place the vegetables butter, pepper, and salt. Put into a with the stalk ends uppermost, for two mould, buttering it well first: let it or three hours: this will destroy all stand in a hot oven for ten minutes. the insects which cluster in the leaves, 1047. POTATOES ROASTED UNDER and they will fall out and sink to the MEAT.-Half boil large potatoes ; drain bottom of the water.

the water; put them into an earthen 1041. Potatoes. - We are all dish, or small tin pan, under meat roastpotato eaters (for ourselves, we esteem ing before the fire; baste them with potatoes beyond any other vegetable), the dripping. Turn them to brown on yet few persons know how to cook all sides; send up in a separate dish. them. Shall we be bold enough to 1048. POTATO BALLS RAGOUT.commence our hints by presuming to Add to a pound of potatoes a quarter of inform our “grandmothers ” how a pound of grated ham, or some sweet

1042. To Boil POTATOES. — Put herbs, or chopped parsley, an onion or them into a saucepan with scarcely suf- shalot, salt, pepper, and a little grated ficient water to cover them. Directly nutmeg, and other spice, with the yolk the skins begin to break, lift them from of a couple of eggs; then dress as the fire, and as rapidly as possible pour Potatoes Escalloped. off every drop of the water. Then place 1049. Potato Snow. - Pick out a coarse (we need not say clean) towel the whitest potatoes, put them on in over them, and return them to the fire cold water; when they begin to crack, again until they are thoroughly done, strain, and put them in a clean stewand quite dry.. A little salt, to flavour, pan before the fire till they are quite should be added to the water before dry, and fall to pieces; rub them through boiling.

a wire sieve upon the dish they are to 1043. POTATOES FRIED WITH Fish. be sent up on, and do not disturb them - Take cold fish and cold potatoes. afterwards. Pick all the bones from the former, 1050. POTATOES FRIED WHOLE. and mash the fish and the potatoes When nearly boiled enough, put them together ; form into rolls, and fry with into a stewpan with a bit of butter, or lard until the outsides are brown and some clean beef dripping; shake them crisp. For this purpose, the drier kinds about often, to prevent burning, till of fish, such as cod, hake, &c., are pre- they are brown and crisp; drain them ferable ; turbot, soles, eels, &c., are from the fat. It will be an improvenot so good. This is an economical ment if they are floured and dipped into and excellent relish.

the yolk of an egg, and then rolled in 1044. POTATOES MASHED WITH finely. sifted bread-crumbs.

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