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a warm room.

does not do, let him swallow a large body with salt or spirits. ii. Never roll piece of potato or soft bread ; and if the body on casks. üi. Continue the rethese fail, give a mustard emetic. medies for twelve hours without ceasing.

1252. FAINTING, HYSTERICS, &c.— 1254. HANGING.-Loosen the cord, Loosen the garments, both the temples or whatever suspended the person; with water or eau-de-Cologne; open open the temporal artery or jugular the window, admit plenty of fresh air, vein, or bleed from the arm; employ dash cold water on the fac ?, apply hot electricity, if at hand, and proceed as bricks to the feet, and avoid bustle and for drowning, taking the additional excessive sympathy.

precaution to apply eight or ten leeches 1253. ĎROWNING. — At:end to the to the temples. following essential rules :-i. Lose no 1255. APPARENT DEATH time. ii. Handle the body gently. iii. DRUNKENNESS. Raise the head, Carry the body face downwards, with loosen the clothes, maintain warmth of the head gently raised, and never hold surface, and give a mustard emetic as it up by the feet. iv. Send for medical soon as the person can swallow. assistance immediately, and in the 1256. APOPLEXY AND FITS GENEmeantime act as follows:-v. Strip the RALLY.—Raise the head; loosen all body, rub it dry: then wrap it in hot | tight clothes, strings, &c.; apply cold blankets, and place it in a warm bed in lotions to the head, which should be

vi. Cleanse away the shaved; apply leeches to the temples, froth and mucus from the nose and bleed, and send for a surgeon. mouth. vii. Apply warm bricks, botties, 1257. SUFFOCATION FROM NOXIOUS bags of sand, &c., to the armpits, between GASES, &c.—Remove to the fresh air; the thighs, and to the soles of the feet. dash cold vinegar and water in the face, viii. Rub the surface of the body with neck, and breast; keep up the warmth the hands enclosed in warm dry worsted of the body; if necessary, apply mustard socks. ix. If possible, put the body into poultices to the soles of the feet and a warm bath. 1. To restore breathing, spine, and try artificial respirations as put the pipe of a common bellows into in drowning, with electricity. one nostril, carefully closing the other, 1258. LIGHTNING AND SUN STROKE. and the mouth; at the same time draw- Treat the same as apoplexy. ing downwards, and pushing gently backwards, the upper part of the wind- 1259. Poisons, General Obser

vations. pipe, to allow a more free admission of air; blow the bellows gently, in order The abbreviations used are as follows:to inflate the lungs, till the breast be E., effects or symptoms. T., treatment. raised a little; then set the mouth and A., antidotes counter poisons. nostrils free, and press gently on the

D. A., dangerous antidotes. chest : repeat this until signs of life 1260. A POISON IS A SUBSTANCE appear. The body should be covered which is capable of altering or destroythe moment it is placed on the table, ing some or all of the functions necesexcept the face, and all the rubbing sary to life. When a person is in good carried on under the sheet or blanket. health, and is suddenly attacked, after When they can be obtained, a number of having taken some food or drink, with tiles or bricks should be made tolerably violent pain, cramp in the stomach, hot in the fire, laid in a row on the table, feeling of sickness or nausea, vomiting, covered with a blanket, and the body convulsive twitchings, and a sense of placed in such a manner on them, that suffocation; or if he be seized, under their heat may enter the spine. When the same circumstances, with giddiness, the patient revives, apply smelling-salts delirium, or unusual sleepiness, then to the nose, give warm wine or brandy poisoning may be supposed. and water. Cautions.-i. Never rub the 1261. POISONS HAVE BEEN DIVIDED




into four classes :--i. Those causing and the object is to get rid of the local symptoms. ii. Those producing poison as speedily as possible. spasmodic symptoms. iii. Narcotic or 1265. Copper. (Blue vitriol, or sleepy symptoms; and iv. Paralytic bluestone; verdigris; verditer; verdisymptoms. Poisons may be mineral, gris crystals.)—E. An acid, rough, disanimal, or vegetable.

agreeable taste in the mouth; a dry, 1262. i. ALWAYS SEND IMMEDIATELY parched tongue, with sense of strangling FOR A MEDICAL MAN. ï. Save all in the throat; coppery eructations; fluids vomited, and articles of food, frequent spitting; nausea; frequent cups, glasses, &c., used by the patient desire and effort to vomit, or copious before being taken ill, and lock them up. vomiting ; severe darting pains in the iii. Examine the cups to guide you in stomach; griping; frequent purging; your treatment; that is, smell them, belly swollen and painful; skin hot, and look at them.

and violent burning thirst; breathing 1263. As A RULE, GIVE Emetics difficult; intense headache and giddiafter poisons that cause sleepiness and ness, followed by cold sweats, cramps raving ;-chalk, milk, eggs, butter, and in the legs, convulsions, and death.-A. warm water, or oil, after poisons that White of eggs mixed with water (twelve cause vomiting and pain in the stomach to one pint), to be given in wineglassfuls and bowels, with purging; and when every two minutes; iron filings mixed there is no inflammation about the with water, or very strong coffee, acthroat, tickle it with a feather to excite companied by small and repeated doses vomiting.

of castor oil.-D. A. Vinegar, bark, al1264. Arsenic. (White arsenic; kalies, gall nuts.—T. If there is much orpiment, or yellow arsenic; realgar, pain in the belly or stomach, apply red arsenic; Scheele's green, or arsenite leeches. Give large draughts of milk of copper ; King's yellow; ague drops; and water, to encourage vomiting. and arsenical paste.)—E. Little or no 1266. Mercury. (Corrosive sublitaste. Within an hour, heat and pain mate; calomel; red precipitate; vermilion; in the stomach, followed by vomiting of turbeth mineral ; prussiate of mercury.) green, yellow, and bloody matter, burn- -E. Acid metallic taste ; tightness and ing, and violent thirst; purging, and burning in the throat; pain in the back twisting about the navel; pulse small, part of the mouth, stomach, and bowels; quick, and irregular, breathing laboured, anxiety of countenance; nausea; and voice hoarse, speaking painful; skin vomiting of bloody and bilious fluids; cold and clammy. Sometimes there profuse purging, and difficulty of making are cramps and convulsions, followed water; pulse small, hard, and quick; by death.—T. Give plenty of warm skin clammy, icy coldness of the hands water, new milk in large quantities, and feet; and death in 24 or 36 hours. lime water, white of egg, mixed with -A. White of eggs mixed with water, gruel or honey, gruel, linseed tea; given as above; milk; flour and water, apply leeches to the bowels, foment, mixed pretty thick; linseed tea; and and give starch or gruel enemas. Scrape barley water.—T. Give large draughts the iron rust off anything you can get of warm water, if you cannot get anyat, mix it with plenty of water, and give thing else; strong emetic of ipecacuin large draughts frequently, and give anha, the stomach-pump, a dose of an emetic of mustard or ipecacuanha. castor oil and laudanum. Foment the The chief dependence, however, must be bowels with poppy-head fomentations, placed on the use of the stomach-pump. and apply leeches if the belly is very Caution.- Never give large draughts of tender. fluid until those given before have been 1267. Antimony. (Tartar emetic; vomited, because the stomach will not butter of; Kermes' mineral.) — E. A rough contract properly if filled with fluid, metallic taste in the mouth, nausea,



copious vomitings, sudden hiccough, known. --T. Give milk and mucilapurging, colicy pains, frequent and vio- ginous fluids, and castor oil. lent cramps, sense of choking, severe 1271. Acids (Hydrochloric, or spirit heartburn, pain at the pit of the stomach, of salt; nitric, or aquafortis ; sulphuric, difficult breathing, wildness of speech, or oil of vitriol).-E. Acid burning taste, cramps in the legs, and death.-A. De- acute pain in the gullet and throat, coction or tincture of galls; strong tea; vomiting of bloody fluid, which efferdecoction or powder of Peruvian bark. vesces when chalk is added to it; hic—D. A. White vitriol, ipecacuanha, ' cough, tenderness of the belly, cold as emetics.—T. Give large draughts sweats

, pinched face, convulsions, and of water, or sugar and water, to promote death. - A. Give calcined magnesia, vomiting; apply leeches to the throat chalk, soap and water. Administer freand stomach, if painful; and give one quent draughts of water to weaken the grain of extract of opium dissolved acide; the carbonate of soda, potass, or in a wineglassful of sugar and water, magnesia, to neutralize it; thick soapas soon as the vomiting ceases, and suds, made with common soap; chalk, or repeat three times at intervals of a in default of the alkalies and chalk, break quarter of an hour; and finally, one down the plaster of the wall or ceiling, grain, in a little castor oil emulsion, mix in water, and give the sufferer. every six hours.

Excite vomiting, and repeat the reme1268. Tin. (Butter of tin; putty dies till all the acid is neutralized. powder.) — E. Colic and purging. -A. 1272. Chlorine (gas). - E. VioMilk.-T. Give warm or cold water to lent coughing, tightness of the chest, promote vomiting, or tickle the throat debility, inability to stai 1. -- A. The with a feather.

vapour of caustic ammonia to be in1269. Zinc. (IVhite vitriol; haled, or ten drops of liquid ammonia flowers of ; chloride of.)E. An astrin- to one ounce of water to be taken.— T. gent taste, sensation of choking, nausea, Dash cold water over the face, and vomiting, purging, pain and burning in relieve urgent symptoms. the throat and stomach, difficult breath- 1273. Lead (Sugar of; red lead ; ing, pallor and coldness of the surface, wine sweetened by; and water impregpinched face, cramps of the extremities, nated with). E. Sugary astringent but, with the exception of the chloride, metallic taste, tightness of the throat, seldom death.--A. For the two first colicy pains, violent vomiting, hiccough, give copious draughts of milk, and convulsions, and death.-A. Epsom or white of eggs and water, mucilage, and Glauber's salt; plaster of Paris; or olive oil; for the third, carbonate of phosphate of soda.—T. An emetic of soda, and warm water in frequent sulphate of zinc (twenty-four grains to draughts, with the same as for the other half a pint of water); leeches to belly; compounds.—T. Relieve urgent symp- fomentations if necessary; and a castor toms by leeching and fomentations, oil mixture with laudanum. and after the vomiting give castor oil. 1274. Phosphorus.-E. Intense For the chloride, use frictions and burning and pain in the throat and warmth.

stomach. — A. Magnesia and carbonate 1270. Silver (Lunar caustic; of soda. T. Large draughts of cold flowers of silver); Gold (Chloride of); water, and tickle the throat with a and Bismuth (Nitrate; flowers of ; feather. Caution.Do not give oil or pearl white), are not frequently met milk. with as poisons. - E. Burning pain in 1275. Lime.-E. Burning in the the throat, mouth, accompanied with the throat and stomach, cramps in the belly, usual symptoms of corrosive poisons.— hiccough, vomiting, and paralysis of A. For silver, common salt and water; limbs.—Á. Vinegar or lemon juice.-T. for gold and bismuth, no antidotes are Thin starch water to be drunk frequently.



1276. Alkalies. (Caustic; potash; and belly, bloody vomitings, colic, soda ; ammonia.)-E. Acrid, hot, dis- purging, retention of urine, convulsions, agreeable taste; burning in the throat, death.—T. Large draughts of olive oil, nausea, and vomiting bloody matter; thin gruel, milk, starch enemas, linseed profuse purging, pain in the stomach, tea, laudanum, and camphorated water. colic, convulsions, and death.-A. Vine- 1283. Poisonous Fish. (Oldgar and vegetable acids.-T. Give lin- wife; sea-lobster; mussel; tunny; blower; seed tea, milk, almond or olive oil, and rock-fish, 8c.)–E. Intense pain in the excite vomiting.

stomach after swallowing the fish, vo1277. Baryta (Carbonate, pure, miting, purging, and sometimes cramps. and muriate). (See LIME.)

--T. Give an emetic; excite vomiting 1278. Nitre.-E. Heartburn, nau- by tickling the throat, and plenty of sea, violent vomiting, purging, convul- warm water. Follow emetics by active sions, difficult breathing, violent pain in purgatives, particularly of castor oil the bowels, kidney, and bladder, with and laudanum, or opium and calomel, bloody urine.-T. Emetics, frequent and abate inflammation by the usual draughts of barley water, with castor remedies. oil and landanum.

1284. Bites of Reptiles. 1279. Narcotic Poisons. (Bane (Viper ; black viper ; Indian serpents ; berries; fools parsley; deodly night- rattle-snake.)— E. Violent and quick shade; water hemlock ; thorn apple; inflammation of the part, extending opium ; camphor, 8c.)—E. Giddiness, towards the body, soon becoming livid; faintness, nausea, vomiting, stupor, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, difficult delirium, and death.—T. Give onetics, breathing, mortification, cold sweats, large draughts of fluids, tickle the and death.-T. Suppose that the wrist throat, apply smelling-salts to the nose, has been bitten: immediately tie a tape dash cold water over the face and chest, between the wound and the heart, apply mustard poultices, and, above all, scarify the parts with a penknife, razor, endeavour to rouse the patient by walk- or lancet, and apply a cupping-glass ing between two persons; and, if pos- over the bite, frequently removing it sible, by electricity; and give forty and bathing the wound with volatile drops of sal-volatile in strong coffee alkali, or heat a poker and burn the every half-hour.

wound well, or drop some of Sir Wm. 1280. Vegetable Irritating Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid into the Poisons. (Mezereon; monk's-hood; bit- wound, or cauterize the bite freely with ter apple; gamboge; white hellebore, fc.) lunar caustic, but not till the part has -E. Acrid, biting, bitter taste, choking been well sucked with the mouth, or sensation, dryness of the throat, retch-frequently washed and cupped. The ing, vomiting, purging, pains in the strength is to be supported by brandy, stomach and bowels, breathing diffi- ammonia, ether, and opium. Give plenty cult, and death.—T. Give emetics of of warm drinks, and cover up in bed. camomile, mustard, or sulphate of zinc; 1285. Mad Animals, Bite of. large draughts of warm milk, or other - E. Hydrophobia, or a fear of fluids. bland fluids; foment and leech the belly –T. Tie a string tightly over the part, if necessary, and give strong infusion cut out the bite, and cauterize the of coffee.

wound with a red-hot poker, lunar 1281. Oxalic Acid.-E. Vomit- caustic, or Sir Wm. Burnett's Disining and acute pain in the stomach, fecting Fluid. Then apply a piece of general debility, cramps, and death. -- "spongio-piline,”.give a purgative, and A. Chalk.—T. Give large draughts of plenty of warm drink. Whenever chlolime water or magnesia.

roform can be procured, sprinkle a few 1282. Spanish Flies.-E. Acrid drops upon a handkerchief, and apply to taste, burning heat in the throat, stomach, the nose and mouth of the patient before

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cauterizing the wound. When the go immediately behind a led horse, as he breathing appears difficult, cease the is apt to kick. application of the chloroform. A phy- x. Do not ride on footways. sician, writing in the Times, strongly xi. Be wary of children, whether they urges this course, and states that there are up or in bed; and particularly when is no danger, with ordinary care, in the they are near the fire, an element with application of the chloroform, while the which they are very apt to amuse themcauterization may be more effectively selves. performed.

xii. Leave nothing poisonous open or 1286. Insect Stings. (Wasp, accessible; and never omit to write the bee, gnat, hornet, gadfly, scorpion.)—E. word “ Poison" in large letters upon it, Swelling, nausea, and fever.-T. Press wherever it may be placed. the barrel of a watch-key over the part, xüi. In walking the streets keep out 80 as to expose the sting, which must of the line of the cellars, and never look be removed. Give fifteen drops of one way and walk another. hartshorn or sal-volatile in half a wine- xiv. Never throw pieces of orange glassful of camomile tea, and cover the peel, or broken glass bottles, into the part stung with a piece of lint soaked streets. in extract of lead.

xv. Never meddle with gunpowder 1287. Cautions for the Pre- by candle-light. vention of Accidents.-The fol- xvi. In trimming a lamp with naphtha, lowing regulations should be engraved never fill it. Leave space for the spirit on the memory of all :

to expand with warmth. i. As many sudden deaths come by xvii. Never quit a room leaving the water, particular caution is therefore poker in the fire. necessary in its vicinity.

xviii. When the brass rod of the stairii. Stand not near a tree, or any carpet becomes loose, fasten it immeleaden spout, iron gate, or palisade, in diately. times of lightning

xix. In opening effervescing drinks, iii. Lay loaded guns in safe places, such as soda water, hold the cork in and never imitate firing a gun in jest. your hand.

iv. Never sleep near charcoal ; if xx. Quit your house with care on a drowsy at any work where charcoal frosty morning. fires are used, take the fresh air. xxi. Have your horses' shoes roughed

v. Carefully rope trees before they directly there are indications of frost. are cut down, that when they fall they xxii. Keep lucifer matches in their may do no injury.

cases, and never let them be strewed vi. When benumbed with cold be about. ware of sleeping out of doors; rub 1288. Accidents in Carriages. yourself, if you have it in your power, — It is safer, as a general rule, to keep with snow, and do not hastily approach your place than to jump out. "Getting the fire.

out of a gig over the back, provided vii. Beware of damps.

you can hold on a little while, and run, viii. Air vaults, by letting them re- is safer than springing from the side. main open some time before you enter, But it is best to keep your place, and or scattering powdered lime in them. hold fast. In accidents people act not Where a lighted candle will not burn, so much from reason as from exciteanimal life cannot exist; it will be an ment: but good rules, firmly impressed excellent caution, therefore, before en- upon the mind, generally rise uppertering damp and confined places, to try most, even in the midst of fear. this simple experiment.

1289. Life Belts.-An excellent ix. Never leave saddle or draught and cheap life belt, for persons prohorses, while in use, by themselves ; nor ceeding to sea, bathing in dangerous

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