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OBSERVATION IS THE BEST TEACHER.

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places, or learning to swim, may be open the hand; but, holding the child's thus made :- Take a yard and three hand that is empty, offer to its other quarters of strong jean, double, and hand anything nice or pretty, and it divide it into nine compartments. Let will immediately open the hand, and there be a space of two inches after let the dangerous instrument fall. each third compartment. Fill the com- 1294. Directing Letters. - It partments with very fine cuttings of may sound like being over particular, cork, which may be made by cutting but we recommend persons to make a up old corks, or (still better) purchased practice of fully addressing notes, &c., at the corkcutter's. Work eyelet holes on all occasions; when, in case of their at the bottom of each compartment, to being dropped by careless messengers let the water drain out. Attach a (which is not a rare occurrence), it is neck-band and waist-strings of stout evident for whom they are intended, boot-web, and sow them on strongly. without undergoing the inspection of

1290. ANOTHER.–Cut open an old any other parties bearing a similar boa, or victorine, and line it with fine name. cork-cuttings instead of wool. For 1295. Prevention of Fires.ladies going to sea these are excellent, The following simple suggestions are as they may be worn in stormy weather, worthy of observation:-Add one ounce without giving appearance of alarm in of alum to the last water used to rinse danger. They may be fastened to the children's dresses, and they will be body by ribands or tapes, of the colour rendered uninflammable, or so slightly of the fur. Gentlemen's waistcoats combustible that they would take fire may be lined the same way.

very slowly, if at all, and would not 1291. Charcoal Fumes. — The flame. This is a simple precaution, usual remedies for persons overcome which may be adopted in families of with the fumes of charcoal in a close children. Bed curtains, and linen in apartment are, to throw cold water on general, may also be treated in the the head, and to bleed immediately; same way. Since the occurrence of also apply mustard or hartshorn to the many lamentable deaths by fire, arising soles of the feet.

partly from the fashion of wearing 1292. Cautions in Visiting the crinoline, the tungstate of soda has Sick.-Do not visit the sick when been recommended for the purpose of you are fatigued, or when in a state rendering any article of female dress of perspiration, or with the stomach incombustible. A patent starch is also empty-for in such conditions you are sold, with which the tungstate of soda liable to take the infection. When the is incorporated. The starch should be disease is very contagious, place yourself used whenever it can be procured; and at the side of the patient which is nearest any chemist will intimate to the purto the window. Do not enter the room the chaser the manner in which the tungfirst thing in the morning, before it has state of soda should be employed. been aired; and when you come away,

1296. Precautions in case of take some food, change your clothing Fire. - The following precautions immediately, and expose the latter to should be impressed upon the memory the air for some days. Tobacco smoke of all our readers :is a preventive of malaria.

1297. Should a fire break out, send 1293. Children and Cutlery. off to the nearest engine or police -Serious accidents having occurred to station. babies through their catching hold of 1298. FilL BUCKETS WITH WATER, the blades of sharp instruments, the carry them as near the fire as possible, following hint will be useful. If a dip a mop into the water, and throw it child lay hold of a knife or razor, do in showers on the fire, until assistance not try to pull it away, or to force arrives.

a

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SMALL BEGINNINGS MAY LEAD TO LARGE ENDS.

1299. IF A FIRE IS VIOLENT, wet ticularly hotel, tavern, and inn-keepers, a blanket, and throw it on the part should exercise a wise precaution by which is in flames.

directing that the last person up should 1300. SHOULD A FIRE BREAK OUT perambulate the premises previous to IN THE KITCHEN Chimney, or any going to rest, to ascertain that all fires other, a blanket wetted should be nailed are safe and lights extinguished. to the upper ends of the mantelpiece, 1310. To Extinguish a Fire so as to cover the opening entirely; the in a Chimney.-So many serious fire will then go out of itself: for this fires have been caused by chimneys purpose two knobs should be perma-catching fire, and not being quickly nently fixed in the upper ends of the extinguished, that the following method mantelpiece, on which the blanket may of doing this should be made generally be hitched.

known. Throw some powdered brim1301. SHOULD the bed or window stone on the fire in the grate, or ignite curtains be on fire, lay hold of any some on the hob, and then put a board woollen garment, and beat it on the or something in the front of the fireflames until extinguished.

place, to prevent the fumes descending 1302. Avoid LEAVING THE WINDOW into the room. The vapour of the or Door Open in the room where the brimstone, ascending the chimney, will fire has broken out, as the current of air then effectually extinguish the soot on increases the force of the fire.

fire. 1303. SHOULD THE STAIRCASE BE 1311. To Extinguish a Fire in BURNING, so as to cut off all communi- the chimney, besides any water at hand, cation, endeavour to escape by means throw on it salt, or a handful of flour of of a trap-door in the roof, a ladder lead- sulphur, as soon as you can obtain it; ing to which should always be at hand. keep all the doors and windows tightly

1304. Avoid HURRY AND Con- shut, and hold before the fireplace FUSION; no person except a fireman, a blanket, or some woollen article, to friend, or neighbour, should be ad- exclude the air. mitted.

1312. In Escaping from a 1305. If a Lady's DRESS TAKES Fire, creep or crawl along the room FIRE, she should endeavour to roll with your face close to the ground. herself in a rug, carpet, or the first Children should be early taught how woollen garment she meets

with. to press out a spark when it happens 1306. It is a Good PRECAUTION to reach any part of their dress, and to have always at hand a large piece of also that running into the air will baize, to throw over a female whose cause it to blaze immediately. dress is burning, or to be wetted and 1313. Reading in Bed at night thrown over a fire that has recently should be avoided, as, besides the broken out.

danger of an accident, it never fails to 1307. A SOLUTION OF PEARLASH injure the eyes. IN WATER, thrown upon a fire, extin- 1314. To Heat a Bed at a moguishes it instantly. The proportion ment's notice, throw a little salt into is a quarter of a pound, dissolved in the warming-pan, and suffer it to burn some hot water, and then poured into a for a minute previous to use. bucket of common water.

1315. Flowers and shrubs should 1308. IT RECOMMENDED TO be excluded from a bed-chamber. HOUSEHOLDERS to have two or three 1316. Swimming: -Every perfire-buckets and a carriage-mop with son should endeavour to acquire the a long handle near at hand; they will power of swimming. The fact that be found essentially useful in case of the exercise is a healthful accomfire.

paniment of bathing, and that lives 1309. ALL HOUSEHOLDERS, but par- may be saved by it, even when least

IS

IF NONE ENDEAVOURED, THERE WOULD BE AN END TO DISCOVERY.

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expected, is a sufficient argument for within reach of it. In this attempt you will the recommendation. The art of swim- find that the water buoys you up against your ming is, in reality, very easy. The first inclination; that it is not so easy to sink as consideration is not to attempt to learn you imagine, and that you cannot, but by to swim too hastily. That is to say, you feel the power of water to support you, and

active force, get down to the egg. Thus you must not expect to succeed in your learn to confide in that power, while your enefforts to swim, until you have become deavours to overcome it, and reach the egg, accustomed to the water, and have over- teach you the manner of acting on the water come your repugnance to the coldness with your feet and hands, which action is and novelty of bathing. Every attempt afterwards used in swimming to support your will fail until you have acquired a cer- head higher above the water, or to go forward tain confidence in the water, and then through it. the difficulty will soon vanish.

1318. “I would the more earnestly press

you to the trial of this method, because I 1317. Dr. Franklin's Advice to Swimmers. think I shall satisfy you that your body is _"The only obstacle to improvement in this lighter than water, and that you might float necessary and life-preserving art is fear : and in it a long time with your mouth free for it is only by overcoming this timidity that you breathing, if you would put yourself into a can expect to become a master of the follow- proper posture, and would be still, and for. ing acquirements. It is very common for bear struggling; yet, till you have obtained novices in the art of swimming to make use of this experimental confidence in the water, I corks or bladders to assist in keeping the body cannot depend upon your having the necesabove water: some have utterly condemned sary presence of mind to recollect the posthe use of them: however, they may be of ture, and the directions I gave you relating to service for supporting the body while one is it. The surprise may put all out of your learning what is called the stroke, or that man- mind. ner of drawing in and striking out the hands 1319. “THOUGH THE LEGS, ARMS, AND HEAD and feet that is necessary to produce pro- of a human body, being solid parts, are specifigressive motion. But you will be no swim-cally somewhat heavier than fresh water, as mer till you can place confidence in the power the trunk, particularly the upper part, from of the water to support you; I would, there- its hollowness, is so much lighter than water, fore, advise the acquiring that confidence in so the whole of the body, taken altogether, the first place; especially as I have known is too light to sink wholly under water, but several who, by a little practice, necessary some part will remain above until the lungs for that purpose, have insensibly acquired the become filled with water, which happens from stroke, taught, as it were, by nature. The drawing water to them instead of air, when practice I mean is this : choosing a place a person, in the fright, attempts breathing where the water deepens gradually, walk while the mouth and nostrils are under water. coolly into it till it is up to your breast; then

;

1320, “THE LEGS AND ARMS ARE SPECIFI turn round your face to the shore, and throw CALLY LIGHTER than salt water, and will be an egg into the water between you and the supported by it, so that a human body cannot shore; it will sink to the bottom, and be easily sink in salt water, though the lungs were filled seen there if the water be clear. It must lie

as above, but from the greater specific gravity in the water so deep that you cannot reach to of the head. Therefore a person throwing take it up but by diving for it. To encourage himself on his back in salt water, and extendyourself in order to do this, reflect that your ing his arms, may easily lie so as to keep his progress will be from deep to shallow water, and mouth and nostrils free for breathing; and, that at any time you may, by bringing your legs by a slight motion of his hand, may prevent under

you, and standing on the bottom, raise turning, if he should perceive any tendency your head far above the water; then plunge to it. under it with your eyes open, which must be 1321. “IN FRESH WATER, IF A MAN THROW kept open on going under, as you cannot HIMSELF ON HIS Back near the surface, he open the eyelids for the weight of water cannot long continue in that situation, but by above you ; throwing yourself toward the egg, proper action of his hands on the water; if and endeavouring by the action of your hands he use no such action, the legs and lower part and feet against the water to get forward, till of the body will gradually sink till he come

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THE STEAM ENGINE IS A MIGHTY AGENT OF GOOD.

into an upright position, in which he will con- Crame in the leg, the method of driving it tinue suspended, the hollow of his breast keep-away is to give the parts affected a sudden, ing the head uppermost.

vigorous, and violent shock; which he may do 1322. “BUT IF IN THIS ERECT POSITION the in the air as he swims on his back. head be kept upright above the shoulders, as 1328. “ DURING THE GREAT HEATS IN when we stand on the ground, the immersion SUMMER, there is no danger in bathing, how. will, by the weight of that part of the head ever warm we may be, in rivers which have that is out of the water, reach above the been thoroughly warmed by the sun. But to mouth and nostrils, perhaps a little above the throw one's self into cold spring water, when eyes, so that a man cannot long remain sus. the body has been heated by exercise in the pended in water with his head in that position. sun, is an imprudence which may prove fatal.

1323. “THE BODY CONTINUING SUSPENDED I once knew an instance of four young men as before, and upright, if the head be leaned who, having worked at harvest in the heat of quite back, so that the face look upward, all the day, with a view of refreshing themselves, the back part of the head being under water, plunged into a spring of cold water; two died and its weight consequently, in a great mea- upon the spot, a third next morning, and the sure, supported by it, the face will remain fourth recovered with great difficulty. A above water quite free for breathing, will rise copious draught of cold water, in similar cir. an inch higher every inspiration, and sink as cumstances, is frequently attended with the much every expiration, but never so low as same effect in North America. that the water may come over the mouth. 1329. “THE EXERCISE OF SWIMMING IS ONE

1324. IF, THEREFORE, A PERSON UNAC-OF THE MOST HEALTHY and agreeable in the QUAINTED WITH SWIMMING, and falling acci- world. After having swum for an hour or two dentally into the water, could have presence in the evening one sleeps coolly the whole of mind sufficient to avoid struggling and night, even during the most ardent heat of sumplunging, and to let the body take this natu- mer. Perhaps, the pores being cleansed, the inral position, he might continue long safe from sensible perspiration increases, and occasions drowning, till, perhaps, help should come; this coolness. It is certain that much swimfor, as to the clothes, their additional weight ming is the means of stopping diarrhea, and when immersed is very inconsiderable, the even of producing a constipation. With rewater supporting it ; though, when he comes spect to those who do not know how to swim, out of the water, he will find them very heavy or who are affected with diarrhæa at a seaindeed.

son which does not permit them to use that 1325. “BUT I WOULD NOT ADVISE ANY ONE TO exercise, a warm bath, by cleansing and DEPEND ON HAVING THIS PRESENCE OF MIND purifying the skin, is found very salutary, on such an occasion, but learn fairly to swim, and often effects a radical cure.

I speak as I wish all men were taught to do in their from my own experience, frequently reyouth ; they would, on many occasions, be the peated, and that of others, to whom I have safer for having that skill; and, on many more, recommended this. the happier, as free from painful apprehensions 1330. “WHEN I WAS A Boy, I amused myof danger, to say nothing of the enjoyment self one day with flying a paper kite ; and in so delightful and wholesome an exercise. approaching the banks of a lake, which was Soldiers particularly should, methinks, all be nearly a mile broad, I tied the string to a stake, taught to swim; it might be of frequent use, and the kite ascended to a very considerable either in surprising an enemy or saving them height above the pond, while I was swimming. selves ; and if I had now boys to educate, I In a little time, being desirous of amusing should prefer those schools (other things being myself with my kite, and enjoying at the same equal) where an opportunity was afforded for time the pleasure of swimming, I returned, acquiring so advantageous an art, which, once and loosening from the stake the string, with learned, is never forgotten.

the little stick which was fastened to it, went 1326. “I KNOW BY EXPERIENCE, that it again into the water, where I found that, lying is a great comfort to a swimmer, who has a on my back, and holding the stick in my hand, considerable distance to go, to turn himself I was drawn along the surface of the water in a sometimes on his back, and to vary, in other very agreeable manner. Having then engaged respects, the means of procuring a progres- another boy to carry my clothes round the sive motion,

pond, to a place which I pointed out to him on 1327 “WHEN IE IS SEIZED WITH THE the other side, I began to cross the pond with

THE STEAM FROM A KETTLE SUGGESTED THE STEAM ENGINE.

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my kite, which carried me quite over without when directed to be brushed several the least fatigue, and with the greatest pleasure times over with the stains, it should be imaginable. I was only obliged occasionally allowed to dry between each coating. to halt a little in my course, and resist its pro- When it is wished to render any of the gress, when it appeared that by following too stains more durable and beautiful, the quickly, I lowered the kite too much; by doing work should be well rubbed with Dutch which occasionally I made it rise again. I have never since that time practised this singular or common rushes after it is coloured, mode of swimming, and I think it not im- and then varnished with seed-lac varpossible to cross, in this manner, from Dover nish, or if a better appearance is desired, to Calais."

with three coats of the same, or shellac

varnish. Common work only requires 1331. THOSE WHO PREFER THE AID frequent rubbing with linseed oil and OF Belts will find it very easy and safe woollen rags. The remainder, with the to make belts upon the plan explained; exception of glass, will be treated of in and by gradually reducing the floating this paper. power of the belts from day to day, 1333. ALABASTER, MARBLE, AND they will gain confidence, and speedily Stone, may be stained of a yellow, red, acquire the art of swimming.

green, blue, purple, black, or any of 1332. Staining.–GENERAL OB- the compound colours, by the stains SERVATIONS.—When alabaster, marble, used for wood. and other stones are coloured, and 1334. BONE AND Ivory. Black.the stain is required to be deep, it i. Lay the article for several hours in a should be poured on boiling hot, and strong solution of nitrate of silver, and brushed equally over every part, if expose to the light. ii. Boil the article made with water; if with spirit, it for some time in a strained decoction should be applied cold, otherwise the of logwood, and then steep it in a soluevaporation, being too rapid, would tion of persulphate or acetate of iron. leave the colouring matter on the sur- ü. Immerse frequently in ink, until of face, without any, or very little, being sufficient depth of colour. able to penetrate. In greyish or 1335. BONE AND Ivory. Blue.brownish stones, the stain will be i. Immerse for some time in a dilute wanting in brightness, because the na- solution of sulphate of indigo-partly tural colour combines with the stain; saturated with potash—and it will be therefore, if the stone be a pure colour, fully stained. ii. Steep in a strong sothe result will be a combination of the lution of sulphate of copper. colour and stain. In staining bone or 1336. BONE AND Ivory. Green. ivory, the colours will take better i. Dip blue-stained articles for a short before than after polishing; and if any time in nitro-hydrochlorate of tin, dark spots appear, they should be and then in a hot decoction of fustic. rubbed with chalk, and the article | ü. Boil in a solution of verdigris in dyed again, to produce uniformity of vinegar until the desired colour is shade. On removal from the boiling obtained. hot dye-bath, the bone should be imme- 1337. BONE AND IVORY. Red. diately plunged into cold water, to i. Dip the articles first in the tin prevent cracks from the heat. If paper mordant used in dyeing, and then or parchment is stained, a broad varnish plunge into a hot decoction of Brazil brush should be employed, to lay the wood — half a pound to a gallon of colouring on evenly. When the stains water—or cochineal. ii. Steep in red for wood are required to be very strong, ink until sufficiently stained. it is better to soak and not brush them; 1338. BONE AND IVORY. Scarlet. therefore, if for inlaying or fine work, Use lac dye instead of the prethe wood should be previously split ceeding. or sawn into proper thicknesses; and 1339. BONE AND Ivory. Violet.

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