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of interest during minority; to infants, preserved under a proper degree of to be paid at twenty-one without in- temperature. Apples may acquire or terest; specific legacies of government arrive at this second degree of maturity stock; general legacies of ditto ; spe- upon the tree, but it too often happens cific legacies of leasehold property or that the flavour of the fruit is thus lost, household property; immediate or de- for fruit over ripe is always found to ferred annuities; to daughters or sons have parted with a portion of its flavour. for life, and after them their children ; 1517. THE THIRD STAGE, or of Exlegacies with directions for the applica- pectation, as the theorist quaintly terms tion of the money; bequests to wife, it, is that which is acquired by pulpy with conditions as to future marriage; fruits, which, though sufficiently ripe to define the powers of trustees, provide drop off the tree, are even then hard and for and direct the payment of debts, &c. sour.

This is the case with several All these more complicated forms of kinds both of apples and pears, not to wills require the superintendence of a mention other fruits, which always improfessional adviser.

prove after keeping in the confectionery, 1514. Preserving Fruit.—The -but with respect to the medlar and grand secret of preserving is to deprive the quince, this maturity of expectation the fruit of its water of vegetation in is absolutely necessary, the shortest time possible ; for which 1518. THE FOURTH DEGREE of mapurpose the fruit ought to be gathered turity, or of Coction, is completely artijust at the point of proper maturity. ficial, and is nothing more nor less than An ingenious French writer considers the change produced upon fruit by the fruit of all kinds as having four distinct aid of culinary heat. periods of maturity—the maturity of 1519. Maturity of Vegetation. vegetation, of honeyfication, of expec- -We have already pointed out the first tation, and of coction.

object necessary in the preservation of 1515. THE FIRST PERIOD he con- fruit, its maturity of vegetation, and we siders to be that when, having gone may apply the same principle to flowers through the vegetable processes up to or leaves which may be gathered for use. the ripening, it appears ready to drop 1520. THE FLOWERS ought to be spontaneously. This, however, is a gathered a day or two before the petals period which arrives sooner in the warm are ready to drop off spontaneously Climate of France than in the colder on the setting of the fruit: and the orchards of England; but its absolute leaves must be plucked before the season presence may be ascertained by the has begun to rob them of their vegetable general filling out of the rind, by the juices. The degree of heat necessary bloom, by the smell, and by the facility for the purpose of drying must next be with which it may be plucked from the considered, as it differs considerably branch. But even in France, as gene- with respect to different substances. rally practised in England, this period 1521. FLOWERS OR AROMATIC may be hastened, either by cutting cir- PLANTS require the smallest increase cularly through the outer rind at the of heat beyond the temperature of the foot of the branch, so as to prevent the season, provided that season be genial: return of the sap, or by bending the something more for rinds or roots, and branch to a horizontal position on an a greater heat for fruits; but this heat espalier, which answers the same pur- must not be carried to excess. pose.

1522. PHILOSOPHIC CONFECTIONERS 1516. THE SECOND PERIOD, or that may avail themselves of the thermoof Honeyfication, consists in the ripeness meter;, but practice forms the best and flavour which fruits of all kinds guide in this case, and therefore we acquire if plucked a few days before shall say, without speaking of degrees arriving at their first maturity, and of Fahrenheit or Réaumur, that if the




necessary heat for flowers is one, that stewpan of cold water, with hay befor rinds and roots must be one and a tween to prevent breaking. When the quarter, that for fruits one and three skin is just cracking, take them out. quarters, or nearly double of what one All preserves require exclusion from the may be above the freezing point. air. Place a piece of paper dipped in

1523. Hints about Making sweet oil over the top of the fruit; prePreserves.--It is not generally known pare thin paper, immersed in gumthat boiling fruit a long time, and water, and while wet, press it over skimming it well, without sugar, and and around the top of the jar; as without a cover to the preserving-pan, it dries, it will become quite firm and is a very economical and excellent way tight. -economical, because the bulk of the 1527. Apples for keeping should scum rises from the fruit, and not from be laid out on a dry floor for three

sugar; but the latter should be good. weeks. They may then be packed Boiling it without a cover allows the away in layers, with dry straw between evaporation of all the watery particles them. Each apple should be rubbed therefrom, and renders the preserves firm with a dry cloth as it is put away. and well flavoured. The proportions are, They should be kept in a cool place, three quarters of a pound of sugar to a but should be sufficiently covered with pound of fruit. Jam made in this way straw to protect them from frost. of currants, strawberries, raspberries, They should be plucked on a dry day. or gooseberries, is excellent. The sugar

1528. Dried Apples are proshould be added after the skimming is duced by taking fine apples of good completed.

quality, and placing them in a very 1524. To make a Syrup. — slow oven for several hours. Take Dissolve one pound of sugar in about them out occasionally, rub and press a gill of water, boil for a few minutes, them flat. Continue until they are skimming it till quite clear. To every done. If they look dry, rub over them two pounds of sugar add the white of a little clarified sugar. one egg well beaten. Boil very quickly, 1529. Preserved Rhubarb. and skim carefully while boiling. In Peel one pound of the finest rhubarb, the season for “preserves our readers and cut it into pieces of two inches in may be glad of the above instructions, length; add three quarters of a pound which have been adopted with great of white sugar, and the rind and juice

of one lemon—the rind to be cut into 1525. Covering for Preserves. narrow strips. Put all into a preserving - White paper cut to a suitable size, kettle, and simmer gently until the dipped in brandy, and put over the rhubarb is quite soft; take it out carepreserves when cold, and then a double fully with a silver spoon, and put it into paper tied over the top. All preserves jars; then boil the syrup a sufficient should stand a night before they are time to make it keep well,

say one covered. Instead of brandy, the white hour,—and pour it over the fruit. When of eggs may be used to glaze the paper cold, put a paper soaked in brandy over covering, and the paper may be pasted it

, and tie the jars down with a bladder round the edge of the pot instead of tied to exclude the air. This is a very good -it will exclude the air better. receipt, and should be taken advantage

1526. To Bottle Fruits.-Burn of in the spring. a match in a bottle to exhaust all air, 1530. Dry Apricots.—Gather then place in the fruit to be preserved, before ripe, scald in a jar put into boilquite dry, and without blemish; sprinkle ing water, pare and stone them; put into sugar between each layer, put in the a syrup of half their weight of sugar, bung, and tie bladder over, setting the in the proportion of half a pint of bottles, bung downwards, in a large water to two pounds of sugar; scald,





and then boil until they are clear. i and next day put them up in jars Stand for two days in the syrup, then Done in this manner, they will keep put into a thin candy; and scald them till the next spring. in it. Keep two days longer in the 1534. To Preserve Lemons, candy, heating them each day, and then Whole, for Dessert. — Take six lay them on glasses to dry.

fine, fresh, well-shaped lemons, cut a '1531. Preserved Peaches. hole just round the stalk, and with a Wipe and pick the fruit, and have ready marrow-spoon scoop out the pips, and a quarter of the weight of fine sugar in press out the juice, but leave the pulp in powder. Put the fruit into an ice-pot the lemons. Put them into a bowl with that shuts very close; throw the sugar two or three quarts of spring water, to over it, and then cover the fruit with steep out the bitterness. Leave them brandy. Between the top and cover of three days, changing the water each the pot put a double piece of grey day; or only two days if you wish paper. Set the pot in a saucepan them to be very bitter. Strain the of water till the brandy is as hot as juice as soon as squeezed out, boil it you can bear to put your finger into, with one pound of loaf sugar (setting but do not let it boil. Put the fruit the jar into which it was strained in into a jar, and pour on the brandy. a pan of boiling water fifteen or twenty Cover in same manner as preserves. minutes); tie it up, quite hot, with

1532. Brandy Peaches.-Drop bladder, and set by till wanted. Taste them into a weak boiling lye, until the water the lemons are lying in at the the skin can be wiped off. Make a end of the third day; if not bitter, lift thin syrup to cover them, boil until the lemons out into a china-lined pan, they are soft to the finger-nail; make pour the water through a strainer upon a rich syrup, and add, after they come them, boil gently one or two hours; from the fire, and while hot, the same set by in the pan. Boil again next day, quantity of brandy as syrup. The fruit until so tender that the head of a large must be covered.

needle will easily pierce the rind. Put 1533. Preserved Plums.-Cut in one pound of loaf sugar,

make it just your plums in half (they must not be boil, and leave to cool. Next day boil quite ripe), and take out the stones. the syrup, and pour it on the lemons; Weigh the plums, and allow a pound of add one pound of sugar, and hot water loaf sugar to a pound of fruit. Crack to supply what was boiled away. Lift the stones, take out the kernels, and out the lemons, and boil the syrup and break them in pieces. Boil the plums pour on them again every day for a and kernels very slowly for about fortnight, then every three or four days, fifteen minutes, in as little water as adding gradually three pounds of sugar. possible. Then spread them on a large When the lemons look clear and bright, dish to cool, and strain the liquor. boil the syrup pretty hard, add the Next day add your syrup, and boil for lemon juice which had been set by, just fifteen minutes. Put into jars, pour boil, skim: put the lemons into jars, the juice over when warm, and tie pour the syrup upon them, and tie up them up, when cold, with brandy paper. the jars instantly with bladder. Plums for common use are very good 1535. Preserved Ginger. done in treacle. Put your plums into Scald the young roots till they become an earthen vessel that holds a gallon, tender, peel them, and place in cold having first slit each plum with a knife. water, frequently changing the water : To three quarts of plums put a pint of then put into a thin syrup, and, in a treacle. Cover them over, and set few days, put into jars, and pour a them on hot coals in the chimney rich syrup over them.

Let them stew for twelve 1536.* To Preserve Eggs. It hours or more, occasionally stirring, has been long known to housewives,






that the great secret of preserving eggs that consistence that it will cause an
fresh is to place the small end down- egg put into it to swim with its top
wards, and keep it in that position- just above the liquid ; then place the
other requisites not being neglected, eggs therein.
such as to have the eggs perfectly fresh 1538. Eggs may be Preserved
when deposited for keeping, not allow- by applying with a brush a solution of
ing them to become wet, keeping them gum 'arabic to the shells, and after-
cool in warm weather, and avoiding wards packing them in dry charcoal
freezing in winter. Take an inch board dust.
of convenient size, say a foot wide, and 1539. Bad Butter may be im-
two and a half feet long, and bore it proved greatly by dissolving it in
full of holes, each about an inch and a thoroughly hot water; let it cool, then
half in diameter; a board of this size skim it off, and churn again, adding a
may have five dozen holes bored in it, little good salt and sugar. A small
for as many eggs. Then nail strips of portion can be tried and approved be-
thin board two inches wide round the fore doing a larger quantity. The water
edges, to serve as a ledge. Boards such should be merely hot enough to melt
as this may now be made to constitute the butter, or it will become oily.
the shelves of a cupboard in a cool cel- 1540. Rancid Butter. - This
lar. The only precaution necessary is may be restored by melting it in a water
to place the eggs as fast as they are laid bath, with some coarsely powdered
in these holes, with the small end down- animal charcoal (which has been
wards, and they will keep for months thoroughly sifted from dust), and
perfectly fresh. The great advantage strained through flannel.
of this plan is the perfect ease with 1541. Salt Butter may be fresh-
which the fresh eggs are packed away, ened by churning it with new milk,
and again obtained when wanted. A in the proportion of a pound of butter
carpenter would make such a board for to a quart of milk. Treat the butter
a trifling charge.

in all respects in churning as fresh.
1537. ANOTHER METHOD OF PRE- Cheap earthenware churns for domestic
SERVING EGGS.—The several modes use may be had at any hardware
recommended for preserving eggs any shop.
length of time are not always suc-

1542. To Preserve Milk.-Processful. The egg, to be prese vide bottles, which must be perfectly well, should be kept at a tempera- clean, sweet, and dry; draw the milk ture so low that the air and fluids from the cow into the bottles, and as within its shell shall not be brought they are filled, immediately cork them into a decomposing condition; and, well up, and fasten the corks with packat the same time, the air outside of thread or wire. Then spread a little straw its shell should be excluded, in order at the bottom of a boiler, on which to prevent its action in any way place the bottles, with straw between upon the egg. The following mixture them, until the boiler contains a suf was patented several years ago by Mr. ficient quantity. Fill it up with cold Jayne, of Sheffield. He alleged that water; heat the water, and as soon as by means of it he could keep eggs it begins to boil, draw the fire, and let two years. A part of his composition the whole gradually cool. When quite is often made use of — perhaps the cold, take out the bottles and pack whole of it would be better. Put into them in sawdust, in hampers, and stow a tub or vessel one bushel of quick- them in the coolest part of the house. lime, two pounds of salt, half a pound Milk preserved in this manner, and of cream of tartar, and mix the same allowed to remain even eighteen months together, with as much water as will in bottles, will be as sweet as when reduce the composition, or mixture, to first milked from the cow.

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1543. Meat may be kept several chooses to afford, -not, however, exdays in the height of summer, sweet ceeding one nutmeg. Let the whole and good, by lightly covering it with surface be well covered with the seabran, and hanging it in some high or soning; then lay the fish in layers windy room, or in a passage where packed into a stone jar (not a glazed there is a current of air.

one) ; cover the whole with good vine1544. Hams, Tongues, &c., gar, and if they be intended to be long Glazing for.- Boil a shin of beef kept, pour salad oil or melted oil over twelve hours in eight or ten quarts of the top. Caution. The glazing on water; draw the gravy from a knuckle earthen jars is made from lead or of veal in the same manner; put the arsenie, from which vinegar draws forth same herbs and spices as if for soup, and poison. add the whole to the shin of beef. It 1547. Preserving Potatoes.must be boiled till reduced to a quart. The preservation of potatoes by dipping It will keep good for a year; and when them in boiling water is a valuable wanted for use, warm a little, and and useful discovery. Large quantities spread over the ham, tongue, &c., with may be cured at once, by putting them a feather.

into a basket as large as the vessel con1545. Curing of Hams and taining the boiling water will admit, Bacon.-It is simply to use the same and then just dipping them a minute or quantity of common soda as saltpetre-two, at the utmost. The germ, which one ounce and a half of each to the is so near the skin, is thus destroyed fourteen pounds of ham or bacon, using without injury to the potato. In this the usual quantity of salt. The soda way several tons might be cured in prevents that hardness in the lean of a few hours. They should be then the bacon which is so often found, and dried in a warm oven, and laid up in keeps it quite mellow all through, sacks, secure from the frost, in a dry besides being a preventative of rust. place. This receipt has been very extensively 1548. To Preserve Cucumbers. tried amongst my acquaintance for the - Take large and fresh-gathered cucumlast fifteen years, and invariably ap- bers; split them down and take out all proved.

the seeds, lay them in salt and water, 1546. Method of Preserving sufficiently strong to bear an egg, for Mackarel. Mackarel are at cer- three days; set them on a fire with cold tain times

exceedingly plentiful, water, and a small lump of alum, and boil especially to those who live near them a few minutes, or till tender; drain the coast. They may be preserved so them, and pour on them a thin syrup: as to make an excellent and well-1-let them lie two days; boil the syrup flavoured dish, weeks or months after again, and put it over the cucumbers; the season is past, by the following repeat it twice more, then have ready means. Having chosen fine fish, cleansed some fresh clarified sugar, boiled to them perfectly, and either boiled them a blow (which may be known by dipor lightly fried them in oil, the fish ping the skimmer into the sugar, and should be divided, and the bones, blowing strongly through the holes of heads, and skins being removed, they it; if little bladders appear, it has atshould then be well rubbed over tained that degree); put in the cucumwith the following seasoning :- For bers, and simmer it five minutes :-set every dozen good-sized fish use three it by till next day ;-boil the syrup and tablespoonfuls of salt (heaped), one cucumbers again, and set them in ounce and a half of common black glasses for use. pepper, six or eight cloves, and a 1549. Pickling.–There are three little mace, finely powdered, and as methods of pickling; the most simple much nutmeg, grated, as the operator is merely to put the article into cold

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