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Wood-note Worm-wood Year-ling
54. ENIGMAS are compositions of a different character, based upon ideas, rather than upon words, and frequently constructed so as to mislead, and to surprise when the solution is made known. Enigmas may be founded upon simple catches, like Conundrums, in which form they are usually called RIDDLES, such as
"Though you set me on foot,
The answer is, A nail in a shoe. The celebrated Enigma on the letter H, by Lord Byron, is an admirable specimen of what may be rendered in the form of an Enigma.
55. REBUSES are a class of Enigma generally formed by the first, sometimes the first and last, letters of words, or of transpositions of letters, or additions to words. Dr. Johnson, however, represents Rebus to be a word represented by a picture. And putting the Doctor's definition and our own explanation together, the reader may glean a good conception of the nature of the Rebus. Example:
The father of the Grecian Jove; A little boy who's blind; The foremost land in all the world; The mother of mankind; A poet whose love-sonnets are Still very much admired ;The initial letters will declare A blessing to the tired. Answer-Saturn; Love; England; Eve; Plutarch. The initials form sleep.
The excellent little work mentioned at page 21, entitled "Philosophy and Mirth united by Pen and Pencil," has this novelty, that many of the Enigmas are accompanied by enigmatical pictures, so that the eye is puzzled as well
as the ear.
56. PUZZLES vary much. One of the simplest that we know is this::
Take away half of thirteen and let eight remain.
Write XIII on a slate, or on a piece of paper-rub out the lower half of the figures, and VIII will remain.
57. Laws of Chess.-The rules
given below are based upon the code published in Play." The word piece frequently includes the pawn.
Walker's Art of Chess
i. If the board or pieces be improperly placed, or are deficient in number (except in the case of odds), the game must be recommenced, if the error is discovered before the fourth move on each side (the eighth move of the game). If not discovered before this stage, the game must proceed.
ii. If a player give odds, and yet omit to remove the odds from the board at the commencement, he may recommence the game, and remove the odds given, provided he discover his error before playing his fourth move. But if he has made his fourth move, the game must be played out; and should the player who agreed to give the odds win the game, it shall nevertheless be considered drawn.
iii. When parties play even, they draw lots for the first move of the first game. The first move is afterwards taken alternately throughout the sitting, except when a game is drawn, when he who had the first move in that game still claims it, a drawn game being of no account. He who gains the move has also the choice of colour. Each player uses the same colour throughout the sitting. When a match is made for a given number of games, the match. A player giving odds has the move passes alternately throughout the choice of men, and takes the move in every game, unless agreed to the contrary.,
iv. A player who gives the odds of a piece, may give it each game from the king's or queen's side, at his option. If he gives the odds of a pawn, he must give the king's bishop's pawn, unless otherwise stipulated. The player who receives the odds of a certain number
THAT HAVE NEVER HAPPENED.
of moves at the commencement, must not with those moves cross from his own half of the board.
v. If a player, in his turn to play, touch one of his men, he must move that piece, if it can legally move, unless, when he first touches it, he says aloud, "J'adoube." No penalty is attached to touching a piece, unless it is your turn
vi. If the player touch his king, with the intention of moving him, and then find that he cannot do so without placing the king in check, no penalty can be inflicted on his replacing his king and moving elsewhere. [Otherwise ?] If the player should touch a Iman which cannot be moved without placing his king in check, he must move his king instead.
vii. If a player about to move touch one of his adversary's men, without saying "J'adoube" when he first touches it, he must take that piece, if it can be lawfully taken. Should it not be taken, he must, as a penalty, move his king; but should the king be unable to play without going into check, no penalty can be enforced. It is not allowed to castle upon a compulsory move of the king.
viii. While you hold your piece you may move it anywhere allowed by the rules; but when you quit your hold the move is completed, and must be abided by.
ix. If you inadvertently move one of your adversary's pieces instead of your own, he may compel you to take the piece you have touched, should it be en prise; or to replace it and move your king, or to leave it on the square to which you have moved it, and forego any other move at that time. . Should you capture one of the adverse pieces with another, instead of one of your own, the capture holds good, if your opponent so decides.
x. If the player takes a piece through a false move, his adversary may compel him to take such piece with one that can lawfully take it; or to move the piece that has been touched,
if such move does not expose the king to check; or he may be directed to move his king.
xi. If you take one of your own men, instead of one of your adversary's, you may be compelled to move one of the two pieces touched, at the option of your opponent. Mr. Walker thinks that the penalty should be to lose the man you have improperly taken off.
xii. An opponent has the option of punishing a false move, by claiming the false move as your move, by compelling you to move the piece touched, as you may think fit, or to replace the piece and move your king.
xiii. The king must never be exposed to check by any penalty enforced.
xiv. If you move twice running, you may be compelled to abide by both moves, or to retract the second.
xv. Unlimited time is allowed for the moves [unless otherwise agreed]. If one player insists upon the postponement of the termination of a game, against the will of his opponent, the game is forfeited by him who will not play on.
xvi. When a pawn is moved two squares, it is liable to be taken, en passant, by a pawn, but not by a piece.
xvii. If you touch both king and rook, intending to castle, you must move one of the two pieces, at the option of your adversary; or he may compel you to complete the castling. You cannot take a piece and castle at the same time; nor does the rook check as it passes to its new position; but it may check on its position after castling.
xviii. False castling is liable to the same penalties as a false move.
xix. When a player gives the odds of a rook, he does not relinquish the right of castling on the side from which the rook has been taken, all other conditions being lawful, as if the rook were in its place.
xx. When you give check you must say so aloud. If check is not called on
A HASTY MAN NEVER WANTED WOE.
either side, but subsequently discovered, you must endeavour to recall all the moves back to the period when the check first occurred.
xxi. You are not compelled to cry check when you attack the queen.
xxii. If you cry check, and afterwards alter your determination, you are not compelled to abide by the intention, provided you have not touched the piece.
'xxiii. When a pawn reaches the opposite side of the board it may be replaced by any piece, at the option of the owner, and irrespective of the pieces already owned by him.
xxiv. Stall mate is a drawn game. xxv. Drawn games count for nothing; and he who moved first in the drawn game moves first in the following.
xxvi. If you declare to win a game, or position, and only draw it, you are accounted the loser.
xxvii. When you have either of the following advantages of force, you are compelled to give check-mate in fifty moves, or the game is considered drawn. King and queen against king. King and rook against king.
King and two bishops against king. King, bishop, and knight, against king.
King and queen against king and rook.
King and rook against king and minor piece.
King and pawn against king. King and two pawns against king and pawn.
xxviii. If you move after your adversary has made a false move, or committed other irregularity, you cannot claim the penalties.
xxix. Spectators are forbidden to make remarks.
xxx. Disputes to be referred to a third party.
58. Rules of the Game of Draughts.-The nine laws for regulating the game of draughts are as follows:
i. Each player takes the first move
alternately, whether the last game be won or drawn.
ii. Any action which prevents the adversary from having a full view of the men is not allowed.
iii. The player who touches a man must play him.
iv. In case of standing the huff, which means omitting to take a man when an opportunity for so doing occurred, the other party may either take the man, or insist upon his man, which has been so omitted by his adversary, being taken.
v. If either party, when it is his turn to move, hesitate above three minutes, the other may call upon him to play; and if, after that, he delay above five minutes longer, then he loses the game.
vi. In the losing game, the player can insist upon his adversary taking all the men, in case opportunities should present themselves for their being so taken.
vii. To prevent unnecessary delay, if one colour have no pieces, but two kings on the board, and the other no piece, but one king, the latter can call upon the former to win the game in twenty moves; if he does not finish it within that number of moves, the game to be relinquished as drawn.
viii. If there are three kings to two on the board, the subsequent moves are not to exceed forty.
59. Whist.-(Upon the principles of Hoyle's games.)- Great silence and attention must be observed by the players. Four persons cut for partners; the two highest are against the two lowest. The partners sit opposite to each other, and the person who cuts the lowest card is entitled to the deal. The ace is the lowest in cutting.
i. SHUFFLING. Each person has a right to shuffle the cards before the deal; but it is usual for the elder hand only, and the dealer after.
ii. CUTTING. The pack is then cut by the right hand adversary; and the dealer distributes the cards, one by one, to cach of the players, beginning with
A SLOTHFUL MAN IS A BEGGAR'S BROTHER.
the person who sits on his left hand, until he comes to the last card, which he turns up, being the trump, and leaves on the table till the first trick is played.
iii. FIRST PLAY.-The person on the left hand side of the dealer is called the elder, and plays first; whoever wins the trick becomes elder hand, and plays again; and so on, till all the cards are played out.
iv. MISTAKES.-No intimations, or signs of any kind, during the play of the cards, are permitted between the partners. The mistake of one party is the game of the adversary, except in a revoke, when the partners may inquire if he has any of the suit in his hand.
V. COLLECTING TRICKS.-The tricks belonging to each party should be turned and collected by the respective partners of whoever wins the first trick in every hand. All above six tricks reckon towards the game.
vi. HONOURS.-The ace, king, queen, and knave of trumps are called honours; and when either of the partners have three separately, or between them, they count two points towards the game; and in case they have four honours, they count four points.
vii. GAME.-The game consists of ten points.
many as are gained by tricks or honours, so many points are set up to the score of the game.
Quart, is four successive cards in any suit.
Quart Major, is a sequence of ace, king, queen, and knave.
Quint, is five successive cards in any suit.
Quint Major, is a sequence of ace, king, queen, knave, and ten.
Sce-saw, is when each partner turns a suit, and when they play those suits to each other for that purpose. Score, is the number of points set up. The following is the most approved method of scoring:
1 2 3 4
00 000 0000 00
5 6 7 8 9 0 00 000 0 000 0 0 0
Tenace, is possessing the first and third best cards, and being the last player; you consequently catch the adversary when that suit is played: as, for instance, in case you have ace and queen of any suit, and your adversary leads that suit, you must win two tricks, by having the best and third best of the suit played, and being the last player.
Tierce, is three successive cards in any
Tierce Major, is a sequence of ace, king, and queen.
60. TERMS USED IN WHIST. -Finessing, is the attempt to gain an advantage; thus:- If you have the best and third best card of the suit led, you put on the third best, and run 61. RULES FOR PLAYING WHIST. the risk of your adversary having thei. Lead from your strong suit, and second best; if he has it not, which is be cautious how you change suits; and two to one against him, you are then keep a commanding card to bring it in certain of gaining a trick. again.
Forcing, is playing the suit of which your partner or adversary has not any, and which he must trump, in order to win.
Long Trump, means the having one or more trumps in your hand when all the rest are out.
Loose Card, means a card in hand of no value, and the most proper to throw
ii. Lead through the strong suit and up to the weak; but not in trumps, unless very strong in them.
iii. Lead the highest of a sequence; but if you have a quart or cinque to a king, lead the lowest.
iv. Lead through an honour, particularly if the game is much against you.
v. Lead your best trump, if the adversaries be eight, and you have no